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  • Teaching Science for Motivation and UnderstandingAndy Anderson, August, 2003

    What does it mean to teach science well? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4Motivation and Understanding in Science Learning .................................................................................. 5

    Motivation: Expectancy times value for sustained effort........................................................................ 5Understanding: Connected knowledge and practice................................................................................ 5

    Knowledge and practice in science teaching: The teaching cycle and problems of practice................................. 7Science Content and Learning Goals: What Are You Teaching?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

    Scientists Science and School Science.................................................................................................. 9School Science: Procedural Display of Separated Knowledge and Practices................................................ 9Scientists Science: Making Sense of the Material World.................................................................... 11Summary: Scientists science vs. school science ............................................................................... 16

    Deciding on Goals and Activities for Your Students ............................................................................... 17Defining Student Knowledge: Big Ideas ........................................................................................... 19Defining Knowledge: Experiences, Patterns, and Explanations ............................................................. 20Defining Practices: Objectives for Student Learning........................................................................... 22Why Is Clarifying Your Goals Important?........................................................................................ 24

    Students and Assessment: Who Are You Teaching? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 5Understanding and Responding to Your Students Thinking: Expectancy.................................................... 25

    Purposes of Classroom Assessment................................................................................................ 27Developing Assessment Tasks....................................................................................................... 27Making Sense of Students Responses: Learning from Incorrect Answers............................................... 28Adjusting Your Teaching and Assessment........................................................................................ 30Learning to Teach from Experience................................................................................................. 31

    Understanding Students Socially and Culturally: Value........................................................................... 31Understanding and Responding to Your Students Interests .................................................................. 32Social and Cultural Norms and Values............................................................................................. 33

    Grading Fairly ................................................................................................................................ 34Teaching Strategies: How Are You Teaching?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 6

    Creating and Managing a Classroom Learning Community: Management, Safety, Participation, andCommunication.............................................................................................................................. 36Learning Cycles: Helping Students Learn from Others............................................................................ 37

    Stages of the Learning Cycle......................................................................................................... 38Lesson Planning: Objectives, Materials, Activities, and Post-lesson Notes............................................. 41

    Inquiry Cycles: Helping Students Learn from Experience in the Material World........................................... 43Professional Resources and Relationships: Using Resources and Learning from Mentors andColleagues. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 6

    Finding, Using, and Adapting Resources.............................................................................................. 46Learning from Mentors and Colleagues and Participating in Professional Communities................................ 46Explaining Your Practice and Job Searches........................................................................................... 47

    Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 8References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 9Index. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2Appendix A: Transforming Scientists Practices into School Knowledge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 4

    Scientists Knowledge and Practices.................................................................................................... 54

  • 8/25/03, Page 2

    Scientists Knowledge: Experiences, patterns, and explanations............................................................ 54Scientists Practices: Inquiry and application..................................................................................... 55

    Written Scientific Communication ..................................................................................................... 55Journal Knowledge: Experiences, patterns, and explanations ................................................................ 56Journal Writing Practice: Persuasive communication.......................................................................... 56

    Science Textbooks........................................................................................................................... 56Textbook knowledge: Explanations, patterns, and examples................................................................. 57Textbook writing practices: Summarizing authoritative conclusions...................................................... 57

    Students Interpretations ................................................................................................................... 57Students Knowledge: Facts, definitions, and algorithms..................................................................... 58Students Practices: The performance for grade exchange (procedural display)........................................... 58

    An Alternative Approach to School Science ......................................................................................... 59Developing students knowledge: Expanding experience and reducing it to order....................................... 59Developing students practices: Cognitive apprenticeship in inquiry and application................................. 59

    Appendix B: Introduction to Michigan Science Objectives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1Introduction.................................................................................................................................... 61Scientific Literacy for All Students ..................................................................................................... 61Use of the Objectives to Promote Scientific Literacy.............................................................................. 63Dimensions of Scientific Literacy....................................................................................................... 63

    Knowledge: Describing Ideas, Strategies, and the Connections among them........................................... 65Activity: The Social Nature of Understanding .................................................................................. 65Contexts: Knowing the Real World ............................................................................................... 66

    Important Characteristics of the Objectives........................................................................................... 66Appendix C: Example Lesson Plan on Heat Transfer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 8

    Objectives...................................................................................................................................... 68Materials ....................................................................................................................................... 68Activities....................................................................................................................................... 69(OH) Ice Melting: Your Predictions and Explanations............................................................................. 70(OH) Summarizing What You Read .........................