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  • Slide 1
  • Tnia Verge (tania.verge@upf.edu) Universitat Pompeu Fabra (Barcelona, Catalonia) Lessons from Catalonia and Spain Constitutional Futures Seminar Session II: Constitutions, Quotas and Womens Political Representation University of Edinburgh 14-15 February 2013
  • Slide 2
  • Outline Quotas and trends in women's representation in Catalonia and Spain How were gains achieved? Constitutional change as a window of opportunity
  • Slide 3
  • Quotas and trends in women's representation in Catalonia and Spain Socioeconomic and cultural explanations on levels of womens representation: Bad projection Still, womens representation has raised from 5% (late 1970s) to parity levels (2011). Incremental track: Party quotasSuccessful implementationContagion effectStatutory quotaParity
  • Slide 4
  • Womens representation in parliament 2007 state-wide statutory quota
  • Slide 5
  • From party quotas to electoral quotas
  • Slide 6
  • Constitutional change as a window of opportunity (I) Parity is not yet taken for granted. Strenght of feminist demands: Left-wing parties make 40% of seats in current parliament. Womens movement not mobilised yet. Cross-sectional platforms? Short-term national transition political agenda: Council for the National Transition: Gender composition? Electoral law: District size? Mixed system? Open lists? Equality law: Feminist demands?
  • Slide 7
  • How were gains achieved Practical institutions (Party quotas + highly centralized party organizations + contagion) Systemic institutions (PR closed party lists + effective sanctions for non- compliance) Normative institutions (Politics of presence and equality of results + support of the Constitutional Court) Source: Based on Krook (2009); Kenny & Verge (2013); Verge (2012). PARITY
  • Slide 8
  • Constitutional change as a window of opportunity (II) Introduce parity as a public good in the new constitution and laws Expand reach on cabinets, corporate boards Influence on which electoral engineering (type of system, district size, type of lists + type of quota!) grants more positive gender outcomes. Establish a whole set of progressive gender equality policies + mainstreaming through all new legislative corps Yet, new policies nested in old institutions (Kenny and Mackay 2009).
  • Slide 9
  • The Catalan national transition 11 Sept 2012
  • Slide 10
  • Catalans support for secession
  • Slide 11
  • Left-wing parties voters and support for secession
  • Slide 12
  • References Kenny, Meryl, and Fiona Mackay. 2009. Already Doin It for Ourselves? Skeptical Notes on Feminism and Institutionalism. Politics & Gender 5(2): 271-280. Kenny, Meryl, and Tnia Verge (2013). Decentralization, Political Parties and Womens Representation: Evidence from Spain and Britain. Publius: The Journal of Federalism 43(1): 109-128. Krook, Mona L. (2009). Quotas for Women in Politics: Gender and Candidate Selection Reform Worldwide. New York: Oxford University Press. Verge, Tnia. 2012. Institutionalising Gender Equality in Spain: Incremental Steps from Party to Legal Quotas. West European Politics 35(2): 395-414. Public opinion data: Centre dEstudis dOpini (2012).