Teaching Art || Instructional Resources: Animals in Art

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<ul><li><p>National Art Education Association</p><p>Instructional Resources: Animals in ArtAuthor(s): Bernard Schwartz, Jeanne C. Pond, Susan Hood and Penny SelleSource: Art Education, Vol. 41, No. 1, Teaching Art (Jan., 1988), pp. 25-28+45-48Published by: National Art Education AssociationStable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3194132 .Accessed: 15/06/2014 11:24</p><p>Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms &amp; Conditions of Use, available at .http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp</p><p> .JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range ofcontent in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new formsof scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org.</p><p> .</p><p>National Art Education Association is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to ArtEducation.</p><p>http://www.jstor.org </p><p>This content downloaded from 91.229.229.203 on Sun, 15 Jun 2014 11:24:14 AMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions</p><p>http://www.jstor.org/action/showPublisher?publisherCode=naeahttp://www.jstor.org/stable/3194132?origin=JSTOR-pdfhttp://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsphttp://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp</p></li><li><p>INSTRUCTIONAL RESOURCES ANIMALS IN ART </p><p>Young Owl Takes a Ride, 1984. Kenojuak Ashevak. Permission of the West Baffin Eskimo Cooperative Ltd, Northwest Terr tories, and the Canadian Museum of Civilization, Ottawa, Canada. </p><p>Art Education/January 1988 25 </p><p>This content downloaded from 91.229.229.203 on Sun, 15 Jun 2014 11:24:14 AMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions</p><p>http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp</p></li><li><p>Kenojuak Ashevak (key-noa-jew-ak) Canadian, b. 1927 Young Owl Takes a Ride, 1984 Stonecut and stencil print, 19" x 25" </p><p>Permission of the West Baffin Eskimo Cooperative Ltd, Northwest Territories, and the Canadian Museum of Civilization, Ottawa, Canada. </p><p>I. GOAL To introduce K-3 students to an out- standing Canadian Inuit artist, to the personal and cultural context of this art work, and to a simple printmaking technique. II. OBJECTIVES The students will: 1. Learn about the Kenojuak's life and the cultural background for her art; 2. Understand the printmak- ing process used by the artist; 3. Observe the design treatment, subject matter, interpretive, imaginative, and expressive qualities of the print; 4. Compare and contrast additional Inuit prints and stone carvings; 5. Create a print and produce a small edition. III. BACKGROUND Kenojuak is one of Canada's outstanding and best known Inuit artists. The Eski- mo is one of the original groups to inhabit the north- ern regions of Canada; today they prefer to be called by the term "Inuit" which means "the people." </p><p>As a child, Kenojuak lived in a haunaq - a tent of skins over a frame covered with blocks of snow. She has had a hard life, typical of many Inuit mothers; several of her children died young. She moved from camp to camp in the harsh Canadian Arctic with her husband and family before taking up permanent residence at Cape Dorset. Her husband was a hunter as well as an artist, and they worked closely to- gether on their art. </p><p>Kenojuak's art follows from a rich Inuit artistic tradition of thousands of years of carving and incis- ing stone, bone, and ivory and appliqueing animal skin for both aesthetic objects and everyday tools, utensils and garments. </p><p>The imagery and motifs appearing in Inuit art de- rive from such diverse sources as the artist's observa- tions of nature; personal experiences; religion and the spirit world; and fantasy and folklore. </p><p>In "Young Owl takes a Ride" we see a young owl perched upon the back of an adult owl. Their eyes are exaggerated, making for an alert, penetrating stare. Characteristic features clearly stand out - beak, sharp talons, large head, and feathers. Kenojuak has blended keen observation and imagination in this print. IV. INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES A. Description: What do you see in this print? Stu- dents can point out the subject matter, the colors, shapes, lines, and textures. B. Technical Analysis: Have students speculate on the sequence of procedures in the printmaking pro- cess, providing information as necessary. Kenojuak began with an initial drawing. In the Inuit print- making cooperatives, a master stonecutter and print- er carry out the design to the final print in a col- laborative effort. A large soapstone is flattened and polished; then the image to be printed is carved in low relief. The stone block is inked with brayers, a </p><p>Lesson Writer: Bernard Schwartz, Professor of Art Alberta, </p><p>sheet ot paper is placed upon it and gently rubbed by hand or with a sealskin baren to transfer the inked im- pression onto the paper. "Young Owl Takes a Ride" also includes the stencil technique. A sheet of paper or skin with shapes cut out is placed upon the sheet bearing the stonecut impression, and additional colors of ink are brushed or daubed through the openings. An edition of 50 prints is usually made. On the print are the symbols for Kenojuak's name, the stonecutter/printer, and the red igloo represent- ing the printmaking cooperative. C. Analysis: Which colors, lines, shapes, textures, spaces, and patterns seem to stand out the most? How has Kenojuak done this? D. Interpretation: Discuss the ideas, and feelings conveyed. What is Kenojuak telling us about owls? Are they presented with photographic accuracy, or are parts changed and.simplified? Do real owls fly with their young upon tneir backs? Discussion should lead to conclude that Kenojuak had combined her keen observation, imagination, and delight, and strong interest in designing and composing for visual enjoyment in this print. When asked what she was thinking about when making a drawing of an owl, a favorite subject, Kenojuak replied that she was just trying to "make something beautiful, that's all." E. Judgement: Review briefly: From this print, what can you tell about Kenojuak's interest in owls, imag- ination, skills in drawing and printmaking, or her compositional ability? Conclude with: Is this a good print? Why? Do you like this print? Why? If you </p><p>could, would you change it in any way? F. Follow-up Activities: 1. Using flat pieces cut from styrofoam food trays and printing inks, have students create an image of a pet or favorite animal. Emphasize the animal's unique character- istics. Print and number a small edition to exchange with classmates. 2. Compare and contrast two other prints by Kenojuak or of different Inuit artists who develop the same subject matter. 3. Using an original Inuit stonecarving and a print of the same subject matter or theme, compare and contrast with par- ticular attention to the two- and three-dimensional features. V. EVALUATION Consider evaluation of students in terms of the stated objectives of this lesson and follow-up activities - What are the observable dif- ferences in the extent and quality of their interest and attention, verbal response, and studio involvement? VI. BIBLIOGRAPHY </p><p>Jean Blodgett, Kenojuak. Toronto: Firefly Books, 1985. Cape Dorset Graphics 1984. West Baffin Eskimo Co oiperative </p><p>Ltd. (annual catalogue) "Eskimo Artist - Kenojuak"! The National Film Board of </p><p>Canada, 1964. (film 20 minutes, color.) </p><p>Education, The University of Alberta, Edmonton, </p><p>26 Art Education/January 1988 </p><p>This content downloaded from 91.229.229.203 on Sun, 15 Jun 2014 11:24:14 AMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions</p><p>http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp</p></li><li><p>Winslow Homer 1836-1910, American </p><p>The Fox Hunt, 1893 Oil on canvas, 36x68 1/2 inches </p><p>Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts I. GOALS To introduce grades 4-6 to paintings of wildlife as both factual record and as a storytelling medium. II. OBJECTIVES (1) Describe what is seen in this wildlife painting. (2) Recognize and discuss the sub- ject matter and story of the painting. (3) Identify the elements that enhance the subject matter/story. (4) Create a short story and a painting that reveal facts about wildlife in a dramatic way. III. BACKGROUND Winslow Homer is one of the most widely known artists of all time. Called by some a purely American artist, his work, on further anal- ysis, shows a synthesis of influences both quint- essentially American and also ranging as far away as Japan. His life story is a relatively straightforward one, his talent an extraordinary one. </p><p>Born in Boston in 1836, Homer enjoyed the out-of-doors, hunting, and fishing from boyhood. His early artistic talent earned him an apprenticeship in 1855 with a lithographer who published prints. Af- ter several years Homer undertook free-lance illustra- tion, then moved to New York City to work for Har- per's Magazine. He was sent to the front during the Civil War and there did illustrations of the soldiers' daily lives from firsthand observation. By the war's conclusion, Homer also painted in oils, and his paint- ing, Prisoners from the Front, won international ac- claim. Homer traveled to France and England over the next decade. There he familiarized himself with the work of English and French landscape painters, and perhaps with Japanese prints. The elegant use of color, shape, and simplicity of composition of the latter could have influenced him. </p><p>The Fox Hunt, done in 1893, twenty-six years after this trip to Paris, reflects elements that grew in his work during those years. Homer was now an accom- plished, gifted artist as well as an avid outdoorsman living on the coast of Maine. He witnessed on a daily basis the comings and goings of wildlife, the evolu- tion of nature through the seasons. The Fox Hunt records nature at work and also captures the drama of a vital moment with exceptional beauty. </p><p>Look closely at this painting. Examine the fox in the snow, the crows in the sky, the mood of the over- all work. As a factual record one can list the physical features, note colors and poses of animals and birds. The fox is painted surrounded by the white snow. We see at a gtance its alert posture as it pauses in the </p><p>contrasting snow. On reflection we realize the fox is hunting for food, but the story of this painting also includes the hunting of the fox by the crows as they also seek food in the winter climate. The subject mat- ter is life and impending death. IV. INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES A. Description: Have students list everything seen in the painting: objects, colors, etc. B. Analysis: Ask students: What time of year is it? Why would the fox be out? The crows? What does an animal's day consist of? How does the season affect the behavior of animals? What time of day does it seem to be? Examine the position of the fox. What would we think if the fox's front paw were down in the snow? Or the ears of the fox lower? What if the crows were not so close to the fox and hovering? Have students write three adjectives that describe the feeling or mood they have in viewing this painting. C. Interpretation: There is a contrast between the outward beauty of this painting and its subject mat- ter: life and death. Have students write two sentences about The Fox Hunt. The first should say what they like about the painting and the second what else they see that they feel is important (whether likeable or not). Share these sentences, and in the process draw attention to the contrast in the beauty of the painting (its simplicity, colors, elegant composition, sensuous fur on the fox) and the serious subject matter of life and death. Why would an artist want to include a theme of life and death in a painting? Does it make the painting any better? Why? Why not? D. Judgement: Discuss whether or not Homer has succeeded in balancing the beauty of his painting with the story. Do you really notice both? V. EVALUATION Writing and Studio Project: This can be a collaborative project with art teacher and regular classroom or science teacher. Ask students to think about and write a short story about a dramatic moment in the life of animals, birds, etc. They should select a particular creature based on know- ledge of them through science or other classroom studies. The story should reflect the facts of wildlife and nature. After the story is written have students create a painting that depicts the most dramatic and exciting moment in their storyi. The painting should convey through poses of the animals, use of colors, landscape and season depicted, the drama of the moment. </p><p>Lesson Writer: Jeanne C. Pond, Executive Director, Abington Art Center, Jenkintown, Pa. </p><p>Art Education/January 1988 27 </p><p>This content downloaded from 91.229.229.203 on Sun, 15 Jun 2014 11:24:14 AMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions</p><p>http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp</p></li><li><p>"t </p><p>0' </p><p>(1 </p><p>00 </p><p>, ;* </p><p>The Fox Hunt, 1893. Winslow Homer. Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. </p><p>.- </p><p>^ r </p><p>This content downloaded from 91.229.229.203 on Sun, 15 Jun 2014 11:24:14 AMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions</p><p>http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp</p></li><li><p>I </p><p>I </p><p>'A </p><p>s . </p><p>o ~S I.. </p><p>O0 </p><p>;:5 </p><p>t--4 </p><p>3 00 co o e </p><p>On extended loan from Mr. &amp; Mrs. Noah L. Butkin. The Snite Museum of Art, Notre Dame, Indiana L80.87.20. </p><p>This content downloaded from 91.229.229.203 on Sun, 15 Jun 2014 11:24:14 AMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions</p><p>http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp</p></li><li><p>Rosa Bonheur (Bon oor) 1822-1899, French </p><p>Studies of a Fawn, nd Oil on paper, mounted to canvas, 15 x 20 3/4" </p><p>On extended loan from Mr. &amp; Mrs. Noah L. Butkin The Snite Museum of Art, Notre Dame, IN. L80.87.20 </p><p>I. GOAL To introduce students in grades 7-9 to Bon- heur's working method and its place in the academic tradition; to examine the subject matter of this sketch from a contemporary point of view; to incorporate Bonheur's ways of observing the world around her both in the art classroom and in the broader realm of visual experience. II. OBJECTIVES Students will be able to 1) Describe Bonheur's working method, 2) Analyze Bonheur's sketch and speculate on its possible use as prepara- tory work or finished study, 3) Propose contem- porary equivalents, 4) Suggest ways in which Bon- heur's sketch differs from these images, and 5) Incor- porate Bonheur's method of observation in making and observing art, in writing, and in other subject matter areas. III. BACKGROUND Marie Rosalie Bonheur was the oldest of four children; all became artists. Like many women artists, Rosa studied art first with her father, who was an artist. Like other artists of her time, she copied the work of other artists to learn to paint and to make an income. She was copying paintings in the Louvre at the age when most of us graduate from high school. When she was ten years old, she began sketching animals and thinking about the relation- ships between animals and people. She approached anatomy like a scientist, studying by d...</p></li></ul>

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