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  • TASK ORDER NO. 1 ON-CALL STRUCTURAL CONCRETE BRIDGE DECK CRACKING INVESTIGATION SERVICES WJE No. 2009.2643

    Final Report

    Contract No.: 59A0713 Task Order No.: 1 Consultant Firm: Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates, Inc. Report Date: October 26, 2011

    Prepared for: Caltrans

    Prepared by: Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates, Inc. 2000 Powell Street, Suite 1650 Emeryville, California 94608 510.428.2907 tel | 510.428.0456 fax

  • TASK ORDER NO. 1 ON-CALL STRUCTURAL CONCRETE BRIDGE DECK CRACKING INVESTIGATION SERVICES WJE No. 2009.2643

    Final Report

    Juan Carlos Araiza, PhD Senior Associate

    Ernest A. Rogalla Associate Principal

    Paul D. Krauss, P.E. Principal

    Kent Sasaki, S.E. Principal and Project Manager

    Contract No.: 59A0713 Task Order No.: 1 Consultant Firm: Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates, Inc. Report Date: October 26, 2011

    Prepared for: Caltrans

    Prepared by: Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates, Inc. 2000 Powell Street, Suite 1650 Emeryville, California 94608 510.428.2907 tel | 510.428.0456 fax

  • TABLE OF CONTENTS

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .......................................................................................................................... 1 BACKGROUND OF EARLY-AGE CONCRETE CRACKING ................................................................. 1

    General Introduction to Cracking in Bridge Decks ................................................................................ 2 Introduction to Research......................................................................................................................... 8

    Carlson ............................................................................................................................................. 8 Portland Cement Association (PCA) ............................................................................................... 8 Krauss and Rogalla .......................................................................................................................... 9 Gebhardt and Burrows ................................................................................................................... 10 Altoubat and Lange ........................................................................................................................ 11

    RESEARCH APPROACH ......................................................................................................................... 11 FIELD AND LABORATORY WORK ...................................................................................................... 12

    Concrete Mix ........................................................................................................................................ 13 Construction ......................................................................................................................................... 15

    Markham Ravine Bridge ................................................................................................................ 15 Olive Lane Bridge .......................................................................................................................... 15

    Curing ................................................................................................................................................... 17 Markham Ravine Bridge ................................................................................................................ 17 Olive Lane Bridge .......................................................................................................................... 19

    Instrumentation ..................................................................................................................................... 21 Markham Ravine Bridge ................................................................................................................ 21 Olive Lane Bridge .......................................................................................................................... 23

    General Instrumentation ....................................................................................................................... 25 Data Acquisition ................................................................................................................................... 30 Bridge Deck Cracking Surveys ............................................................................................................ 34

    Crack Survey Within 6-8 hour After Concrete Placement............................................................. 34 Crack Survey After Water Curing Was Completed ....................................................................... 36 Final Crack Survey ........................................................................................................................ 36

    Findings from Field and Laboratory Work........................................................................................... 38 ANALYTICAL STUDIES OF CALTRANS DECKS ............................................................................... 39

    Parameter Study of Bridge Geometry and Material Properties for Uniform and Linear Free Deck

    Strains ................................................................................................................................................... 39 Parameter Study of Early Temperatures and Stresses .......................................................................... 41

    Geometry ....................................................................................................................................... 41 Environment ................................................................................................................................... 43 Concrete Properties ........................................................................................................................ 44 Time of Concrete Placement .......................................................................................................... 46 Other Material Properties ............................................................................................................... 46 Calculated Temperatures ............................................................................................................... 46 Calculated Stresses......................................................................................................................... 49

    Lattice Modeling of Temperature Changes in Freshly Cast Concrete Bridge Decks ........................... 51 Analyses of Temperature Variation within the Markham Ravine Bridge ............................................ 52 Summary of Parameter and Lattice Numerical Modeling .................................................................... 63

  • SOLUTIONS ADOPTED BY OTHER STATE DOTS ............................................................................ 66

    Kansas DOT and University of Kansas ................................................................................................ 66 Recommendations Implemented by Kansas for LC-HPC Bridge Decks:...................................... 67

    Pennsylvania ......................................................................................................................................... 69 Recommendations implemented by Pennsylvania: ........................................................................ 69

    South Carolina ...................................................................................................................................... 70 Recommendations implemented by South Carolina: ..................................................................... 70

    Texas and University of Texas at Austin ............................................................................................. 70 Washington State .................................................................................................................................. 70 Research by Other DOTs...................................................................................................................... 71

    FINDINGS - RECOMMENDATIONS TO CALTRANS .......................................................................... 72 Caltrans Specifications ......................................................................................................................... 73

    Caltrans Specifications - Section 90 Portland Cement Concrete (Issued 11-30-10) ...................... 73 Caltrans Deck Construction Specifications .................................................................................... 73 Caltrans 2006 Standard Specifications: ......................................................................................... 74 Caltrans 2001 Bridge Deck Construction Manual: ........................................................................ 75

    Primary Recommendations .................................................................................................................. 76 Cementitious and Paste Content (Concrete) .................................................................................. 76 Curing Methods and Plastic Cracking (Construction) ................................................................... 77 Compressive Strength (Concrete) .................................................................................................. 81 Fly Ash and SCMs (Concrete) ...................................................................................................... 82 Air Content (Concrete) .................................................................................................

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