Teams & groups

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<p>Introduction to Lean Six Sigma</p> <p>Effective Groups &amp; Teams 208.451.5076</p> <p></p> <p>michael@everettdecisions.comMichael J. Everett, PhD, CLSSBBOrganizational PsychologistIdaho 2012 HFMAIts easy to get players. Gettingem to play together, thats the hard part.Casey StengelSyringa Hospital and ClinicsGroups vs. TeamsGroupTwo or more people who interact with each other to accomplish certain goals or meet certain needs.</p> <p>TeamA group whose members work intensely with each other to achieve a specific, common goal or objective. </p> <p>Syringa Hospital and ClinicsOrganizational EffectivenessSyringa Hospital and Clinics</p> <p>Why Teams?Participative style of management is best approach to ensure employee involvement in the improvement processWorkforce is generally more educated and wants to participate in the decision making process especially those that affect them directlyProvides employees with ownership and challenging them to use their skills and abilitiesSyringa Hospital and ClinicsPsychological RationaleMaslows higher level of human needsMcGregors Theory Y Recognizes worth of individualsHerbergs theoryTrue motivation is found in the work itselfBanduras theory of self-efficacyCritical role in how we think, feel, and behaveSyringa Hospital and ClinicsOrganizational BenefitsBrings together individuals with diverse skill setsCan usually solve larger issues than individualsBuild a more complete understanding to the process needing improvementRely on mutual support and cooperation between each other on current project as well as future encountersIncrease organizational engagementSyringa Hospital and ClinicsTeam Member BenefitsProvides a greater understand/transparency of organizational issuesOpportunity to be creative and share ideasDevelop stronger relationships with coworkersAbility to learn/enhance new skill setsSatisfaction of solving a chronic problem that attracts/retains more customers, increase revenue, and reduce costs Enhance organizational engagementSyringa Hospital and ClinicsTeam ObjectivesDevelop into highly effective, people-building, goal-achieving social system characterized by:A climate of high supportOpen communication processOrganizational goal achievementCreative problem solvingIndividual achievementCommitmentImprove organizational efficienciesSyringa Hospital and ClinicsProperly Functioning TeamsImprove employee moraleRemove areas of conflictDevelop creative skillsImprove leadership and communication skillsEnhance problem solving techniquesImprove management/employee relationshipsProject an environment that management listensSyringa Hospital and ClinicsEmpowering TeamsPower is derived from management authorityEmpowered by virtue of power that was grantedProcess charter helps develop empowermentTeam member have control over team performance and behaviorControl - autonomyInformation up/down Resources access to resourcesSyringa Hospital and ClinicsManagerial SupportEnsure consistency of purposeReinforce positive resultsRemove roadblocksShare business resultsProvide a sense of mission (project charter)Empower</p> <p>Syringa Hospital and ClinicsSources and Consequences of Group CohesivenessSyringa Hospital and Clinics</p> <p>Factors to Group CohesivenessSyringa Hospital and Clinics</p> <p>Types of TeamsSyringa Hospital and Clinics</p> <p>Formal/InformalFormalA group that managers establish to achieve organization goals.</p> <p>InformalA group that managers or non-managerial employees form to help achieve their own goals or to meet their own needs.</p> <p>Syringa Hospital and ClinicsTypes of TeamsSyringa Hospital and Clinics</p> <p>Types of TeamsSyringa Hospital and Clinics</p> <p>Selecting Team MembersWhen selecting a team need to identify the parts of the organization most closely associated with the problem:Where the problem is observedWhere the sources or causes of the problem might be feltAmong those with special knowledge, information, skillAny area that can be helpful in developing a resolution</p> <p>Syringa Hospital and ClinicsAdding Team MembersNever impose an individual on a teamUse entire team in the selection teamEntire team conducts interview(s)All members of team submit one vote</p> <p>Syringa Hospital and ClinicsRemoving Team MembersDoesnt occur oftenMight not have the skills, knowledge requiredDemonstrate little to no interest in teamPersonality conflictsTo stretched or stressed by other commitments and/or issuesBoth team members and leader needs to have frank discussions with individual prior to decisionSyringa Hospital and ClinicsTeam SizeGenerally team size for almost all projects should be kept at a 6 10 individualsSelf-directed team can have as many as 12 15Especially if dealing with policy, practices, operationsCross functional teams (Lean) 8 12Usually disbands upon completion of projectSyringa Hospital and ClinicsTeam DiversityTo achieve optimum performance diversity is highly suggestedTeam members:Some are primarily task orientatedThose with intimate knowledge of processIndividuals who are nurturers, encourage, communicateMembers who are creative and innovativeIndividuals are not assigned these roles but should be picked for such attributes</p> <p>Syringa Hospital and ClinicsBelbin Team RolesAction-orientated roles:Shaper: highly motivated people with lots of drive, energy, and need for achievement. May be viewed as aggressive extroverts.Implementer: Well organized and have practical sense. Favor hard work and tackle issues in a systematic fashion.Completer: Great capacity for follow-through and attention to details. Seldom start what they cannot finish.Syringa Hospital and ClinicsBelbin Team RolesPeople-orientated roles: Coordinator: Ability to cause others to attain shared goals. They can spot individual talent and use the, to pursue group objectives.Team Worker: Most supportive members of a team. Sociable and adaptive to different situation and people.Investigator: Excellent communicators both inside and outside the organization. Extroverted and enthusiastic.Syringa Hospital and ClinicsBelbin Team RolesProblem-solving roles:Plant: Innovators and can be very creative. Provide seeds and ideas for major developmentsEvaluator: Serious and pragmatic individuals. Slow to decisions and posses critical thinking ability.Specialists: Self-starting professionals, Pride themselves in acquiring technical skills and specialized knowledgeSyringa Hospital and ClinicsSyringa Hospital and Clinics</p> <p>Team RolesMaster Black Belts/Black BeltsGreen BeltsExecutive SponsorsChampionsProcess OwnerTeam LeaderTeam MemberRecorderTimekeeperSyringa Hospital and ClinicsTeam StagesFormingStormingNormingPerformingAdjourningSyringa Hospital and ClinicsTeam StagesFormingBeginning of team lifeExpectation are unclearInteractions are superficialMembers test the waterStormingConsists of conflict and resistance to task/structureAuthority issuesVision/values dissonanceMost difficult stage to work throughSyringa Hospital and ClinicsTeam StagesNormingSense of group cohesion developsMore energy on data collection and analysisDevelop norms for resolving conflicts, making decisions and making completing assignmentsPerforming:The payoff stageRelationships have been developedTeam tackles tasks at handWorks effectively and cohesivelyMay still have ups and downsAdjourningTeam disbandsCelebration!</p> <p>Syringa Hospital and ClinicsTeam StageSyringa Hospital and Clinics</p> <p>Syringa Hospital and Clinics</p> <p>Team Life Cycle CharacteristicsBuild Phase (Forming/Storming)Group will be uncertainGroup lacks cohesivenessGroup will not easily develop consensusLeader exhibits high task/high relationship styleDevelop Phase (Norming)Task related work is assumed by groupThe group must work to involve non participantsLeader exhibits a low task/high relationship styleTeam focuses on presentation, tasks, and relationshipsSyringa Hospital and ClinicsTeam Life Cycle CharacteristicsOptimize Phase (Performing)Members prioritize and perform tasksMembers workout decision is a caring wayConflict is accepted, but cooperation is preferredTeam leader is a delegator and exhibits a low-task/low-relationship styleTeam exhibits a high-task/high relationship style</p> <p>Syringa Hospital and ClinicsTeam DynamicsRecognition and RewardGroupthinkRisky-ShiftSocial LoafingSyringa Hospital and ClinicsRecognition and RewardGiven to provide positive reinforcement or to correct a behaviorEffect depends on the perception of person receiving itCan be grouped in the following:Material items of significant valueMaterial items of incidental valueIntangible items:SatisfactionThanksPleasureAdmirationFriendshipNotorietyLearningPrestige</p> <p>Team rewards need to be same across the boardSyringa Hospital and ClinicsGroup ThinkDefined as: A mode of thinking that people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive in-group, when the members striving for unanimity override their motivation to realistically appraise alternative courses of action. Irving Janis (1971)Eight Symptoms of Group ThinkIllusion of invulnerabilityFeeling the group is above criticismBelief in inherent morality of groupGroup is inherently right and above reproachCollective rationalizationRefusing to accept contradictory dataOut-group stereotypesRefusing to look realistically at other groupsSyringa Hospital and ClinicsGroup Think5.Self-censorship:Refusing to communicate personal concerns to the group as a whole6.Illusion of unanimity:Accepting consensus prematurely, without testing iit completenessDirect pressure on dissenters:Refusing to tolerate a member who suggests the group may be wrongSelf-appointed mindguards:Protecting the group form disturbing ideas or viewpoints from outsiders</p> <p>Syringa Hospital and ClinicsRisky ShiftMost members believe that proposed solutions are fairly conservativeIn reality teams get swept up with expansive and expensive remediesHave team members ask if it was their personal money would they still risk it on proposed solution?</p> <p>Syringa Hospital and ClinicsSocial LoafingThe tendency of individuals to put forth less effort in a group than individually.Results in possibly lower group performance and failure to attain group goalsReducing Social LoafingMake individual efforts identifiable and accountable.Emphasize the valuable contributions of individual members.Keep group size at an appropriate level.Syringa Hospital and ClinicsCommon Team ProblemsSyringa Hospital and Clinics</p> <p>Team Performance FactorsSyringa Hospital and Clinics</p> <p>Management PresentationsAre opportunities to:Display skillsShow accomplishmentsSummarize projectsKeep line of communication openDemonstrate understanding of customers needsEvaluate team performanceSyringa Hospital and ClinicsFactor</p> <p>Group SizeSmaller groups allow for high cohesiveness; Low cohesiveness groups with many members can benefit from splitting into two groups.</p> <p>Managed DiversityDiverse groups often come up with better solutions.</p> <p>Group IdentityEncouraging a group to adopt a unique identity and engage in competition with others can increase cohesiveness.</p> <p>SuccessCohesiveness increases with success; finding ways for a group to have some small successes increases cohesiveness.</p> <p>Type of Team</p> <p>Top-management teamA group composed of the CEO, the president, and the heads of the most important departments</p> <p>Research and development teamA team whose members have the expertise and experience needed to develop new products</p> <p>Command groupsA group composed of subordinates who report to the same supervisor, also called a department or unit</p> <p>Task Force/Ad Hoc TeamsMembers are selected based on their experience and directed by management to look into specific areas such as the modernization of a piece of equipment or soultion to a customer complaint. Generally these teams disband upon completion of their assignments</p> <p>RoleStrengthsWeaknesses</p> <p>ShaperBrings the drive and courage to overcome obstacles. Committed to achieving ends.Offend people and may display aggression, multiple shapers can lead to conflict</p> <p>ImplementerTurn ideas into practical actions. Work in a practical and realistic way.Conservative, inflexible, and slow to respond to new possibilities</p> <p>CompleterFind error and omission. Deliver contributions on time and pay attention to detailsWorrisome and reluctant to delegate. Tend to be over anxious.</p> <p>CoordinatorPositive thinker who supports goal attainment and efforts in others. Clarify goals and delegate.May be seen as manipulative. May not stand out in team</p> <p>TeamworkerTend to keep team spirit up and allow other members to contribute.Tend to be indecisive in moments of crisis and are reluctant to offend</p> <p>Resource InvestigatorExplore opportunities and develops contacts. Good negotiators.Over-optimistic and may lose interest quickly. Are not sources of original information.</p> <p>Plant InnovatorBrings creativity, ideas, and imagination to a team. Can solve difficult problems.Ignore incidental and may be too preoccupied to communicate effectively.</p> <p>Monitor EvaluatorNot deflected by emotional arguments. Are serious minded and bring objectivity and judgment to options.May appear dry, boring, and overcritical. Are not good at inspiring others.</p> <p>SpecialistBring dedication and initiative. Provide needed knowledge and technical skills.Contribution may be only on a narrow front and dwell on technicalities.</p>