Tale of Two Cities Portland Maine/Oregon

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Detailed History comparing Portland Maine to Portland Oregon through Transit Policies.

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<ul><li> 1. Portland, Oregon., Union Station.A TALE OF TWO CITIESExamining Transportation History inPortland Maine and Portland Oregon</li></ul><p> 2. Population TimelinePortland ME Portland OR600,000525,000450,000375,000 Population300,000225,000150,000 75,000 01880 19001920 1940 1960 19802000 3. BOOM YEARS 1900-1945Fueled in part by the lewis andGrowth in Portland, Maine was more modest than that of its west coast sibling but was no less impressive for a new clark exposition in 1905, england city of that era. known as canadas winter portPortland Oregon tripled itsportland bustled with Irish, italian, afro-american andjewish dialects as laborers loaded timber, grain andpopulation from 90,000 people in textiles off of the grand trunk railroad from canada onto cargo ships.1900 to 300,000 in 1930! 4. Passenger StationsUnion Station Portland Maine- Opened 1888Union Station Portland Oregon- Opened 1896Grand Trunk Station Portland Maine- Opened 1905 5. Northern Pacic, Union Pacic, Great Northernand Southern Pacic all served Portland,Oregon with passenger and freight service.In itsheyday, a total of 92 trains called on Portlanddaily. There were fty-two steam trains andthirty-eight electric trains coming or goingevery 11 minutes from 6:30 am to 11:30 pm.Service has dwindled to a handful of trains. 6. Railroads around Union Station 7. Passenger Service in Portland MaineFrom Wikipedia-http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Railroad_history_of_Portland,_MaineDuring the heyday of passenger rail in the 1920s, a variety of companies providedpassenger rail services to Portland. Portland had two terminals: Union Station and the Grand Trunks India Street Terminal. All passenger trains, except the two daily Grand Trunk trains to Montreal, operated in and out of Union Station, where switching services were provided by Portland Terminal Company. In the westbound direction, Portland had four banks of transfers: one in the early morning, one centered around noon, one at 5 pm, and one late at night. Union Station was relatively quiet in between those times. Schedules were generally designed to have trains leave Portland in the morning and arrive in the evening. The only notable exceptions were overnight services (MEC #8), the B&amp;M evening connecting services to Boston (B&amp;M #176, 250), and one single commuter-like train in the westbound direction (MEC #138/#44). In some cases, traveling to Lewiston required a change of train at Brunswick. The afternoon commuter-like trains in the eastbound direction resulted from heavy eastbound connecting trafc from the Boston &amp; Maine. The fact that these trains fell within the commuter timeslot appears accidental. There is evidence in the schedule that the Grand Trunk deliberately discouraged commuter travel. GT #83 does not allow terminations in Lewiston, even though it is likely that the equipment moving from Lewiston to Lewiston Junction to meet #83 would have needed to run back empty to Lewiston after its tour of duty. 8. Passenger Service inPortland MaineFrom Wikipedia-http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Railroad_history_of_Portland,_MaineDuring the heyday of passenger rail in the 1920s, a variety of companies providedpassenger rail services to Portland. Portland had two terminals: Union Station and the Grand Trunks India StreetTerminal. All passenger trains, except the two daily Grand Trunk trains toMontreal, operated in and out of Union Station, where switching serviceswere provided by Portland Terminal Company. In the westbound direction, Portland had four banks of transfers: one in theearly morning, one centered around noon, one at 5 pm, and one late at night.Union Station was relatively quiet in between those times. Schedules were generally designed to have trains leave Portland in themorning and arrive in the evening. The only notable exceptions wereovernight services (MEC #8), the B&amp;M evening connecting services to Boston(B&amp;M #176, 250), and one single commuter-like train in the westbounddirection (MEC #138/#44). In some cases, traveling to Lewiston required a change of train at Brunswick. The afternoon commuter-like trains in the eastbound direction resulted fromheavy eastbound connecting trafc from the Boston &amp; Maine. The fact thatthese trains fell within the commuter timeslot appears accidental. There is evidence in the schedule that the Grand Trunk deliberatelydiscouraged commuter travel. GT #83 does not allow terminations inLewiston, even though it is likely that the equipment moving from Lewistonto Lewiston Junction to meet #83 would have needed to run back empty toLewiston after its tour of duty. 9. Images ofUnion Station,Portland Maine 10. In 1935 the Boston and Maine railroads Flying Yankee made the run between Portland and Boston in 51 minutes!Driving the same distance by highway today still takes roughly two hours without trafc. 11. Union Station Location: Maine Central RR Boston and Maine RR Grand Trunk Terminal, Yard and Docks 12. Railroad Map of the East End. Grand Trunk Railroad is shown in Yellow 13. Grand Trunk Depot 14. Images of the formerGrand Trunk Depot 15. The Grand Trunk Railway ConnectedMontreal to Portland.Portland was theclosest ice-free port when the St.Lawrenceriver froze in the winter.The Grand Trunk waterfront includedgrain elevators, multiplepiers and a beautiful RichardsonRomanesque depot built in 1905. 16. GrandTrunkScheduleSleeper Servicebetween Montrealand Portland ME 17. PORTLAND OREGONPORTLAND MAINE Transit Timeline Transit TimelineText 18. Portland Oregon Timeline Portland Maine TImeline 19. The Interurban EraFrom Wikipedia:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/InterurbanInterurbans were often extensions of existing streetcar linesrunning between urban areas or from urban to rural areas. Thelines were mainly electried in an era when steam railroads hadnot yet adopted electricity to any large degree. By 1910, there wasa very large network of small interurban lines in the U.S.,particularly in Indiana and Ohio. Many were nancially weak fromthe beginning. An electric interurban railroad was expensive tobuild, and there were always construction surprises, such as anunplanned bridge, or a town that demanded streets for theinterurban to construct, and franchise fees. In operation,interurbans were labor-intensive and physical plant expensive,and frequently passenger revenues were not as originallyprojected. Many did not survive the 1920s, following the countrysgrowing adoption of the automobile and the onset of the GreatDepression in 1930.Interurbans such as the Oregon Electric Railway and the Portland-LewistonInterurban connected places as far as Eugene Oregon or Bath Maine withcity centers like Pioneer Plaza or Monument Square. Map of Interurbans in Southern Maine 20. Images of the Oregon Electric Railway 21. TROLLEYS andINTERURBANSCLOCKWISE FROM LEFT- Pond Cove Line(ME) Interurbans and Locals on CongressSt., oregon electric train, Independenceoregon electric station 22. Streetcar Lines in Oregon (Left) and Maine (Right) 23. Portland Maine Area Streetcar and Interurban Lines in 1916 24. The Portland-LewistonInterurban ran every hour 24 hours a day, 7 days aweek with every other hour an express. 25. Clockwise from Left, Oregon Advertisement, CongressSt.(ME), Portland Lewiston Interurban, MonumentSquare (ME) 26. PHOTOs Top to Bottom- 1.Portland-Lewiston Interurban onTemple St,2. Congress St 1920s, 3. StreetcarTurning onto Preble St fromMonument Square 27. 1945-1990URBAN RENEWAL,SUBURBANIZATION,AND THE RISE OF THEAUTOMOBILE 28. The WorldofTomorrowThe Post-War Period witessed a massive PRcampaign to present theautomobile as the key to a better future. Rail transit and inner citieswere compared todisease, while automobiles promisedaccess to light, air andopen spaces. 29. General MotorsFuturama exhibit at 1939Worlds Fair 30. The Great American Streetcar ScandalIn the 1920s automaker General Motors (GM) began a covert campaign to undermine the popular rail-based public transit systems that were ubiquitous in and around the countrys bustling urban areas. At the time, only one in 10 Americans owned cars and most people traveled by trolley and streetcar.Within three decades, GM, with help from Standard Oil, Firestone Tire, Mack Truck andPhillips Petroleum, succeeded in decimating the nations trolley systems, while seeingto the creation of the federal highway system and the ensuing dominance of theautomobile as Americas preferred mode of transport.GM began by funding a companycalled National City Lines (NCL), which by 1946 controlled streetcar operations in 80American cities.Despite public opinion polls that showed 88 percent of the publicfavoring expansion of the rail lines after World War II, NCL systematically closed itsstreetcars down until, by 1955, only a few remained, writes author Jim Motavalli in his2001 book, Forward Drive.GM rst replaced trolleys with free-roaming buses, eliminating the need for tracksembedded in the street and clearing the way for cars. As dramatized in a 1996 PBSdocudrama, Taken for a Ride, Alfred P. Sloan, GMs president at the time, said, Wevegot 90 percent of the market out there that we canturn into automobile users. If wecan eliminate the rail alternatives, we will create a new market for our cars. And theydid just that, with the help of GM subsidiaries Yellow Coach and Greyhound Bus. Sloanpredicted that the jolting rides of buses would soon lead people to not want them andto buy GMs cars instead.GM was later instrumental in the creation of the National Highway Users Conference,which became the most powerful lobby in Washington. Highway lobbyists workeddirectly with lawmakers to craft highway-friendly legislation, and GMs promotionallms were showcasing Americas burgeoning interstate highway system as therealization of the so-called American dream of freedom on wheels.When GM President Charles Wilson became Secretary of Defense in 1953, he workedwith Congress to craft the $25 billion Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956. Referred to atthe time as the greatest public works project in the history of the world, the federallyfunded race to build roads from coast-to-coast was on. http://environment.about.com/od/fossilfuels/a/streetcars.htm 31. Suburbanization and Urban RenewalA combination of federal policies and private investment spawns a massive restructuringof American society. Traditional towns and cities are reoriented towards the automobile asthe upper and middle classes ee to the suburbs. While new expressways are routedthrough low-income neighborhoods displacing working poor and minorities into massivepublic housing blocksFederal Transportation PolicyFederal Housing Policy THE FEDERAL AID HIGHWAY ACT OF 1956Federal housing policy beginning in era of new deal, helpauthorizes $25 Billion for the construction of subsidize suburban living. Federal Housing Administration newdeal agency, meant to address millions of Americans losing 41,000 miles of the Federal Interstate Highway homes to foreclosure. Stimulate construction of new housing System while Federal Govt handles 90% ofunits, while stabilizing mortgage industry. construction costs The AMERICAN HOUSING ACT OF 1949 contributes greatly tosuburbanization and the ight of the white middle and upper Municipal Bonds are used to fund massiveclasses out of the city through two concurrent programsexpressways such as the Cross-Bronx Expressway TITLE 1 of the Housing Act provided Federal nancing forin NYC. Built by Robert Moses the Expressway slum clearance and urban renewal programs which resultedin the destruction of millions of houses, historic landmarks and displaces thousands of low-middle incomeneighborhood relationships in favor of massive, crime-ridden residentshousing projects. Enables upper and middle-class to commute TITLE 2 of the Housing Act dramatically expanded the ability of the Federal Housing Administration to provide low-interest from suburbs to inner city nancing to middle-class suburban homeowners Regional shopping centers and strip malls are Minorities seldom qualify for homeownership loans leading tobuilt to service the suburban marketincreased racial segregation in the North By 1970 more Americans are living in the suburbs than the city 32. Grand Trunk Terminal Demolished 1966Neither Portland is spared from theensuing destruction as city plannersrecongure the old streetcarneighborhoods to the age of theautomobile.Urban Renewaland the twoPortlands "When the ball hit the tower and it came down with the rest of the roof on the station itself, I remember the big black cloud of dust and things that swept over the street," he says. "And all of us, we all wound up with dirty faces that we didnt know we had." Train Riders Northeast Founder- Wayne Davis http://www.mpbn.net/Home/tabid/36/ctl/ViewItem/mid/3478/ItemId/17804/Default.aspx Portland Maine Union Station Demolished 1961 33. The Master Plans Both cities commissionedcomprehensive master plansthat recongured the urbanVictor Gruen with a prototype shoppingcenter in order to better enable mallautomotive travel from thesuburbs. ,. . SOUTH-ANDMUNJOY YOUTo ReMden~ Properly Owners Munjoyandin South:Portland, Oregon began as early asYour neighborhood contains manysoundhomes. Theexcellent condition of manyyards and gardens 1943 when they hired the legendaryshowspride and responsibility-- necessaryelementsin on urban renewalprogram.Master Builder of NYC, Robert Moses,MtmjoySouthhas beenchosenas the third area inthe city to be improved the combined by efforts of to develop a transportation plan like hisyou, your neighbors, and the Portland RmewolAU-thar.y. legendary public works projects in NewRobert Moses with a model of the failed Brooklyn-Some your homesof ore showingsigns of aging andneg-lecL Therehi,in effect, o combination many of elementsYork.Battery Bridgethc~ Indicatethat unless some solution Is presented,your neighborhood .will .* ontlnue:~:.value of your " " to decreasedownhill causing thePortland, Maine followed suit much propertieslater when they hired architect, VictorGruen to publish a master plan calledPatterns of Progress in 1968. VictorGruen is known as the inventor of themodern shopping mall. 34. ROBERT MOSES 1943 PLAN FOR PORTLAND OREGON (LEFT) AND VICTOR GRUENS 1967PLAN FOR PORTLAND MAINE (RIGHT). BOTH PLANS WERE ONLY PARTIALLY COMPLETED,BUT NONETHELESS RESULTED IN THE RAZING OF HUNDREDS OF HISTORIC LANDMARKSAND THE DISPLACEMENT OF THOUSANDS OF INNER-CITY RESIDENTS. 35. The Franklin Arterial Before and After 36. The Portland Street Grid Before the Franklin Arterial 37. Images from a leaetdistributed to residents of theMunjoy South Neighborhood inPortland Maine about theirimpending removal 38. Portland ME 1950Portland ME- PresentWe are convinced that the real shopping center will be the most protabletype of chain store location yet developed, for the simple reason that it willinclude features to induce people to drive considerable distances to enjoyits advantages.- Victor Gruen 194...</p>