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  • W O R K I N G P A P E R

    TTeecchhnniiqquueess aanndd PPrroocceedduurreess ffoorrCCoolllleeccttiinngg,, PPrreesseerrvviinngg,, PPrroocceessssiinngg,,aanndd SSttoorriinngg BBoottaanniiccaall SSppeecciimmeennss

    Province of British ColumbiaMinistry of Forests Research Program

  • The use of trade, firm, or corporation names in this publication is for theinformation and convenience of the reader. Such use does not constitute anofficial endorsement or approval by the Government of British Columbiaof any product or service to the exclusion of any others that may also besuitable. Contents of this report are presented for discussion purposes only.

    Citation:British Columbia Ministry of Forests. . Techniques and procedures forcollecting, preserving, processing, and storing botanical specimens. Res. Br.,B.C. Min. For., Victoria, B.C. Work. Pap. /.

    Prepared forB.C. Ministry of ForestsResearch Branch Bastion SquareVictoria, BC VW E

    Copies of this report may be obtained, depending upon supply, from:B.C. Ministry of ForestsForestry Division Services BranchProduction Resources Broad StreetVictoria, BC VW E

    Province of British Columbia

    The contents of this report may not be cited in whole or in part without theapproval of the Director of Research, B.C. Ministry of Forests, Victoria, BC

  • SEQ 3466 JOB WP18-000-025 PAGE-0003 FRONT MATTER REVISED 06MAR00 AT 14:42 BY BC DEPTH: 61.05 PICAS WIDTH 41 PICAS COLOR LEVEL 1

    iii

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    This manual represents the combined efforts of many people whocontributed their expertise: Gerry Allen, Gail Berg, Brenda Costanzo,George Douglas, Brian Egan, Trevor Goward, Joan Kerik, Olivia Lee, DelMeidinger, Alison Nicholson, John Pinder-Moss, Gloria Ruyle, Mike Ryan,and Pat Warrington. Fran Aitkens edited the manuscript, Beth Collins didthe typesetting, and Donald Gunn provided the illustrations.

  • SEQ 3468 JOB WP18-000-025 PAGE-0005 FRONT MATTER REVISED 06MAR00 AT 14:42 BY BC DEPTH: 61.05 PICAS WIDTH 41 PICAS COLOR LEVEL 1

    v

    CONTENTS

    Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii

    Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    PART I: VASCULAR PLANTS. Collection of Specimens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    . Gathering the Specimens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Recording the Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    . Preservation of Specimens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Drying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    . Processing of Specimens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Label Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Accessioning (Cataloguing) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    . Storage of Specimens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    PART II: BRYOPHYTES AND LICHENS. Collection of Specimens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    . Gathering the Specimens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Recording the Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    . Preservation of Specimens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Basic Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    . Processing of Specimens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    APPENDICES

    Suggested equipment list . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Product and equipment suppliers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . National and university herbaria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Regional herbaria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Glossary of terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Useful botanical publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  • SEQ 3469 JOB WP18-000-025 PAGE-0006 FRONT MATTER REVISED 06MAR00 AT 14:42 BY BC DEPTH: 61.05 PICAS WIDTH 41 PICAS COLOR LEVEL 1

    vi

    FIGURES

    Botanical specimens mounted on standard herbarium sheets . . . . . . . . . . Sample page from a field notebook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Method for determining the Universal Transverse Mercator

    reference (UTM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Plant press showing arrangement of parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Arrangement of specimens on flimsies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Folding packets for bryophytes and lichens or for

    seeds/fragments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Portable light bulb plant dryer/storage box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tying the herbarium knot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Standard label for a herbarium sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    Arrangement of dried specimens on herbarium sheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Placement of glue or linen straps across mounted

    specimens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  • SEQ 3470 JOB WP18-001-031 PAGE-0001 INTRO REVISED 06MAR00 AT 14:42 BY BC DEPTH: 61.05 PICAS WIDTH 41 PICAS COLOR LEVEL 1

    INTRODUCTION

    Botanical collections are essential to our understanding of BritishColumbias flora and plant communities. A good-quality herbariumreference collection provides the following:

    a tool for plant identification; a data source for research on the taxonomy and distribution of plant

    groups and for writing handbooks and floras; an historical record of plant locations, and of a collectors contribution to

    the science of botany; a repository for voucher specimens related to published scientific reports; an educational resource for learning to recognize the plant species of an

    area; and accurate and permanent documentation of botanical information that

    adds credibility to data collected in vegetation surveys.

    This manual lists equipment and describes techniques and proceduresfor collecting, preserving, processing, and storing plant specimens.Bryophytes (mosses, liverworts, and hornworts) and lichens

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