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TAKS Vocabulary. Scientific Method. Mass. The amount of stuff in an object. Measured in grams, g ; or kilograms, kg . Volume. The amount of space something takes up. Measured in If a solid: cubic meters, m 3 ; cubic centimeters, cm 3 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


TAKS Vocabulary

TAKS VocabularyScientific Method

MassThe amount of stuff in an object.Measured in grams, g ; or kilograms, kg.VolumeThe amount of space something takes up.Measured in If a solid: cubic meters, m3 ; cubic centimeters, cm3If a liquid: liters, L ; milliliters; mL InertiaA property of matter that resists a change in motion.The bigger the mass, the more inertia it has.The property of matter to keep doing what it is doing.DensityDensity is the state or quantity of being dense; compactness; closely set together or crowded.Density = mass per unit volume.Units: grams per cubic centimeter, g/cm3 ;kilograms per cubic meter, kg/m3 ; grams per milliliter, g/mL; kilograms per liter, kg/L.How much stuff is crammed into a volume.The density of water is 1 g/cm3ViscosityViscosity is the internal friction of a fluid, produced by the movement of its molecules against each other.Viscosity causes the fluid to resist flowing.The property of resistance of a fluid to flow.The thickness of a fluid.Cold honey flows slower than water.Viscosity changes with temperature.

BuoyancyBuoyancy is the upward force that keeps things afloat. When an object is placed in water, an object will float if its buoyancy is greater than its weight, and will sink if its weight is greater than its buoyancy.The density of water is 1. Objects with a density less than 1 float, and greater than 1 sink.ChemistryPeriodic Table

Periodic Table: ColumnsColumns are groups or families. They have similar chemical properties. They have the same number of valance electrons.The last column (#18) are full and are called the Nobel Gases or Inert gases.Periodic Table: RowsRows are called periods.They are energy levels; Where the electrons are.There are 7 periods (rows)Periodic Table: The Element29CuCopper63.546Atomic numberNumber of protonsIdentifies elementName of elementChemical SymbolAtomic Mass (most abundant) 64 29 = 35 neutrons

PolarityPolarity in chemistry is when a molecule is arranged so that the molecule has a positive side (pole) and a negative side (pole). The molecule acts like a magnet due to the arrangement of its composing atoms.Water is a polar molecule.Water is called the Universal Solvent because of its molecular make up.Water is Polar.H2O

DissolveTo become absorbed in a liquid solution, or make a solid do this.To fade away gradually and disappear or make something do this.To break up into smaller or more basic parts or make something do this.SolventA substance in which other substances are dissolved, often a liquid. But not always. Sugar dissolves in water. Sugar is the solute, water is the solvent.CO2 is dissolved in soda pop. CO2 is the solute, soda pop is the solvent.O2 is dissolved in water. O2 is the solute, water is the solvent.SoluteSolute is the stuff dissolved in the solvent.Sugar dissolves in water. Sugar is the solute, water is the solvent.CO2 is dissolved in soda pop. CO2 is the solute, soda pop is the solvent.O2 is dissolved in water. O2 is the solute, water is the solvent.

SolutionIn chemistry, a solution is a homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances. In such a mixture, a solute is dissolved in another substance, known as a solvent.Usually the substance present in a greater amount is considered as the solvent. The solution that forms has the same physical state as the solvent.Types of solutionsLiquids:Oxygen in waterCO2 in waterAlcoholic beverages PetroleumSugar in waterBody fluidsSolids:SteelBrassAlloysPolymersGas:Air

HomogeneousHomogeneous of the same kind.Having the same kind of constituent elements, or being similar in nature.Having uniform composition.Being the same throughout.SmooooothHeterogenerousHeterogeneous consisting of dissimilar parts.Consisting of parts that are unrelated or unlike each other.Chunky

Physical ChangeChange of phase: Solid , Liquid, Gas from one to another.Phase change words: melt, freeze, evaporate, condense, boil, sublime, deposit.Mixtures and solutions are considered physical changes.The substance keeps its chemical composition. Steam, water and ice are all forms of H2O.Chemical ChangeSomething new is made. Chemical composition is changed.Signs:Color changeLight or energy given offFizzes or bubbles or gas formsPrecipitate forms Gets hot or coldMakes an odor Atomic NumberThe number of protons an atom has.Its the identifying number that identifies the element.8 OOxygen15.9994Atomic NumberAtomic MassAtomic Mass or Atomic WeightThe number of protons plus the number of neutrons in an element.Most elements can have different numbers of neutrons so there can be different atomic masses for the same element. These are called isotopes.The most abundant mass is what is reported on the periodic table.Atoms or ElementsThe atom is the basic unit of matter consisting of a nucleus surrounded by electrons in discrete energy levels.The nucleus is dense and contains protons and neutrons.Protons are positively charged, electrons are negatively charged, and neutron have no charge (they are neutral).The word atom is Greek and means uncuttable or indivisible, something that cannot be divided further.These make up the Periodic Table.MoleculeA molecule is two or more atoms connected together by ionic or covalent bonds that make up a identifying substance.The two atoms can be the same element. Diatomic molecules: O2; H2; N2 The molecule can be made of two or more different elements, Polyatomic: CO; NO; NaCl ; HCl ; CO2; H2O; C6H12O6 ; H2SO4Valance ElectronsElectrons in the outer most energy level of an atom.Valance electrons determine how the atoms combine to make molecules.Rule of 8.IonAn ion is an atom or molecule where the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons giving it a net positive or negative charge.An ion is an atom that has too many or too few electrons (compared to its protons).ElectrolyticIn chemistry, an electrolyte is any substance containing free ions that makes the substance able to carry electricity (an electric current).In most cases we are referring to a liquid, but it is not limited to liquids.pHpH is used to measure acidity(H+) and basicity (OH)It measures the concentration of dissolved hydrogen ions.Acids are from 1 to 7, bases are from 7 to 14; 7 being neutral. The farther from 7 the stronger the acid/base.Acids turns litmus paper red, bases turn it blue.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Reactants - ProductsIn a chemical equation (formula)The reactants are what you start with. They are on the left side of the equation.The products are what they (the reactants) make. They are on the right side of the equation. The arrow points to the products.PhysicsNewtons First law of MotionAn object in motion will stay in motion and an object at rest will stay at rest unless acted upon by an external force.A body persists in a state of uniform motion or of rest unless acted upon by an external force.A body keeps doing what its doing unless forced to change.AKA: the law of inertia.Newtons Second Law of MotionForce equals mass times acceleration.net F=ma (formula sheet)AKA: F = maNewtons Third Law of MotionTo every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.AKA: Action Reaction LawAction reaction pairs: If John hits Joe. Joe hits John.ForceA force is a push or a pull.Force is measured in Newtons, N , (n).Weight is a force due to the pull of Earths gravity.Weight = mass x acceleration due to gravityAcceleration due to Earths gravity = 9.8 m/s2WeightWeight is a force due to the pull of Earths gravity.Weight = mass x acceleration due to gravityAcceleration due to Earths gravity = 9.8 m/s2Weight is measured in Newtons; N, (n)

FrictionA force that acts against motion. Measured in Newtons, N, (n)ConvectionA form of heat transfer through liquids and gases (fluids).Heat is transferred by currents in the fluids.Heat moved by fluid motion.ConductionHeat transferred by vibrating neighboring molecules. Heat transferred through solids.Heat moves from hot to cold.RadiationHeat transferred by waves.Heat from our Sun reaches us through waves.

ReflectionWhen a wave hits a barrier it bounces off at the same angle it hits the surface.When you look in the mirror you see your reflection.The law of reflection is the angle of the incoming ray equals the angle of the out going ray. RefractionWhen a light ray changes mediums it bends. The bending of alight ray is refraction.When a wave changes mediums it refracts.The change of direction of a ray of light, sound, heat, or the like in passing from one medium into another due to the change in the speed of the wave.DiffractionThe change in a wave as it passes by an obstacle or through an opening.The spreading out of a wave as it passes by a barrier.ResonanceAlso called sympathetic vibrations.Something starts to vibrate or shake because something else is vibrating.Period, TThe amount of time it takes to do something once.The amount of time to make one wave.Period, T , is measured in seconds, s.Frequency, fFrequency, f , is how many things happen in one second.How many waves are made in 1 second.Frequency , f , is measured in Hertz, Hz.

Wavelength, The length of one wave is called the wavelength.Its the distance from crest to crest, trough to trough, or from corresponding part to like corresponding part.Wavelength, , is .measured in meters, mAmplitudeThe height of a wave from equilibrium, or the depth of the wave from equilibrium.Amplitude is usually measured in meters, m.SoundSound is a longitudinal wave.It travels at around 340 m/s (constants chart)The note or pitch of a sound wave is its frequency.The loudness of the sound wave is its amplitude.Sound needs a medium to travel through, this medium is air. Sound are waves that our ears can pick up.LightLight is a transverse wave. It is also an electromagnetic wave.Light doe