teacher control in the learner-centered classroom: an unavoidable paradox?
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DESCRIPTIONteacher control in the learner-centered classroom: an unavoidable paradox?. adam lefstein firstname.lastname@example.org navcon2003. at a glance. problems at “birch” high school a selective history lesson traditional instruction and discipline progressive instruction progressive discipline? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
teacher control in the learner-centered classroom: an unavoidable paradox?adam email@example.com
at a glanceproblems at birch high schoola selective history lessontraditional instruction and disciplineprogressive instructionprogressive discipline?back to birchwhat to do?
problems at birch high school
towards diagnosis some things teachers told me: staff are too permissive; students think anything goes. students import emotional problems into school.teachers are inconsistent in their rules and enforcement.school studies are irrelevant and uninteresting; bored students disrupt lessons.
which explanation might be the key to solving the problem? staff are too permissive; students think anything goes. students import emotional problems into school.teachers are inconsistent in their rules and enforcement.school studies are irrelevant and uninteresting; bored students disrupt lessons. other?
are proposed solutions compatible with learning and teaching in a community of thinking?why isnt anybody talking about the relationship between the pedagogical reforms and power relations?could the growing discipline problems be a product of our teaching reforms?
a short, selective history lesson
traditional discipline......or its breakdown?
Michel Foucault(1926-1984)its not really about prison
discipline as technology of powerdistribution in spacecontrol of activityhierarchical observationnormalizing judgment and examination
disciplinary technology distribution in space
disciplinary technology control of activityTake your slates. At the word take, the children, with their right hands, take hold of the string by which the slate is suspended from the nail before them, and, with their left hands, they grasp the slate in the middle; at the word slates, they unhook it and place it on the table.
disciplinary technology hierarchical observationCan you find your way around?
Can you find your way around? Locate the main office? The teachers room?
disciplinary technology normalizing judgment and examinationa pupil who at the end of three examinations has been unable to pass into the higher order must be placed, well in evidence, on the bench of the ignorant.
All the pupils in the grade should receive instruction relative to the same points, and write the same words simultaneously; thus all will attend to the same thing, at the same time...
power is not exercised actively and consciously by teachers
the progressivist revolutionJohn Dewey1859-1952Now the change which is coming into our education is the shifting of the center of gravity... the child becomes the sun about which the appliances of education revolve; he is the center about which they are organized.
progressivist instructionnatural learningstudents interests active learningcooperative learning authentic assessment democratic experience
traditional discipline subverted by progressivist instruction distribution in spacecontrol of activityhierarchical observationnormalizing judgment and examinationcooperative learningdifferentiated learningactive learningauthentic assessment
what about classroom control?a) what may seem like disorder is actually the noise and bustle of engaged learning b) student misbehavior is a sign that the lesson is inappropriate or uninteresting c) youthful rebellion against authority is natural and positived) education for democracy means granting students self-governmente) other?
there is a certain disorder in any busy workshop... and there is the confusion, the bustle, that results from activity.
When students are off task, our first response should be to ask, whats the task?Alfie Kohn
selective history lesson: reviewtraditional instruction and discipline coincideprogressivist instruction subverts traditional disciplineprogressivist approach to the discipline problem: denial and self-blame
back to birch high school
cajoling self-restraint corrective interjections angry explosion immediate consequencesin the lesson...traditional disciplinarianprogressivist teacher
instructioncognitive and discursive partitionpower relations?
consider redesigning the maths curriculum in order to alleviate discipline problems
subject area teachersubject leaderfacilitatorsseparation mechanisms: school organizationhomeroom teacher grade leaderpsychologistdisciplineteaching and learning
separation mechanisms: professional development and manualsdisciplineteaching and learning
what should we do?
notes toward progressivist classroom governmentmerging instruction and disciplinephysical designaccountabilityritualspower sharingaccepting the inevitable
merging instruction and power issuesschool organizationcurriculum designprofessional development
classroom and school designwhere would you rather teach? dacbhow would you organize the space?
notes toward progressivist classroom governmentmerging instruction and disciplinephysical designaccountability mechanismsritualspower sharingaccepting the inevitable
notes toward progressivist classroom governmentmerging instruction and disciplinephysical designaccountabilityalternative ritualspower sharingaccepting the inevitable
notes toward progressivist classroom governmentmerging instruction and disciplinephysical designaccountabilityritualsgradual power sharingaccepting the inevitable
notes toward progressivist classroom governmentmerging instruction and disciplinephysical designaccountabilityritualspower sharingaccepting the inevitability of power relations
thank youadam firstname.lastname@example.org
for further readingDewey, John. 1938. Experience and education. New York: The Macmillan company.Egan, Kieran. 2002. Getting it wrong from the beginning : our progressivist inheritance from Herbert Spencer, John Dewey, and Jean Piaget. New Haven: Yale University Press.Foucault, Michel. 1978. Discipline and punish: the birth of the prison. New York: Random House.Kohn, Alfie. 1996. Beyond discipline: from compliance to community. Alexandria, Va.: ASCD.Lefstein, A. 2002. Thinking power and pedagogy apart - Coping with discipline in progressivist school reform. Teachers College Record 104 (8):1627-1655.Tanner, Laurel N. 1997. Dewey's laboratory school: lessons for today. New York: Teachers College Press.
*The first Master of Sir John Nelthorpe Comprehensive School, Brigg, which can trace its roots back to 1669, Rev Nathanael Taylor (engraving)http://atschool.eduweb.co.uk/nelthorp/sjnpast.html*http://www.nd.edu/~rbarger/www7/the caption: Discipline in a Common-school Era Classroom (mid-19th century)*http://www.ulysses.cwc.net/images.htmlDiscipline increases the forces of the body (in economic terms of utility) and diminishes these same forces (in political terms of obedience)*lecture on the evils of alcoholism at fresnes prison, end of 19th centuryhttp://www.prison.eu.org/article.php3?id_article=2409*Eastern State Penitentiary, founded 1829, in philadelphia. largest building at the time in the usa. see http://www.easternstate.com/history/index.htmlhttp://www.notfrisco.com/prisonhistory/origins/*http://www.ists.unimelb.edu.au/ts/history.htm (andy blunden, university of melbourne)
School's in at Ascot, and little pupils, all left arms 'covering' their work, all pencils pointed over the right shoulder and heads bent studiously, set about making neat rows of pot-hooks (1940s) Official History of Ascot School, Queensland.*Rockford Environmental Science Academysee web sites of the architect: www.ruckpate.comand of the educational design contest: www.designshare.comthe design won an award (honor) in the international contest for the year 2000*from the architects website: http://www.ruckpate.com/rockford/ **discipline problems... were not a function of children who were insufficiently controlled but of a curriculum that was insufficiently engaging... When students are off task, our first response should be to ask, whats the task?
*a: classroom of the future richmond on thames , b: Discovery middle school MediaLab granger, indiana (designshare), c: asms, d: classroom of the future devon