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Primary school education Primary school education and computer-based and computer-based language study language study TEMENUZHKA SEIZOVA- TEMENUZHKA SEIZOVA- NANKOVA NANKOVA

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Primary education and corpus-based methods

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  • 1. Primary school education and computer-based language study TEMENUZHKA SEIZOVA-NANKOVA

2. Newmethods of studying English 1

  • We are at the threshold of a new era of English language studies.
  • The time-honoured, hands-on methods,using relatively small amounts of dataand large amounts of thought are not supplanted but are strongly complemented by the new methods
  • 1 D. Crystal. Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English language

3. grammatical syllabus

  • Research into the contemporary language of 20 thcentury fostered by the theories and methods of descriptive linguisticsgave as a result the so-called grammatical syllabus focusing the linguistic competence of language speaker (NSvsNNS) . Grammars such as Thompson and Martinet(1986) supported English coursebooks based on slot and filler approaches to language teaching

4. the communicative syllable

  • Research into language (Hymes 19..) gave as a result the so-called communicativesyllabus in coursebooks focusing the communicativecompetence of language speaker (NSvsNNS).
  • Activities are built around a situation and learners themselves are responsible for conduction the interaction to its conclusion

5. lexical syllabus

  • The new perspective in language study introduces new methods of analysis as a consequence of the technological revolution
  • the time-honoured, hands-on methods,using relatively small amounts of dataand relatively large amounts of thought 2are not supplanted but are strongly complemented by the new methods
  • The lexical syllabus places special emphasis on lexical patterns and reliance on a corpus for making generalizations on language.

6. Some new contentions

  • Grammar and lexis can no longer be separated and opposed to each other
  • Change of emphasis within mainstream linguisticsinevitably brings about changes in foreign language teaching/pedagogy
  • Electronic instrumentation and computer science has already changed the way we look at language. All areas of language study have been profoundly affected by technological developments

7.

  • Grammar huge corpora of spoken and written English are making it possible to carry out studies of structures of unprecedented detail and in an unprecedented range of varieties
  • The Lexicon remarkable progress in the compilation of lexical databases giving rise to an explosion of new types of dictionaries and that is not all.

8. SOME OLD AND NEW CONCEPTS AND TERMS

  • CORPUS
  • WORD/WORD FORM/ LEXEME
  • GRAMMATICAL OR FUNCTIONAL WORD / LEXICAL WORD
  • ENTRY/HEADWORD/LEMMA
  • TYPES ANDTOKENS
  • CORE VOCABULARY

9. CORPUS

  • What is a corpus- a large collection of data in machine readable form available for use not only for researchers but also for language teachers and learners. Some of the standard computer corpora:
  • The BNC (British National Corpus)
  • Corpus of the Contemporary American.
  • The Brown Corpus of American English

10. WORD/WORD FORM/ LEXEM E

  • Ambiguity of the term word(Lyons p.194-208):
  • The phonological or orthographic word
  • The grammatical words
  • e.g.sangthe past tense of sing,represents one grammatical word, whilecuton the other represents 3 grammatical words.The relation isone-to-one . Instancesofone-manyb/n phonological and grammaticalwords: e.g./mi:t/: meet ,meat , andmany-one /ri:d/,/red/: read(homonymous form pr.& past tense ofread)the latter being in correspondence with the orthographic wordred , andreed
  • The lexeme -a third usage of the term word
  • e.g.singingis another form of the word /verbsing , butsingeris a different word with its own set of forms.Notationally, lexemes will be distinguished from words by the use of capitals. The orthographic wordcutrepresents three different inflectional forms/i.e. 3 different grammatical words/ of the lexeme CUT.

11. GRAMMATICAL OR FUNCTIONAL WORD / LEXICAL WORD

  • the four major parts of speech /PoS:
  • Noun, verb, adjective and adverb
  • PoS tagging

12. Defining the adjective honest

  • A person who is honest does not tell lies, cheat people or violate the law
  • A person who is honest always tells the truth, respects other people, obeys the law and pays taxes
  • Someone who is honest can always be trusted
  • Someone who is honest does not hide things from you
  • Someone who is honest can be trusted with valuables and money
  • etc. etc.
  • THE MEANING OF WORDS CAN BE CULTURALLY CONDITIONED

13. Defining the noun bird

  • A bird is
  • An animal with the body covered in/with feathers, with two wings and a beak, which is able to fly. Female birds lay eggs
  • An animalwith feathers, two legs and two wings, which is able to fly.
  • BUT WHAT ABOUT PENGUINS AND OSTRICHS?
  • We conceive a general image, a mentalPROTOTYPEbased on our experience and containing the most distinctive characteristics of the class. Some members are less central than others.

14. BUTTERFLY

  • Butterflies live only one day
  • She is a butterfly when she dances
  • WORDS DENOTE OBJECTS AND CONCEPTS , BUT MAY HAVE EMOTIONAL OR STYLISTIC CONNOTATIONS

15. DIFFERENT TYPES OF LEXEME

  • 1.The computeris an electronic machine which is used for storing, organizing and finding different types of information
  • SOME WORDS HAVE ONLY ONE REFERENT OR MEANING (MONOREFERENTIAL)
  • 2a A violentstormbroke out
  • 2b It was onlya storm in a tea cup
  • 2c His speech provokeda storm of criticism
  • SOME WORDSHAVE SEVERAL RELATED MEANINGS (POLYSEMOUS)
  • 3a. I was walking alongthe bankof the river Cam
  • 3b. I used to workatthe Royal Bank of Scotland
  • 3cThe nearest bankis inGower street
  • SOME WORDS HAVE DIFFERENT UNRELATED MEANINGS ( HOMONYMS)
  • THE NATURE OF LEXEMESAFFECTS THEORGANISATION OF LEMMAS INDICTIONARIES

16. Semantic links between words

  • 1Freedom and liberty
  • (NEAR)-SYNONYMY
  • Black or white; fast or slow; brother or sister; married or single
  • ANTONYMY (orCOMPLEMENTARITY)
  • 3.flowers, roses, daffodils, violets, tulips, daisies
  • HYPERONYMY (SUPERORDINATES) and HYPONYMY ( SUBORDINATES)
  • 4.To cook, roast, simmer, fry, bake, boil, barbecue
  • SEMANTIC FIELD

17. Discuss the following examples

  • 1.I would like to win a post-graduate scholarship to do research (not * to make research)
  • 2. How do you do?
  • 3. The ups and downs of life ( not * the downs and ups)
  • 4. The early bird catches the worm ( not * the early cat catches the mouse)
  • 5. Torrential/heavy rain in Bangladesh ( not * strong rain)
  • 6. He has spilled the beans ( not * spilled the peas)
  • WORDS KEEP COMPANY WITH OTHER WORDS AND TEND TO CO-OCCUR IN PREFERRED OR FIXED COLLOCATIONS.

18. To sum up, lexis

  • isdynamic
  • refers to the external world
  • refers to mental concepts
  • has emotional and stylistic connotations
  • has one or several referents and meanings
  • relates to other words in the language
  • may co-occur with other words in fixed or semi-fixed patterns.

19. WHAT DOES KNOWING A WORD MEAN? 20. How many words are there in English?

  • It is not easy to count them and there aredifferent ways of doing it :
  • Dictionaries
  • Electronic corpora
  • Speakers competence

21. S.JOHNSONS DICTIONARY (1755),about 42,000 entries

  • LEXICOGRAPHER. n.s. [?lixicographe , French.] A writer of dictionories; a harmless drudge, that busies himself in tracing the original, and detailing the signification of words.
  • Commentators andlexicographersacquainted with the Syriac language, have given these hints in their writings on scripture. Watts Improvement of the Mind.

22. THE OXFORD ENGLISH DICTIONARY ON HISTORICAL PRINCIPLES, OED The 20 volume 1989 edition 23. OED Features

  • The project startedin the second half of the 19th century
  • It covers English since the 14th century
  • The second print edition in 20 volumes + 4 additions has616,500 headwords and derived words and phrases
  • A CdROM and an online version,which is regularly updated, are also available.

24. OED: a selection from the entry forspaghetti

  • [It., pl. ofspaghettothin string, twine.]
  • 1. a.A variety of pasta made in long thin strings. Occas., a dish of spaghetti.
  • 1888 MRS. BEETON Bk. Househ. Managem.2952 Maccheroni, or Spaghetti, a smaller kind of macaroni,..generally follows the soup .
  • 2.An Italian: usu. contemptuous.slang.
  • 1931 D. STIFF Milk & Honey Routeiii. 38 Italian hobos are equally rare. They are the wops or spaghettis.
  • 3.Complex roadways forming a multi-level junction, esp. on a motorway.colloq
  • 1966 Guardian4 June 14/2 Details of one of the biggest pieces of motorway spaghetti so far designed in Britain were published...

25. MERRIAM-WEBSTERS : the American counterpart to OED 26. The Websters

  • It covers American English since the 18th century
  • Its 1963 edition containsc. 114,000 word families(a headword accompanied by its inflected and derived forms)
  • It is regularly updated. There are several print editions and an online edition, which is freely available

27. OTHER TYPES OF DICTIONARY

  • in SIZE (college dictionaries, desk dictionaries, pocket dictionaries)
  • in ADDRESSEESfor EFL learners (from 60,000 to 80,000 entries), or for native speakers
  • inCONTENTS ( general or specialised, varieties of English)
  • in NUMBER OF LANGUAGES ( monolingual, bilingual, multilingual)
  • In FORMAT ( paper, CD-ROM, online)

28. THE COLLINS COBUILD Learners Dictionary

  • Monolingual general Learners Dictionaries usually contain:
  • Spelling variants
  • IPAp honetic transcription
  • Grammatical and syntactic information
  • Information on frequency
  • Definitions ofvarious senses
  • Examples of usage
  • Sense relations, e.g. antonymy
  • Register labels (e.g formal, slang)
  • Frequent lexical collocations
  • Usage notes
  • Typical learner errors
  • Use of colours, symbols and figures
  • Special sections

29. ELECTRONIC CORPORA

  • Corpora are collections of text in electronic form that are meant to represent a language, or a register of it.
  • Several corpora are available for English that can be analysed through specific software in terms of frequency and useof words in context.
  • e.g. The British National Corpus(BNC)

30. WHAT ARE THE MOST FREQUENTLY USED WORDS IN ENGLISH ?

  • From The British National Corpus, BNC
  • thedeterminer
  • ofpreposition
  • andconjunction
  • adeterminer
  • inpreposition
  • toinfinitive
  • itpronoun
  • isverb
  • topreposition
  • wasverb
  • Ipronoun
  • forpreposition
  • thatconjunction
  • youpronoun
  • hepronoun
  • beverb
  • withpreposition
  • onpreposition
  • atpreposition
  • bypreposition
  • GRAMMATICAL WORDSARE THE MOST FREQUENTLY USED

31. FREQUENCY OF LEXICAL WORDS ( based on the BNC)

  • The 10 most frequent nounsare:time, year, people, way, man, day, thing, child, Mr, government.
  • The most commonly mentioned animal is thehorse , closely followed bydog
  • The 10 most frequent adjectives are:other, good, new, old, great, high, small,different, large, local.
  • The mostfrequently mentioned colours areblack, white, red and green. The order coincides with the hierarchy of colours which scholars have observed in many languages.
  • The top ten frequency adverbs are:never, always, often, ever, sometimes, usually, once, generally, hardly, no longer
  • rarer nouns are:fax, ribbon, ant, colitis, wheat, spelling, holly, monarch, voltage, morale
  • Rarer adjectives ;rude, faithful, ministerial, innovative, controlled, conceptual, unwilling, civic, meaningful disturbing

32. HOW MANY WORDS DO NATIVE SPEAKERS OF ENGLISH KNOW?

  • It depends on variables such as age and education and use (receptive or productive):
  • According to research
  • A two-year old child: very limited vocabulary but growing at great speed
  • An Englishuniversity student : 20,000 word families
  • An adult educated speaker : 50,000 lexemes
  • CHECK YOUR KNOWLEDGE OF ITALIAN:
  • CERULEO ,CETACEI ,OTITE
  • ILLUMINISMO

33. The mixed nature of PDElexis: Germanic versus romance words

  • -a core (c. 40%) of high-frequency Germanic words usually short and used to refer to common things, actions and concepts (e.g.man, woman, day, child, bread, to go, to get, phrasal verbs)
  • and
  • - a wider component (c. 60%), of less frequent words of classical or romance origin usually longer and used in specialised or formal contexts (e.g.encyclopaedia, tonsillectomy, parliament, infrastructure)

34. GERMANIC /ROMANCE NEAR-SYNONYMS

  • Discovere.g. Columbus discovered a new continent
  • Find oute.g. Her parents found out that she had a boyfriend
  • Continue e.g. The treatment has to be continued for 4weeks
  • Go on e.g. We cant go on like this any longer
  • Pig/ cow=the living animal
  • Pork/ beef =the meat you eat
  • regal, royal e.g. royal family, regal powers
  • Kinglye.g. kingly manner

35. GOOD AND FALSE FRIENDS WITHITALIAN

  • Similarity may help at times
  • e.g.problem, result, company, million, community
  • Similarity may be misleading at other times,
  • e.g.actually, eventually, argument, factory, educated, lecture, library, magazine, major, agenda

36. English loans in Italian and other European languages

  • From a borrowing language English has become a donor language. Why?
  • Inpresent-day Italian there are many different types of anglicisms and people have different attitudes to this phenomenon. What is happening in other languages?
  • Comment on the following anglicisms in Italian. Do they have an Italian counterpart?
  • film, mission, management, welfare, governance, briefing, week-end, pub, scannerizzare /scannare, mouse, computer, talk-show, report, devolution, boom, impeachment, ghostwriter

37. Variation in English

  • 1. USER-RELATEDVARIATION
  • e.g. geographical area (GB, USA etc), age, education
  • 2. USE-RELATED VARIATION, or REGISTER MODEL
  • 2.1. what is talked about (FIELD or TOPIC)
  • 2.2.the MEDIUM used ( e.g. spoken /written, electronic language)
  • 2.3. the relationship between speakers/writers , e.g. formal, informal (PERSONAL TENOR)

38. Some lexical differences between BrEand AmE

  • 1.He lives in a lovelyapartmen t in New York
  • AmE / flatBrE
  • 2 . Theautumnterm will start in September
  • Br.E /fall AmE
  • 3. Where can I find agasstation?
  • AmE / petrol(BrE)
  • 4. 11/9/2001
  • Br E /9/11/2001AmE

39. Register variation

  • 1.1Tonsillectomy is needed
  • 1.2. Doctor I have to remove/to take your tonsils out
  • 2.1InfluenzaA/H1N1 broke outin Mexico last year
  • 2.2. Swine flu broke out in Mexico last year
  • 3.1These are my children
  • 3.2These are my kids
  • 3.3. This is my offspring

40. CORE / BASIC VOCABULARY

  • Choose the most neutral and general lexeme to refer to someone who has very little fat on his/her bodyand, with the help of dictionaries, identify the differences in meaning:
  • emaciated, skinny, slender, lean, slim, thin

41. Frequency lists

  • What is a frequency list: it is a list of words but unlike in a dictionary

42. Adjectivethin

  • (16) S:(adj)thin(of relatively small extent from one surface to the opposite or in cross section)"thin wire"; "a thin chiffon blouse"; "a thin book"; "a thin layer of paint"
  • (15) S:(adj)thin ,lean(lacking excess flesh)"you can't be too rich or too thin"; "Yon Cassius has a lean and hungry look"-Shakespeare
  • (7) S:(adj)slender ,thin(very narrow)"a thin line across the page"
  • (2) S:(adj)sparse ,thin(not dense)"a thin beard"; "trees were sparse"
  • (1) S:(adj)thin(relatively thin in consistency or low in density; not viscous)"air is thin at high altitudes"; "a thin soup"; "skimmed milk is much thinner than whole milk"; "thin oil"
  • S:(adj)thin((of sound) lacking resonance or volume)"a thin feeble cry"
  • S:(adj)thin(lacking spirit or sincere effort)"a thin smile"
  • S:(adj)flimsy ,fragile ,slight ,tenuous ,thin(lacking substance or significance)"slight evidence"; "a tenuous argument"; "a thin plot"; a fragile claim to fame"

43. 44. 45. Types of prefabricated language

  • SOCIAL ROUTINES ( OR PRAGMATIC IDIOMS)
  • e.g.Im looking forward to hearing from you, Can I help you?
  • DISCOURSE ORGANISERS
  • e.g. in other words, to sum up, for example, e.g.( exempli gratia), .i.e (id est)
  • IDIOMS
  • e.g. to beat about the bush,to kill two birds with one stone,
  • BINOMIALS
  • e.g. to and fro, pros and cons, bed and breakfast
  • PROVERBS
  • e.gA friend in need is a friend indeed, Garbage in. garbage out
  • SIMILE
  • e.g.As ugly as sin, as happy as a lark
  • SLOGANS AND FAMOUS QUOTATIONS
  • e.gAsk not what your country can do for you but what you can do for your country ( J. F. Kennedy)
  • Yes, we can (B. Obama)

46. 47. LEXICAL COLLOCATIONS: A PERVASIVE FEATURE OF ENGLISH AND A MAJOR DIFFICULTY FOR LEARNERS

  • Napravi mi usluga
  • Do me a favour
  • Napravi mi torta
  • Make me a cake

48. 49. A lexical collocation is

  • whentwolexemes belonging to two different word classestend to co-occurfor reasons other than grammatical ones
  • e.g.to take up/start/pursue a career
  • * to make career

50. 51. Communicative competence

  • Match the situations to expressions as in the model :
  • 1.You meet a friendHi!
  • 2.You have done smth wrong
  • 3.Its time to go home
  • 4. You meet your teacher
  • 5.you are having a wonderful time
  • 6.Somebody has done smth wrong to you
  • 7.You are bying an icecream
  • 8.You dont like what you are eating.
  • a. Im sorry
  • b. Thank you very much
  • c. Yippee!
  • d. Ill see you tomorrow
  • e. This is not fair
  • f. This is fun!
  • g. So sorry
  • h. Thanks
  • i. Hi!
  • j. Good morning
  • k. How are you doing
  • l. yummy