Terrorist Conspiracies, Plots and Attacks by Right-wing Extremists

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    Terrorist Conspiracies, Plots and Attacks by Right-wing Extremists, 1995-2015 TwentyyearsafterTimothyMcVeighandTerryNicholsbombedtheMurrahFederalBuildinginOklahomaCityinApril1995,thebombingremainstheworstactofdomesticterrorisminAmericanhistory.ThebombinghasalsobeentheworstinstanceofrightwingviolenceintheUnitedStatesbuthardlyanisolatedone.Infact,theApril19attackwasonlythemostseriousofalongchainofviolentterroristacts,conspiraciesandplotscommittedbyadherentsofrightwingextremistmovementsintheUnitedStates.Violencestemmingfromantigovernmentextremists,whitesupremacists,antiabortionextremistsandotherextremerightmovementsoccurswithregularityeachyear,typicallydwarfingtheamountofviolencefromotherdomesticextremistmovements.Whatfollowsisaselectlistofterroristplots,conspiraciesandactscommittedbyrightwingextremistsduringtheperiod19952015.Itisnotacomprehensivelistofallrightwingviolence.Manymurders,includingunplannedorspontaneousactsofviolence,arenotincludedhere,norarethousandsoflesserincidentsofviolence.Suchacompilationwouldbebooklength.Rather,thislistfocusesonlyonpremeditatedplotsoractsbyrightwingextremistindividualsorgroupsthatrisetothelevelofattemptedoractualdomesticterrorism.Evennarrowlyconstrued,thislistofincidentsdramaticallydemonstratesthewidescope,greatintensityandundeniabledangerofrightwingviolenceintheUnitedStates.

    1995 Variousstates,October1994toDecember1995:MembersofthewhitesupremacistAryanRepublicanArmycommittedmorethan20armedbankrobberiesintheMidwesternstatesofIowa,Wisconsin,Missouri,Ohio,Nebraska,Kansas,andKentuckyinordertoraisemoneytoassistthemintheirplantooverthrowtheU.S.government.Tilly,Arkansas,January1995:WhitesupremacistsChevieKehoeandDanielLewisLeerobbed,torturedandmurderedanArkansasgundealerandhisentirefamily.Thiswasoneofaseriesofviolentcrimes,includingmurdersandshootouts,committedbyKehoe,LeeandotherswhoplannedtooverthrowtheU.S.governmentandcreateanAryanPeoplesRepublic.DelawareWaterGap,Pennsylvania,April1995:AuthoritiesarrestedantigovernmentextremistFrederickUrbanafterhedeliveredacanisteroftriacetonetriperoxide,ahighlyvolatileexplosive,toagovernmentinformantattheDelawareWaterGapvisitorcenter.Urban,whohadbecomeincreasingly

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    agitatedaftertheBranchDavidianstandoff,spokeofarminghimselfforarevolutionagainstthegovernmentandwarnedofgovernmentgenocide.Hewasconvictedofpossessionofunregisteredexplosives.OklahomaCity,Oklahoma,April1995:InanactofrevengeagainstthegovernmentshandlingoftheWacosiege,antigovernmentextremistTimothyMcVeighdetonatedatruckbombattheAlfredP.MurrahFederalBuildinginOklahomaCity,killing168peopleandinjuringhundredsmore.In1997,McVeighwasconvictedandsentencedtodeath;hewasexecutedin2001.HisaccompliceTerryNicholsreceivedlifesentencesinfederalandstatetrials.Spokane,Washington,July1995:DarwinMichaelGray,awhitesupremacistwithtiestotheneoNaziAryanNations,pleadedguiltytomanufacturingmarijuanaandbeingafeloninpossessionofafirearmaspartofapleabargain.ThechargesstemmedfromanFBIinvestigationthatuncoveredanallegedplotbyGraytouseafertilizerbombtodestroythefederalcourthouseinSpokane.AninformanttoldtheFBIthatGrayhadallegedlystolenblueprintsofthecourthouseandhaddetonatedpracticefertilizerbombs.Austin,Texas,September1995:FederalauthoritiesindictedtaxprotesterCharlesRayPolkforplottingtoblowupanIRSofficeinAustin,Texas,andothergovernmentbuildings.Hewaslaterconvictedofattempteduseofaweaponofmassdestruction,solicitationtocommitacrimeofviolence,andseveralfederalweaponviolations.Hereceivedasentenceofmorethan15yearsinprison.Muskogee,Oklahoma,November1995:WillieRayLampley,anadherentofthewhitesupremacistChristianIdentitysectandleaderofasmallmilitiacell,wasarrestedwithmembersofhiscellafterplottingtobombcivilrightsorganizations,federalagencies,gaybars,andabortionclinics.Alldefendantswereconvictedofconspiracytomanufactureandpossessabomb.Reno,Nevada,December1995:InDecember1995,taxprotestersJosephMartinBailieandEllisEdwardHurstplantedafertilizerbomboutsideanIRSofficeinReno,Nevada.Thebomb,a30gallonplasticdrumpackedwith100poundsofammoniumnitrateandfueloil,luckilyfailedtoexplode.Hurst,whopleadedguiltyandtestifiedagainstBailie,receiveda10yearsentence;Bailiereceiveda36yearsentence.

    1996 Conyers,Georgia,January1996:GeorgiaBureauofInvestigationagentsarrestedantigovernmentextremistLouisElwardDeBrouxofConyers,Georgia,in1996forplottingtokillaRockdaleCountyjudgewhoruledagainsthimina1984trafficcase.Theelaboratemurderplotcalledforsuffocatingthejudgeinawoodenboxpumpedfullofnitrogen.DeBrouxpleadedguiltytoplottingtokillthejudgeandreceivedathreeyearprisonsentence.

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    Tampa,Florida,March1996:SovereigncitizenEmilioIppolitoandsixfollowers,mostofthemmembersofhissocalledConstitutionalCommonLawCourt,werearrestedforinterferingwithfederaltrialsinFloridaandCaliforniaandsendinglettersthreateningtokidnapandkilljudgesandjurymembers,amongothercharges.AnundercoverofficerinvolvedintheinvestigationtestifiedthatIppolitoandhisfollowersintendedtoshootorhanggrandjurorswhodidnotrescindanindictmentagainsthim.Onedefendantwasacquittedbuttheothersconvictedonsomeorallofthechargesagainstthem.Ippolitohimselfreceivedan11yearprisonsentence.Jackson,Mississippi,April1996:WhitesupremacistLarryShoemakeopenedfireatashoppingcenterinalargelyAfricanAmericanneighborhoodinJackson,Mississippi,killingonepersonandwounding10more.Astandoffwithpolicedeveloped,whichendedwhenShoemakecommittedsuicidebysettingfiretothebuildinginwhichhetookrefuge.Spokane,Washington,AprilandJuly1996:Agroupofwhitesupremacistswerearrestedin1996followingaseriesofbankrobberiesandbombingsinthePacificNorthwest.OnApril1,1996,themencreatedadiversionarybombingatanewspaperofficebeforerobbingtheU.S.BankbranchinSpokane.OnJuly12,themenrobbedtheU.S.Bankagain,firstbombingaPlannedParenthoodofficeasadistraction.LettersleftatonerobberyscenecontainedChristianIdentitypropagandarelatedtothesocalledPhineasPriesthoodaswellasdiatribesagainstthebankingsystem.In1997,afederaljuryfoundCharlesBarbee,RobertBerryandVerneJayMerrell,guiltyoftwoSpokane,Washington,bankrobberiesandbombings.Thedefendantsreceivedlifesentences.Afourthdefendant,BrianRatigan,waslaterconvictedofconspiracyforhisroleinthegroupandreceiveda55yearsentence.Macon,Georgia,April1996:GeorgiamilitiamembersRobertEdwardStarrIIIandWilliamJamesMcCranie,Jr.,werearrestedbyfederalagentsinApril1996onconspiracyandexplosivechargesforhavingbuiltpipebombs,planningtodistributethemamongmilitiamembersinanticipationofawaragainstthegovernment.Bothmenwerefoundguiltyofweaponchargesandsentencedtoeightyearsinprison.Phoenix,Arizona,July1996:MembersoftheArizonaViperMilitiawerearrestedonconspiracyandweaponschargesinconnectionwithanallegedplottoattackavarietyofgovernmentbuildingsinPhoenix.Evidenceagainstthegroupincludedillegalweapons,hundredsofpoundsofammoniumnitrate,andscoutingtapesmadewithdetailednarrationonhowtargetbuildingscouldbecapturedanddestroyed.Mostofthedefendantseventuallyenteredintopleadeals,receivingsentencesofonetonineyearsinprison.Bellingham,Washington,July1996:FBIagentsarrestedagroupofindividualsaffiliatedwiththemilitiaandsovereigncitizenmovements,includingWashingtonStateMilitialeaderJohnPitner,onconspiracy,weaponsandexplosivescharges.Accordingtotheindictment,thedefendantsbuilt,orconspiredtobuild,pipebombsandotherexplosivedevices,anddiscussedplanstobombvarioustargets,includingabridge,radiotower,andtraintunnel.Theindictmentalsoallegedthegroupplottedtoassaultorkillfederal

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    agents.Fourdefendantswereconvictedonweaponscharges,whilePitnerwasconvictedonweaponsandconspiracycharges.Atlanta,Georgia,July1996:OnJuly27,1996,antiabortionextremistEricRudolphdetonatedabombattheAtlantaOlympicsthatkilledonepersonandinjuredmorethanahundredothers.ThiswasoneofseveralbombingsRudolphcommittedbetween1996and1998.Clarksburg,WestVirginia,October1996:FBIagentsarrestedMountaineerMilitialeaderFloydRaymondLookerandsixothersonchargesrelatedtostockpilingplasticexplosives,grenadesandhomemadebombsforuseinaplottoblowuptheFBIsnationalfingerprintrecordsfacilityinClarksburg.AjuryconvictedLookerofconspiracytomanufactureexplosives,transportingunregisteredfirearms,conspiracyandprovidingmaterialsupporttoterrorists.Hewassentencedto18yearsinprison.Fourotherdefendantswereconvictedonvariousrelatedcharges,whiletwowereacquitted.Tulsa,Oklahoma,December1996:InOctober1997,OklahomawhitesupremacistJamesViefhaus,Jr.,wassentencedtothreeyearsinprisononconspiracy,threatandbombmakingchargesinconnectionwitha1996plottobombfifteenU.S.cities.

    1997 Atlanta,Georgia,JanuaryandFebruary1997:In1997,antiabortionextremistEricRudolphwasresponsiblefortwobombingincidentsintheAtlanta,Georgia,area.OnJanuary16,RudolphexplodedtwobombsattheSandySpringsabortionclinic,injuringseven.OnFebruary21,Rudolphdetonatedabombatalesbiannightclub,injuringfive.ThesebombingswerepartofaseriesofbombingsRudolphcommittedbetween1996and1998.Kalamazoo,Michigan,March1997:AfederaljudgesentencedmilitiamemberBrendonBlasztothreeyearsinprisonafterBlaszpleadedguiltytomakingpipebombs.DuringanApril1997hearing,afederalagenttestifiedthatBlaszhadbeenplottingtoblowupfederalbuildingsandatelevisionstation.BlaszsarrestwasanearlyarrestassociatedwithaninvestigationintotheNorthAmericanMilitia(seebelow).Bridgeport,Texas,April1997:FourpeoplewithtiestotheTrueKnightsoftheKuKluxKlaninBridgeport,Texas,conspiredtobombanaturalgasprocessingplantasadiversionforanarmoredcarrobbery.Secondaryexplosionsdesignedtokillrespondinglawenforcementwerealsoplanned.Federalauthoritiesstatedthatthewouldberobbersintendedtousetherobberyproceedstofundtheircontinuedterroristactivities.ShawnDeeAdams,hiswifeCatherineDeeAdams,EdwardTaylor,Jr.,andCarlJayWaskom,Jr.,pleadedguiltytotheirrolesintheconspiracyandreceivedlengthyprisonsentences.Tampa,Florida,April1997:FloridaauthoritiesuncoveredaplotbywhitesupremacistsToddVanbiberandBrianDonaldPicketttorobtwoOrlandobanksandsetoffpipebombsasdiversions.Vanbiberalso

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    plottedtobombaFourthofJulycelebrationinOrlandoandothertargets.PickettandVanbiberweremembersoftheneoNaziNationalAllia