The 2012 Indonesia Forest, Land, and REDD+ Governance Index
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Participatory Governance Assessment:The 2012 Indonesia Forest, Land, and REDD+ Governance Index
Participatory Governance Assessment:
THE 2012 INDONESIA FOREST, LAND AND REDD+ GOVERNANCE INDEX
THE 2012 INDONESIA FOREST, LANDAND REDD+ GOVERNANCE INDEXiiiiiiTHE 2012 INDONESIA FOREST, LANDAND REDD+ GOVERNANCE INDEX
ParticiPatory Governance assessment:THE 2012 INDONESIA FOREST, LANDAND REDD+ GOVERNANCE INDEX
@ UnDP indonesia all rights reserved published in 2013
the coordinators of writers Abdul Wahib Situmorang, Dr.Hariadi Kartodihardjo, Dr., Prof.
WritersAbdul Wahib Situmorang, Dr.Abdon Nababan, Ir.Hariadi Kartodihardjo, Dr., Prof.Jossi Khatarina, S.H., L.L.M.Mas Achmad Santosa, S.H., L.L.M.Myrna Safitri, Ph.D.Purwadi Soeprihanto, S.Hut., M.E.Sofian Effendi, Dr., Prof.Sunaryo, Dr.
LayouterTugas Suprianto, Drs.
contributors of PhotosHertabAbdul Wahib Situmorang
Disclaimers: the analysis and recommedantions of this report do not necessarily reflect the views of the United Nations Development Programme or UN-REDD Global Programme.
iiiTHE 2012 INDONESIA FOREST, LANDAND REDD+ GOVERNANCE INDEX
Foreword from the Head of the Presidents Delivery Unit for Development Monitoring and Oversight (UKP4)/Chairperson of the
REDD+ Task Force
In 2009, President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono expressed Indonesias commitment to achieve a reduction in greenhouse gases emissions by 26 percent on its own - or up to 41 percent with international support - from the business as usual (BAU) scenario by 2020. The forestry and peatland sectors are projected to continue to be the biggest contributors to green house gases emission in Indonesia. 87% of the green house gases emission reduction target as stated in the National Action Plan for Green House Gases Emission (RAN-GRK)consists of the forestry and peatland sectors.
One of the most important efforts to achieve this commitment is the establishment of a REDD+ Institution, comprising REDD+ Agency, MRV Institutions and credible funding instruments. Through Presidential Decree No. 25 2011, which was amended by Presidential Decree No. 5 2013, President Yudhoyono established the REDD+ Task Forcewhich has the duty to prepare the REDD+ institution.
The REDD+ Institution seeks to create breakthroughs to improve the governance of land-based natural resources in Indonesia, particularly from forest and peatland. Without improvement in governance, deforestation and peatland clearing will continue to take place and will hinder Indonesias effort to reduce its green house gases emission. The importance of improving forest and peatland governance is reflected in the issuance of Presidential Instruction No. 10 2011 on Suspension of New Licences and Improvement of Primary Natural Forest and Peatland Governance.
REDD+ in Indonesia is moving beyond carbon and we are not just talking about forests. REDD+ is about good forest governance to improve peoples welfare, reduce poverty and build a sustainable growth. This principle is translated into the five pillars of the REDD+ National Strategy, namely: (1) Institutional Structure and Process, (2) Legal and Regulatory Framework, (3) Strategic Programme, (4) Change of Paradigm and Work Culture and (5) Multistakeholder Engagement.
THE 2012 INDONESIA FOREST, LANDAND REDD+ GOVERNANCE INDEXiv
The Participatory Governance Assessment (PGA) initiated and implemented by UNDP and the UN-REDD Programme provide valid baseline information, policy recommendations, roadmap and monitoring intruments for forest, land and REDD+ governance. The information need to be produced periodically to serve as inputs for ministries/agencies, local government, business community, civil society and Indigenous Peoples in order to improve forest and peatland governance as well as to reduce forest degradation and deforestation in Indonesia.
We extend our appreciation to UNDP and UN-REDD Programme for initiating and facilitating the assessment, and support the use of the study as a reference for improving forest and peatland governance in Indonesia.
Head of Presidents Delivery Unit for Development Monitoring and Oversight (UKP4)/ Chairperson of REDD+ Task Force
vTHE 2012 INDONESIA FOREST, LANDAND REDD+ GOVERNANCE INDEX
Foreword from Minister of Forestry
The Ministry of Forestry of the Republic of Indonesia hereby conveys the highest appreciation to UNDP Indonesia for conducting an assessment and publishing the report on forest and REDD+ governance in Indonesia. The report not only presents information on the strengths and weaknesses of forest and REDD+ governance, but it also provides a number of policy recommendations.
Forest and REDD+ governance is one of the targets of the 2010-2014 Strategic Plan of Ministry of Forestry. Various activities to strengthen forest and REDD+ governance have been undertaken, among others the strengthening of forest management institutions, improvement of human resources in the forestry sector, increasing opportunities for communities living around forest areas to participate actively in forest management, improving internal control of each forest development and improving quality of public services to be more efficient, effective, transparent and participatory. Various mechanisms have also been established including the Moratorium on New License Issuance; Timber Legality Verification System (SVLK); Forest Development Financing Center (BLU-Pusat P2H) which provides micro credit access for the development of community plantation forest (HTR), community forest (HKm), village forest (HD) and community partnership forest (HRPK) - and one stop service for permit applications.
Continuous improvement of forest governance through REDD+ is expected to reverse deforestation rate, reduce forest degradation, improve forest conservation, enhance best practices on sustainable forest management and ultimately promote forest rehabilitation in Indonesia.
Minister of Forestry of the Republic of Indonesia
DR. (HC). ZULKIFLI HASAN, SE, MM.
THE 2012 INDONESIA FOREST, LANDAND REDD+ GOVERNANCE INDEXvi
viiTHE 2012 INDONESIA FOREST, LANDAND REDD+ GOVERNANCE INDEX
Good governance is critical to the reduction of greenhouse gases from the land and forestry sector. This message was driven home during the Sixteenth Session of the Conference of the Parties (COP 16) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in Cancun. In many countries, deforestation and forest degradation are linked to weak spatial planning, land tenure problems, limited community participation in law-making and forest management, poor harmonization in laws and regulations, and law enforcement issues. Following the COP 16 agreement, developing countries have promised to establish forest governance safeguards as a part of the implementation of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+).
In 2011, the UN-REDD Programme piloted the Participatory Governance Assessment for REDD+ Implementation (PGA) in response to the COP 16 agreement. Indonesia is the first of four pilot countries to launch the PGA report. Vietnam, Ecuador and Nigeria are shortly to follow.
The report provides vital baseline data and analysis on the current state of forest governance under REDD+. In addition to identifying challenges and areas for further strengthening in forest governance, the PGA report contains detailed policy recommendations, outlines a roadmap, and provides monitoring instruments that can all be used to improve forest governance in Indonesia. The assessment was produced in close consultation with the REDD+ Task Force, Ministry of Forestry and BAPPENAS. It was also developed following intensive public consultations and with the assistance of a multi stakeholder expert panel.
I would like to take this opportunity to convey my deep appreciation to everyone who supported the development of this assessment. I would especially like to thank Dr. Kuntoro Mangkusubroto, Head of UKP4 and Chairman of the REDD+ Task Force; Dr. Hadi Dariyanto, Secretary General of the Ministry of Forestry; and PGA Indonesia Expert Panel.
Foreword from UNDP Indonesia
THE 2012 INDONESIA FOREST, LANDAND REDD+ GOVERNANCE INDEXviii
I am also grateful for the technical and financial support provided by the UN-REDD Global Programme, and also for the very fruitful collaboration with, and contributions from FAO and the UNDP Oslo Governance Centre. The assessment is truly the work of many!
We hope the assessment results will translate into concrete actions to improve forest, land and REDD+ governance. This is a necessary prerequisite for us to achieve meaningful reductions in the release of greenhouse gases that contribute to climate change and threaten our common heritage and well-being.
Beate Trankmann UNDP Country Director
ixTHE 2012 INDONESIA FOREST, LANDAND REDD+ GOVERNANCE INDEX
THE 2012 INDONESIA FOREST, LANDAND REDD+ GOVERNANCE INDEXx
xiTHE 2012 INDONESIA FOREST, LANDAND REDD+ GOVERNANCE INDEX
The Participatory Governance Assessment (PGA) is truly the work of many. Therefore, UNDP Indonesia and the UN-REDD Global Programme wish to acknowledge and extend our highest appreciation to all of our partners and stakeholders who have supported us in the implementation of this study. We would especially like to thank Dr. Kuntoro Mangkusubroto, Chairperson of the REDD+ Task Force/Head of the President's Delivery Unit for Development Monitoring and Oversight (UKP4), and Dr. Hadi Dariyanto, Secretary General of Ministry of Forestry who have given us their full support since the beginning.
Special thanks also goes to Mr. Heru Prasetyo (Deputy of the President's Delivery Unit for Development Monitoring and Oversight, UKP4), Ir. Basah Hernowo, MA (Director of Forestry and Water Resources Conservation), Dr. Nur Hygiawati Rahayu (Head of Forestry Affairs, Directorate of Forestry and Water Resources Conservation, BAPPENAS), Ir. Yuyu Rahayu MS.c (Director of Forest Inventorisation), Ir. Laksmi Banowati, MS.c (Ministry of Forestry), and Muhammad Zaki Prabowo (UKP4) for their support.
We would also like thank the PGA Expert Panel who has facilitated multistakeholder discussions at the central and local levels, formulated assessment framework and performed data verifications, analysis and processing. Prof. Dr. Hariadi Kartodihardjo (the Bogor Agricultural Institute and the President of the National Forestry Council),MAS Achmad Santosa, SH, LLM (Deputy Head of UKP4), Prof. Dr. Sofian Effendi (Senior Advisor to UNDP Indonesia), Dr. Sunaryo (Senior Advisor to the Minister of Forestry), Dr. Myrna Safitri (Director of Epistema, a civil society think tank on natural resource management), Ir. Purwadi Soeprihanto, ME (the Executive Director of the Indonesian Association for Forest Concession Holders - APHI), and Ir. Abdon Nababan (Secretary General of Indigenous Peoples Alliance of the Archipelago - AMAN).
This study would not have been possible without the support of field researchers organised by LP3ES. To that end, we would like to thank Dr. Bahruni Said, Kurniawan Zein, MS.i, Wildan Pramudya, MA, Triyaka Lisdiyanta, MS.i, Isniati Kuswini, MS.i, Azis Muslim, MS.i, Dr. Widodo Dwi Putro, SH, Ir. Anung Karyadi, Demsi Meyland Sirait, SE, Ir. Gunawan, Nono Hartono, MS.i, Melly Noviryani, Sukardi, Muhammad Ansor, Syaripudin, M. Fahrurazi, Erwan Halil, M. Suharni,MA, Deni Nuliadi, Ari asAri, S.Hut, M.Si, Marwan Azis, Dimas Novian Hartono, Winarno, Indah Astuti, M. Nur Alamsyah, Ikhtiar Hatta, Rini
THE 2012 INDONESIA FOREST, LANDAND REDD+ GOVERNANCE INDEXxii
Maryone, Zubair Masud, Ibrahim Musa, Neil Amstrong Ayal, Nur Asyiah, Arizon Panay and Zainal Muttaqin.
We also wish to express our gratitude and appreciation to over 600 sources of this assessment, as well as those at Ministry of Forestry, Ministry of Public Works, National Development Planning Agency (BAPPENAS), Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Environment, the Police Department, the Supreme Court, the Attorney Generals Office, the Supreme Audit Board (BPK), the REDD+ Task Force, the Office of Forestry, the Office of Public Works, the Mining Agency, Regional Development Planning Agency (BAPPEDA), Legal Bureau, Court, Prosecutors Office, CSOs and NGOs in the forestry sector, concession holders association and Indigenous Peoples organizations at the central, provincial and district levels.
Lyndal Meehan, Tina Solvberg, Dinah Abd El Aziz and Wiryawan Nimpuno for their services in the translation and editing of the PGA Report.
Oslo Governance Centre, FAO, and UN-REDD Regional Centre for their support during the assessment, particularly to Tina Solvberg, Timothy Boyle and Emelyne Cheney.
The PGA project team: Dr. Abdul Wahib Situmorang who has facilitated the PGA since the beginning, participated in the formulation of the PGA assessment framework and served as one of the writers of the report; Clara Widyasari for logistical and secretariat support during the PGA process; Achmad Gazali for his technical assistance in data entry and processing and Suwiryo Ismail for his assistance in the editing of the PGA report.
Finally, the report would not have materialised without immense support from UNDP Senior Management, particularly Beate Trankmann and Stephen Rodriques; Dr. Irman G. Lanti (Head of DGPRU during the assessment), Muhammad Husain (Head of DGPRU a.i) as well as Dr. Priyo Budhi Sayoko, Anton Sri Probiyantono, and Iwan Kurniawan from the Environment Unit.
xiiiTHE 2012 INDONESIA FOREST, LANDAND REDD+ GOVERNANCE INDEX
Table of Contents
Foreword from the Head of The Presidents Delivery Unit for Development Monitoring and Oversight (UKP4)/Chairperson of the REDD+ Task Force iiiForeword from Minister of Forestry vForeword from UNDP Indonesia viiAcknowledgement xi
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1
CHAPTER 1BACKGROUND AND BENEFITS OF THE PARTICIPATORY GOVERNANCE ASSESSMENT: EVALUATING THE CONDITION OF FOREST, LAND AND REDD+ GOVERNANCE IN INDONESIA 171.1. Background 191.2. Deforestation and Forest Degradation 211.3 The Potential for Corruption in the Forestry Sector 221.4 REDD+, Indigenous Peoples, Women, and Forest Dependent Communities 241.5 Local Government Capacity Determines Effectiveness in Implementing REDD+ 271.6 The Participatory Governance Asessment Process 27
CHAPTER 2GOVERNANCE CONCEPTIONS 352.1 Conceptual Frameworks of Governance 372.2 Conceptual Frameworks of Forest Governance 412.3 Conceptual Framework of the Participatory Governance Assessment for REDD+ 442.4 Operational Framework of the PGA Taking into Account Forest, Land and REDD+ Governance Issues 45
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CHAPTER 3METHODOLOGIES OF THE FOREST, LAND AND REDD+ GOVERNANCE ASSESSMENT IN INDONESIA 573...