Teaching Translation From Spanish to English Worlds Beyond Words

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TEACHING TRANSLATION FROM SPANISH TO ENCLISH

DIDACTICS OF TRANSLATION SERIES Catering to the needs of students in schools of translation and interpretation, the textbooks published in this series are also very helpful to professional translators and interpreters who wish to improve their technique. The series' titles cover various fields in the discipline such as general translation and specialized translation as well as editing, writing, and lexicology for translators. Works that analyse the discipline from a more theoretical or practical point of view can be found in the "Perspectives on Translation" series. Both series welcome manuscripts written in either English or French. Advisory committee Jean Delisle, Series Director, University of Ottawa Marie-Christine Aubin, Collge universitaire de Saint-Boniface Annie Brisset, University of Ottawa Luise von Flotow, University of Ottawa Daniel Simeoni, McMaster University Paul St Fierre, Universit de Montral Lawrence Venuti, Temple University (Philadelphia) Agns Whitfield, York University In the same series Jean Delisle, La traduction misonne: Manuel d'initiation a la traduction professionnelle de l'anglais vers le franjis, 1993 Jean Delisle, La traduction raisonne: Livre du maitre, 1993

Allson Beeby LONSDALE

TEACHING TRANSLATION FROM SPANISH TO ENGLISH

WORLDS BEYOND WORDS

"Didactics of Translation Series, No. 3" University of Ottawa Press

University of Ottawa Press gratefully acknowledges the support extended to its publishing program by the Canad Council, the Department of Canadian Heritage, and the University of Ottawa.CANADIAN CATALOGUING IN PUBLICATION DATA

Beeby Lonsdale, Allison, 1948Teaching Translation from Spanish to English: Worlds beyond Words (Didactics of Translation; 3) Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 0-7766-0399-X 1. Spanish languageTranslating into EnglishStudy and teaching (Higher). 2. Translating and interpretingStudy and teaching (Higher). I. Title. II. Series PC4498.B43 1996Cover design: Robert Dolbec Typesetting: Infographie G.L. Excerpt from Conversations with Scrates by Xenophon on pp. 222-223, edited by Robin Waterfield (Penguin Classics, 1990). Introduction Robin Waterfield, 1990. Page 1 reproduced by permission of Penguin Books Ltd. Excerpt from Estructura econmica intemacional on pp. 150-152 Ramn Tamames, reproduced by his permission "Un hombre providencial" (1991) on p. 82, "Fallece Kim Philby" (1989) on pp. 127-128, and excerpts from "La amenaza del 'frente' sur" (1991) on pp. 50-51, "Triunfo, el eslabn perdido" (1992) on p. 85, "Llueve sobre mojado" (1992) on p. 194, and "Preguntitas" (1991) on pp. 217-218 El Pas International, S.A. "Cabeza rapada" on pp. 157-158 Antonia Gala The five comic strips by Quino on pp. 145-147 are reproduced by permission of Editorial Lumen, S.A. Excerpt from A BriefHistory of Time by Stephen Hawking on pp. 227-228 reproduced by permission of Al Zuckerman at Writers House Inc.

428'.0261

C96-900322-6

"All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher."

University of Ottawa Press, 1996 ISBN 0-7766-0399-X Printed in Canad

TABLE OF CONTENTSForeword Preface GlossaryXI XV XVII

PART 1 INTRODUCTION CHAPTER 1THE IMPORTANCE OF TRANSLATION

3 5 9 10 12 13 15 17 17 18 18 18 18 18 19 19 19

CHAPTER 2THE IMPORTANCE OF PROSE TRANSLATION

CHAPTER 3CAN TRANSLATION BE TAUGHT?

Traditional Translation Exercises and Language Teaching A New Approach to Translation in the Language Class Teaching Professional Translation

TEACHING PROFESSIONAL PROSE TRANSLATION Theoretical Framework Translation (Theory) Translating (Process) A Translation (Text) Methodological Framework Ideal Translator Communicative Competence Student Translator Communicative Competence The Teaching Context Achieving Objectives Understanding Principies and Learning Skills

CHAPTER 4

PART 2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORKTRANSLATION (THEORY) From Laws to Functions A Multidisciplinary, Interdisciplinary Field of Study

CHAPTER 5

23 23 25

vi

TEACHINC TRANSLATION FROM SPANISH TO ENGLISH: WORLDS BEYOND WORDS

A Communicative Model for Teaching Prose Translation Expanding the Concept of a Communicative Translation The Semiotic Dimensin Conclusin

29 31 36 39 41 42 44 45 46 47 50 52 53 53 54 5859 59 61 67 67 67 68 69 69 69 70 70 71 71 72 74 74 75 76 77 78 79

CHAPTER 6TRANSLATING (PROCESS)

Insights from Consecutive and Simultaneous Interpreting Differences between Translating and Interpreting The Cycle of Inquiry Adding the Skopos to the Model of the Translation Process Comprehension Understanding an A-Language Text Reformulation The Context of Situation and Reformulation Functional EFL and Prose Translating Register and Reformulation Conclusin

CHAPTER 7A TRANSLATION (TEXT)

Microstructural and Macrostructural Interdependence Text Type: Economic Discourse Translation-oriented Analysis of a Text Pragmatic Context Cognitive Sets Dimensions of Language User (Author) The World (Context) in which the Text Is Interpreted The Readers Purpose of the Translation Semantic Content (Topic) Pragmatic and Semantic Selection of Information Subsection 1: Datos bsicos Pragmatic and Semantic Distribution of Information Syntactic Consequences Lexical Consequences Standardized Language Specific Translation Problems for Spanish Students Nonstandardized Language The Semiotic Dimension of a Text The Need for Semiotic Analysis in a New World Order Translator-oriented Semiotic Analysis of Two Texts: Tamames (1980) and Tamames (1991)Subsection 2: Las races del crecimiento econmico de los EE.UU.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

VIl

Semiotic Analysis in Translating Irony Clues to Irony Why the Irony Was Dif ficult to RecognizePART3

Tamames (1980): Datos bsicos. El "MeltingPot" y el "American Way of Life" Tamames (1991): Crnica de un declive no irrecuperable: EE.UU., desde Bretton Woods a la Gea del Golfo

79 80 81 84 85

METHODOLOGICAL FRAMEWORKCHAPTER 8IDEAL TRANSLATOR COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE

General Objectives in Teaching Translation Text Types Criteria for Selecting a Text Recent Methodological Approaches

9192 94 95

CHAPTER 9STUDENT TRANSLATOR COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE

Student Translator Grammatical Competence Knowledge of the SL Rules Knowledge of the TL Rules Student Translator Sociolinguistic Competence SL Utterances in Situational Context TL Utterances in Situational Context Student Translator Discourse Competence Discourse Coherence in SLTs Discourse Coherence in TLTs Student Translator Transfer Competence What Transfer Competence Is Not

99 100 101 101 101 101 102 102 102 102 102 103 105 105 105 106 107 109 109 109 110 111 112

CHAPTER 10THE TEACHING CONTEXT

Employment Opportunities Students' Motivation Students' Expectations Specific Objectives of Teaching Prose Translation

CHAPTER 1 1ACHIEVING OBJECTIVES

The Cycle of Inquiry Inductive and Deductive Learning Group Dynamics Delimiting Difficulties Some Basic Translation Principies Establishing Progression

VIII

TEACHING TRANSLATION FROM SPANISH TO ENGLISH: WORLDS BEYOND WORDS

UNDERSTANDING PRINCIPIES AND LEARNING SKILLSWORDS IN CONTEXT TEACHING UNIT 1. WORDS OUT OF CONTEXT Task Sheet 1. Lexical Polysemy and Context Task Sheet 2. Luchas en el Lbano TEACHING UNIT 2. THE SAME WORD IN DIFFERENT CONTEXTS Task Sheet 3. El ao del diluvio TEACHING UNIT 3. SEMANTIC FIELDS AND LEXICAL SETS Task Sheet 4. Speaker, Traitor, Father Task Sheet 5. Verbs of Speech Task Sheet 6. Kim Philby TEACHING UNIT 4. STRATEGIES FOR NONEQUIVALENCE Task Sheet 7. Strategies at Word Level

PART4

CHAPTER 12

117 117 118 118 120 120 123 125 126 127 129 129 131 131 132 133 135 135 136 138 140 140 141 143 145 148 149 149 151 153 153 154 155 155 157 157

CHAPTER 13

SENTENCES IN CONTEXT TEACHING UNIT 5. SENTENCES OUT OF CONTEXT I Task Sheet 8. Entre el pico y la maternidad Task Sheet 9. Alternatives TEACHING UNIT 6. SENTENCES OUT OF CONTEXT II Task Sheet 10. Ambiguity Task Sheet 11. Luces de Bohemia TEACHING UNIT 7. IMAGINING CONTEXTS REGISTERS TEACHING UNIT 8. IMAGINING CONTEXTS AND READERS Task Sheet 12. Mire usted! Task Sheet 13. Entrevista con Santiago Carrillo TEACHING UNIT 9. COMIC STRIPS Task Sheet 14. Mafalda TEACHING UNIT 10. TEXTUAL INTERACTION Task Sheet 15. Emotive Vocabulary Task Sheet 16. Los EE.UU. Task Sheet 17. La URSS

CHAPTER 14DEVERBALIZATION TEACHING UNIT 11. INTERSEMIOTIC TRANSLATION Task Sheet 18. Translating Signs TEACHING UNIT 12. ORAL SUMMARY OF ORAL TEXT Task Sheet 19. Sample Texts for Oral Summaries TEACHING UNIT 13. ORAL TRANSLATION OF ORAL TEXT Task Sheet 20. Cabeza rapada

TABLE OF CONTENTS

IX

TEACHING UNIT 14. SUBTITLING Task Sheet 21. Pire in the Blood Task Sheet 22. Original Subtitles TEACHING UNIT 15. CONVERSATION INTERPRETING ROLE PLAY . . . Task Sheet 23. Role Play TEACHING UNIT 16. PLICE AND COURT INTERPRETING Task Sheet 24. Mirta Chamorro Task Sheet 25. Politeness Task Sheet 26. Roberto Quesada Task Sheet 27. Varieties of Language TEACHING UNIT 17. COMPARING HEADLINES AND TITLES Task Sheet 28. Leonardo

159 161 162 163 163 165 166 167 169 172 175 177 179 179 179 181 181 183 183 185 187 188 189 191 194 195 197 197 199 200 201 202 203 204 206 206 208 209

CHAPTER 15RESTRICTED CODES AND TRANSCODING TEACHING UNIT 18. STANDARDIZED LANGUAGE Task Sheet 29. Standardized Language TEACHING UNIT 19. RECIPES AND INSTRUCTIONS Task Sheet 30. Tortilla de patatas TEACHING UNIT 20. INSTITUTIONAL REPORTSTHE UNITED NATIONS Task Sheet 31. Ral Alfonsn Task Sheet 32. Ronald Reagan TEACHING UNIT 21. WEATHER REPORTS Task Sheet 33. The Weather Task Sheet 34. El tiempo TEACHING UNIT 22. METEOROLOGICAL EXPRESSIONS USED METAPHORICALLY Task Sheet 35. Dancing on Air TEACHING UNIT 23. JOB OFFERS Task Sheet 36. Ofertas de empleo (Traditional) Task Sheet 37. Ofertas de empleo (1992 ) TEACHING UNIT 24. BUSINESS LETTERS Task Sheet 38. Punctuation and Register Task Sheet 39. Layout Task Sheet 40. Correcting a Letter Task Sheet 41. Letters of Complaint Task Sheet 42. Answering Letters of Complaint TEACHING UNIT 25. TRANSLATING TESTIMONIALS Task Sheet 43. Testimoniis TEACHING UNIT 26. CONTRACTS PLAIN ENGLISH Task Sheet 44. COOB '92

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TEACHING TRANSLATION FROM SPANISH TO ENGLISH: WORLDS BEYOND WORDS

CHAPTER 16

215 COHESIN AND COHERENCE TEACHING UNIT 27. SYNTACTIC COHESIN 216 217 Task Sheet 45. Syntactic Cohesin TEACHING UNIT 28. REFERENCE, CONJUNCTIONS, AND PARAGRAPHS 219 221 Task Sheet 46. Xenophon and Jenofonte TEACHING UNIT 29. COHESIVE REPETITION AND VARIATION 225 227 Task Sheet 47. Stephen Hawking Task Sheet 48. Ortega y Gasset 229

BIBLIOGRAPHY

231

APPENDIX

SELECTED STRUCTURAL CONTRASTS AND GUIDED BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Prepositions 2. Determinis 3. Pronouns 4. Adjectives 5. Nouns 6. Verbs 7. Adverbs 8. Conjimctions 9. Sentences and Punctuation 10. Prose

241 242 243 244 245 246 250 252 252 255

FOREWORD

Now that the twentieth century, the era of translation, is coming to a close, there is no doubt that Translation Studies is fully established as a discipline of its own. Recent theoretical research has shown that translation is not only a textual operation, but also an act of communication and a cognitive process. Therefore, translation research should start from this triple perspective and, fortunately, can now count on a minimum theoretical foundation based on discourse analysis of comparative texts, the translator's cognitive processes, and the factors that intervene in translation as an act of communication. These approaches are often taken in isolation or as mutually exclusive; however, in my opinin, only by integrating them can our discipline advance. Teaching Translation from Spanish to English: Worlds beyond Words is situated within this integrating line of research, taking into account not only the internal relationships between original text and translated text, but also the relationships between text and context, and the cognitive processes involved. James Holmes' 1972 classification of Translation Studies1 is beginning to be a reality. At that time the three seprate branches described by Holmestheoretical, descriptive, and appliedwere only just emerging. To a certain extent, Holmes was a prophet, who foresaw the future of our discipline. Both theoretical and descriptive translation studies have multiplied in recent years, but perhaps the advances have been fewer in applied translation studies (translation teaching, translation in language teaching, and translation criticism and evaluation). Given the worldwide importance of translation and translator training, and the rise of Translation Studies, translation teaching has not developed as fast as one might expect. Most of the publications in translation teaching have been either contrastive (which identify learning problems in translation training with problems of a contrastive nature), or theoretical with a few practical exercises (which1. "The ame and Nature of Translation Studies," in Translated: Papers on Literary Translation and Translation Studies (Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1988). This article has been published on several occasions: 1972, 1975, 1987.

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confuse learning problems in translation training with problems of translation theory). Thus, translation teaching still lacks clearly defined learning objectives and a specific methodological framework. Jean Delisle has been a pioneer in developing translation-teaching methods based on learning objectives which go beyond contrastive linguistics.2 He proposes a heuristic methodology with one main objective for the studentto discover the principies necessary for a correct development of the translation process. I believe that the most important challenge facing translation-teaching research is defining general and specific learner objectives for direct and inverse translation, and for each branch of specialized translation (technical and scientific translation; economic, legal, and administrative translation; audiovisual translation; and literary translation). At the same time we have to develop appropriate methodologies and learning activities aimed at achieving these objectives. Of course, we still have a long way to go and we need empirical research into the acquisition of translator competence at different levis that will help us to define learner objectives and methodologies more clearly. This research will help us to distinguish between problems of translation (i.e. the problems of a professional translator) and the problems of learning to transate (i.e. the problems of an apprentice translator). It will also help us to seprate the learning objectives in the beginner stages of translation training from the...