the 17 th century england and the dutch republic

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  • The 17th CenturyEngland and the Dutch Republic

  • "Golden Age" of the Dutch RepublicHistory of the Dutch prior to WestphaliaRebellion against Philip IIThe Eighty Years War (1568-1648)Peace of Westphalia recognizes the independence of the United ProvincesInternal dissension after independence two centers of political power

  • Politics in the Dutch RepublicHouse of OrangeEach province had a stadholder who was responsible for leading the army and maintaining orderStarting with William of Orange, his house occupied the stadholderate in most of the 7 provinces, which were Favored the development of a centralized government with them as heredity monarchsWilliam II and his sonThe States GeneralAssembly of representatives from every provinceOpposed the centralizing actions of the House of OrangeDominated Dutch politics throughout most of the late 17th centuryHowever, the States General was ill-equipped to handle the threat from France and Louis XIV

  • William of OrangeIn 1672, with threats from both France and England the States General turns again to the House of Orange, in the person of William to lead themIs able to stem the tide against FranceIn 1688 gains the English crown and its resources in his battle against FranceUpon his death in 1702, the republican forces regain control over Dutch affairs

  • Economic Power of the DutchEconomic Prosperity The United Provinces, with its access to the Atlantic, become the major trading power of the 17th centuryHowever, the wars with France and competition from England erode its economic strength and by 1715 the Dutch experience an economic decline that would last into the 18th centuryAmsterdam as a Commercial Capital Center of the Dutch commercial empireReplaced Antwerp as financial and commercial capital of EuropeWas also a manufacturing center producing woolen cloth, refined sugar and tobacco products, glass, beer, paper, books, jewelry, and leather goodsAlso important as a financial centerExchange Bank of Amsterdam, 1609Amsterdam Stock Exchange

  • England and the StuartsWith the death of Elizabeth in 1603, the Tudor line came to an end and was replaced by the StuartsJames VI of Scotland becomes James I of England

  • James VI becomes James IKnew little about the laws and traditions of EnglandBelieved in Divine Right of MonarchyThis put him into conflict with Parliament which had grown accustomed to a balanced polity of ruleParliament expressed its displeasure with James by refusing to grant him the monies he requested Jamess religious policy also alienated many in ParliamentPuritans wanted James to eliminate the Episcopal system, and replace it was a more Presbyterian modelJames refused because the bishops were an important prop for monarchical powerWith this setback, the Puritans become a strong opponent of the Stuart monarchy

  • Charles ICharles I (1625-49) believed even more strongly in divine rightThis would involve himself in a protracted conflict with Parliament resulting in Civil War and his death in 1649

  • Charles IPetition of Right (1628)Charles had to accept before any new taxes could be raisedProhibited taxation without Parliaments consent, arbitrary imprisonment, quartering of soldiers in private homes, and the declaration of martial law in peacetimeCharles initially agrees, but reneges on the Petition because it limits the power of the monarch

  • Personal Rule, 1629-1640Result of the Petition controversy is that Charles decides he cannot work with Parliament and decides not to summon itNow Charles had to find ways to raise money without ParliamentThe Ship MoneyApplied to all of England and not just the coastTax angers the Gentry

  • Personal Rule, 1629-1640Religious PoliciesMarries the sister of Louis XIII, Henrietta Maria Charles, along with Archbishop Laud, tries to introduce more ritual into the Church of EnglandTries to impose reforms on Scotland and they rise in revolt against Charles

  • The Long Parliament (1640-1660)To raise the funds needed to fight the Scots, Charles recalled Parliament, but 11 years had taken their tollIn first session (Nov. 1640 Sept. 1641), Parliament takes several steps to limit the power of the kingAbolition of arbitrary courts and the collection of the Ship MoniesThe Triennial ActRadical Parliamentarians wanted to push harder, especially to eliminate bishopsCharles moves on ParliamentBackfires as a group of Puritans led by John Pym decide the king had gone too far and England slips into Civil War

  • The English Civil War:First Phase, 1642-1646Royalists vs. Parliamentarians (Roundheads)Important BattlesMarston Moor, 2 July 1644Naseby, 14 June 1645Parliament is successfulMain reason for success was the New Model Army led by Oliver CromwellNew Model Army was mainly composed of the extreme Puritans that Cromwell forged into a well disciplined and effective military force

  • The English Civil War:Second Phase, 1648With the capture of the King, a split occurred among the parliamentary forcesPresbyterian majority wanted to disband the army and restore Charles with a Presbyterian churchThe Independents, comprising most of the army, opposed this and marched on London in 1647 and began negotiations with the kingCharles takes advantage of the split and flees to Scotland

  • The English Civil War:Second Phase, 1648Cromwell and the army are enraged and wage war against the king once againCromwell defeats and captures the king and determines to impose the armys point of viewCromwell purges the Presbyterian members of Parliament leaving a rump of 53They try Charles for treason and have him executed in January of 1649

  • Oliver Cromwell and the CommonwealthWith the execution of the king, the Rump Parliament abolished the monarchy and the House of LordsEngland is declared a republic or commonwealthRebellion in IrelandPolitical difficultiesThe LevellersCromwell dismisses the Rump Parliament in April 1653

  • Oliver Cromwell and the CommonwealthCreation of the Instrument of GovernmentEnglands first & only written constitutionExecutive power is rested in the Lord Protector, which Cromwell is appointed toCromwell again encounters problems with ParliamentDismissal in 1655 and the Major GeneralsCromwell now leads a military dictatorship with policies no better than Charles IsCromwell dies in 1658 with rule passing to his sonCommonwealth cannot be maintained and the Stuarts are restored in the person of Charles II

  • The Stuart Restoration andCharles IICharles II (1660-85) is restored to the throne after 11 years of exileCharles is a carefree monarchHowever, Parliament kept most of the powers it gained during the Civil Wars

  • Reign of Charles IIReligion continues to create controversyAnglican Church was restored with Parliament passing laws to force Catholics and Puritan Dissenters to conformCharles sympathy toward Catholicism1672 Charles issues Declaration of Indulgences, suspending the religious laws passed by ParliamentParliament responds by forcing Charles to suspend the declaration and passing the Test Act of 1673Imaginary plot to assassinate Charles so James could take the throne forces Parliament to pass a law to exclude JamesThose who favor exclusion are called Whigs; supporters of James known as ToriesCharles dismisses Parliament in 1681 and rules without it through French subsidies

  • James II and the "Glorious Revolution"James succeeds his brother in 1685Open and devout Catholic, James tries to overturn all the anti-Catholic policies of ParliamentContrary to the Test Act, James appoints Catholics to high governmental and military positionsParliamentary outcries are muted because James is old and his heirs are his two Protestant daughtersHowever, in June of 1688 a son was born and the specter of a Catholic monarchy rose again

  • William and Mary and the Bill of RightsIn response, a group of seven prominent English nobleman invite William of Orange, husband of Mary, Jamess eldest daughter to invade England and rid them of JamesWilliams sails to England and with little bloodshed, James flees to EuropeWilliam and Mary are installed as monarchs

  • Results of the Glorious RevolutionThe Bill of RightsAffirmed Parliaments right to make laws & levy taxesStanding armies could only be raised with the support of ParliamentElections and debates of Parliament had to be free without interference from the KingDid not completely settle the religious problems Toleration Act of 1689 gave Puritan Dissenters the right of free worship, but they did not have full civil and political equality as the Test Act was not repealed

  • Results of the Glorious RevolutionEssentially, the Glorious Revolution completed the 17th century struggle between King and ParliamentParliament demolished the Divine Right theory as William was king by their graceHowever, Parliament did not have complete control of the government, but it now had an unquestioned role in the affairs of state

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