Teaching Culture Through Literature

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<p>PowerPoint Presentation</p> <p>Teaching Culture Through Literature: A Reader Response Approach</p> <p>Leila Bellour</p> <p>IntroductionCultural hybridity and the openness of cultural frontiers.Cultural implications of literature via reader response approach.Develop awareness of the target language culture.Through experience and cultural knowledge.A transaction/interaction between the reader and the text.</p> <p>1. Literature and cultureWhat is literature and culture?Literature as a tool to understanding culture.The critics;Servenaz KhatibGenerous resource of written materials ( literature texts).The existence of fundamental and general themes (literary elements).The presence of the potential to be related to by readers and to be associated with personal thoughts, emotions, experiences (Reader Response Approach).The genuine authenticity of it and the vivid illustration of the lifestyles, cultures, beliefs and behaviours of people of the target society ( culture).</p> <p>Jeanne ConnellAesthetic role and instrumental role.Freda MishanLiterature and culture as reciprocal one.T.S ElliotPreserving culture through literary language.Yamuna Kachru and Larry E.SmithMeans of understanding the nature of the foreign languageA valuable source of sociocultural knowledge (via cultural themes and patterns of verbal interactions).Louise RosenblattImproving multicultural understanding, value peoples background.Ezra PoundMedium for communicate with another culture (to recognize the difference, the right of differences to exist, and the interest in finding things different).</p> <p>Relate content of reading to own context and teaching experience by describing how you can use the strategies or ideas for teaching purposes.</p> <p>Merging local and foreign storytelling culture.Example: Rumpelstiltskin retold in Wayang Kulit .Do brainstorming activities of what title of the text means to students how does it relates to them.Example: Rumplestiltkin- Grimm Brothersi tenggangs homecoming by Muhd Hj. Salleh</p> <p>Discuss the challenges you might face in implementing those strategies or ideas. </p> <p>Activity does not appeal to the students.Students background (proficiency, experience and general knowledge).Time constraint- setting up, students readiness and the completion of activity.</p> <p>Elaborate on how the content of thereading impacts upon your professional development.</p> <p>Teachers need to have and also encourage students to realize the importance of acknowledging, appreciating, understanding and respecting other cultures as well.A preparation to the real world experience Ezra Pound</p> <p>READER-RESPONSE APPROACHTO TEACHINGLITERATUREENTICES STUDENTS</p> <p>TO RESPOND TO THE TEXTGIVE VENT TO PENT UP EMOTIONS &amp; IDEASPROMOTES PERSONAL INVOLVEMENTMEANING CONSTRUCTED DURING READING </p> <p>IT IS LEARNER-CENTERED APPROACHTHE READER GENERATES MEANINGNO FIXED MEANINGSNUMEROUS INTERPRETATIONSREADER CONSTRUCTS MEANING IN READING PROCESS</p> <p>STANLEY FISH SAYSTHE READER RESPONSE IS NOT TO THE MEANINGIT IS THE MEANING</p> <p>ROSENBLATT SAYSON ROLE OF READERSEEKS TO ENGAGE READER IN INTELLECTUAL COGITATIONIN THE ACT OF READING, STUDENTS MAKE CONNECTIONS BETWEEN TEXT AND CULTURAL CONTEXTLITERATURE IS A MEANS OF AFFIRMING ONES CULTURAL IDENTITY.</p> <p>KHATIB SAYSLANGUAGE LEARNERS EXPOSED TO RRA VIEW READING ENGLISH AS :PLEASURABLETHOUGHT-PROVOKINGTHEIR HORIZON BROADENEDPROMOTE SELF-EXPRESSIONSTUDENTS MAKE CONNECTIONS BETWEEN TEXT &amp; CULTURAL CONTEXTREADING</p> <p>ELICITS STUDENTS INTELLECTUAL RESPONSESENABLES THEM TO CONSTRUCT CERTAIN ATTITUDE TOWARDS THE CULTURAL KNOWLEDGE WHICH THE TEXT CONVEYS.TEACHING EXPERIENCE</p> <p>THE POEM I WONDERMy students relate it to their experience in wondering many things in life. They are able to relate to the poem as they faced the same situation.. that adults usually are dismissive when children ask questions..When the teacher shows them the video of the songI wonder, they were highly engaged in the lesson and immediately give response to teachers questionsTEACHERS RESPONSE</p> <p>When students talk about their lives -when they have so many questions about things around them.Teacher encourages them to talk and never really say that they are wrong Teacher prompts students when they are at a loss of words when they express themselvesTeacher draws them to communicate and speak up, give their ideas and relate to their life. </p> <p>2.1 The Use Of The Reader's Cultural Background</p> <p>According to Iser - The reader's identity is a part and parcel of the interpretative process and it serves as an incentive for a more valid interpretative. </p> <p>According to Rosenblatt's -Literary text will cease to be evocative if it has no relevance to the reader's experience and background. The quality of our literary experience depends not only the text offered by the author but also on the relevance of past experiences and present interests that the reader brings to it.</p> <p>According to Robert Jauss - Meaning in a particular culture is determined by a set of rules and expectations. The student's reactions or responses to the cannot be insulated from their horizon of expectations and it does not merely change from one community to another ; it also alters with the passage of time.</p> <p>A READER-RESPONSE APPROACH READING AS A CROSSING OF CULTURAL BORDERS</p> <p>READING AS A CROSSING OF CULTURAL BORDERS</p> <p>Readers of each culture have their own horizon of expectation.Reading a literary text in a foreign language conjures up feelings of estrangement and of cultural distinctiveness..Understanding authors language and the texts multiple shades of meaning requires student to investigate into the horizon of the target culture..Reader generates a meaning that befits his experience and background, however, he absorbs some of the unfamiliar things he finds in the text.As oppose to localising text to fit readers culture.</p> <p>READING AS A CROSSING OF CULTURAL BORDERS</p> <p>According to Iser:Reading enables us to absorb an unfamiliar experience into our personal world.By reading, readers come to relate to some characters.According to Satre:The characters substance is the readers borrowed passions [] the writer appeals to the reader's freedom to collaborate.</p> <p>READING AS A CROSSING OF CULTURAL BORDERS</p> <p>According to Iser:The reader needs to transcend the familiar world to understand, to experience, and to be involved in the unfamiliar one.However,Literary text acts as a mirror, it is only be leaving behind the familiar world of his experience that the reader can truly participate in the adventure the literary text offers him.Readers must be willing to embrace the new experience through what he is reading, get out of his comfort zone of familiarity.</p> <p>READING AS A CROSSING OF CULTURAL BORDERS</p> <p>In the interpretative process, reader is in contact with new culture, the incorporation of the unfamiliar into our range of experience, the process of absorbing the unfamiliar is identification of the reader with what he reads.According to E.D. HirschCulture is not innate, but rather acquired. Flexibility and fluidity of cultures make it possible for readers to assimilate cultural aspects, which are incompatible with their own.</p> <p>READING AS A CROSSING OF CULTURAL BORDERS</p> <p>Relate content of reading to own context and teaching experience by describing how you can use the strategies or ideas for teaching purposes.</p> <p>Foreign setting.Poems Jamaica (Nature)Foreign concept doppelganger (How I Met Myself).Focus on similarities vs Focus on differences.Which has stronger appeal? Take into consideration students have different baggage of schemata, background, experience, learning.Understand how universal issues are dealt with differently in various locality (pre-marital sex (Quiet Eyes), broken family (Catch).Put yourself in the character's place Hot seating.</p> <p>READING AS A CROSSING OF CULTURAL BORDERS</p> <p>Relate content of reading to own context and teaching experience by describing how you can use the strategies or ideas for teaching purposes.</p> <p>Crossing cultural borders not just between texts from different countries.Crossing cultural borders in a multicultural, multi racial country like Malaysia, texts focus on a different ethnic group.Peranakan culture &amp; customs (Monsoon History).Allusion to character in Malay legend ( si tanggangs homecoming).Poverty &amp; village lifestyle (In the Midst of Hardship).</p> <p>READING AS A CROSSING OF CULTURAL BORDERS</p> <p>Discuss the challenges you might facein implementing those strategies or ideas. </p> <p>Time constraint (background research, how long does it take for ideas, concepts to crystalise in students mind etc.Discussion of taboo topics suicide, sex etc. (how far are we allowed to go?).Changing the stubborn exam-oriented mindset (why bother if its not in the exam?).</p> <p>READING AS A CROSSING OF CULTURAL BORDERS</p> <p>Elaborate on how the content of the reading impacts upon your professional development.</p> <p>To be more meticulous, considerate in the selection of text.To appreciate students response / effort.To better facilitate students in understanding and appreciating the texts. To design activities which will appeal to students, challenge them.To create students who are not ethnocentric, but appreciate diversity.</p> <p>2.3 Interpretation as an act of Transaction/Interaction</p> <p>Literary texts helps students decrypt (to decode) and explore the underlying cultural rules of the author with his experience in reading.Since reading brings together the experience of the author and the reader, it follows that meaning is located in the in-between thus permits a dialogue between cultures.</p> <p>Rosenblatt points out that in the act of reading, the double opposition reader/text (author) undergoes a process of deconstruction. </p> <p>Hence, the meeting of the reader and the text brings meaning into life based on his own past experiences with life and literature, his own concerns, anxieties, and aspirations. ("Literature: The Reader's Role"304-05)</p> <p>For Iser,the literary work has two poles, which we might call the artistic, and the aesthetic:</p> <p>An aesthetic reading helps students make connections between the text and their own cultural context, as well as consider the influence that the literary work and the target language have on their own identity.</p> <p>As for cultural insight, an aesthetic reading conveys the notion of transaction that Rosenblatt defines;</p> <p>It opens the door for students to increase their knowledge of the target culture as they can contemplate and critically comment on peoples way of life, values, attitudes, and beliefs. The inclusion of literature and culture, however, must follow a pedagogic model, like those proposed by Rosenblatt. </p> <p>The strengths and limitations of using the ideas, activities and strategies suggested for your studentsS - Provoke discussion and suggestion. - Adopt elements from another culture or vice versa.</p> <p>L - some cultures are not suitable. - Approach or Process use in teaching certain cultures.</p> <p>Example: Novel- Step By Wicked Step Theme: FamilyThere are many different types of families in these books. Compare the family situations of Richard, Claudia and Collins.How [does] each characters family (or lack of family) affect her/his life? Who do you think are the strongest figures?How [does] each of the main characters feel about her/his family?What does family mean to you?</p> <p>Discuss how the content of your reading impacts upon your professional development.I come to understand more clearlyhow certain cultural assumptions determine howwe "see" the world.Although without or from different cultures we still can act towards any piece of writing</p> <p>Iser's theory of anti-dualistic- Theory of anti-dualistic; Reader 's thought is replaced or occupied by author's thought.- The reader finds in the text things, which he accepts and assimilates but maintains own cultural identity.Students become aware of the similarities and differences between his own and author's culture.</p> <p>T.S. Eliot: In the relation of any two cultures, two forces : attraction and repulsion balance each other, only then unique culture will survive.</p> <p>Stanley Fish: "Interaction between the text, conceived of as a succession of words, and the developing response of the reader".</p> <p>Ferval ubuku asserts that: meaning is no longer seen to reside exclusively in the text. Meaning is the result from an encounter between the reader and the text, an encounter in which meaning is not so much discovered as it is created.</p> <p>Evaluate the relevancy of the ideas, activities or strategies mentioned in the reading for your context. Provide reasons. </p> <p>To develop an awareness of the target language cultureA good example is Sonnet 18. Students' understanding of summer is the most beautiful season as compare to other seasons.'Shall I compare thee to the summer day?' Robert Jauss's concept of 'the horizon of expectation. the reader comes to a deeper understanding of both his own culture and socio-cultural context of the text. </p> <p>Suggest ways in which the ideas, activities or strategies mentioned in the reading can be adapted/ adopted to meet your context. Give clear examples.</p> <p>Use teaching aids. in the teaching of Sonnet 18, teachers have to show pictures of four seasons.Visual aids are helpful to illustrate to the students that in temperate countries, summer is the most beautiful season and unlike Malaysia, students actually experience summer throughout the year and so they do not think of any difference that could bring about in the flowering season. </p> <p>Iser's theory states that the act of reading poem transgresses the quality of his culture. Reading removes the established cultural boundaries between the reader and the author.T.S. Eliot says a very approximate idea: to understand the culture is to understand the people. The student will tend to identify himself so completely with the people whom he studies. The students become aware of the similarities and differences between his own culture and that of the author. Example is the reading of Mr. Nobody in Form 1 poem.</p> <p>Mr. NobodyIn He puts damp wood upon fire,That kettles cannot boil ;His are the feet that bring in mud,And all the carpets soil.The papers always are mislaid,Who had them last but he?Theres no one tosses them about But Mr. Nobody</p> <p>When the reader reads the novel, his mind will be preoccupied the thoughts of the author. He will focus on the theme which the author tries to put forward. His own individualistic shelf will become less obvious. (Rosenblatt, Iser's theory of reading ). </p> <p>The students will be able to put themselves in the shoes of the persona that is as mischievous as Mr. Nobody.</p> <p>3. Teachers and students roleTeacher must encourage students to make use of their background knowledge.Teacher facilitates reader-text transactions.Traditional method: spoon feeding by teachers.MCQ in exams -&gt; students cannot express their own interpretationsRosenblatt there is no single correct interpretation (reference book answer...</p>