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Forward particle production measured by LHCf ; testing hadronic interaction models for CR physics. Takashi SAKO (Solar-Terrestrial environment Laboratory/Kobayashi- Maskawa Institute, Nagoya University, Japan) On behalf of the LHCf Collaboration. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Forward particle production measured by LHCf; testing hadronic interaction models for CR physics

Forward particle production measured by LHCf; testing hadronic interaction models for CR physicsTakashi SAKO(Solar-Terrestrial environment Laboratory/Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute, Nagoya University, Japan)On behalf of the LHCf Collaboration

11-Feb-2013IV Workshop on Air Shower Detection at High Altitude@NapoliForward particle production measured by LHCf; testing hadronic interaction models for CR physicsTakashi SAKO(Solar-Terrestrial environment Laboratory/Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute, Nagoya University, Japan)On behalf of the LHCf Collaboration

21-Feb-2013IV Workshop on Air Shower Detection at High Altitude@NapoliOutlineQuick reminder for the CR and interactionImportant collider observablesThe LHCf experimentExperimental setup and statusResults from 900GeV and 7TeV p-p collisionsImpact on air showerFutureSummary 3CR and Interaction4Uncertainty in hadronic interaction 5

PROTONIRON101910180g/cm2XmaxProton shower and nuclear shower of same total energyPierre Auger ObservatoryDeep in the atmospherePlayers: EPOS, QGSJET, SIBYLL, DPMJET models6

(Kampert and Unger, Astropart. Phys., 2012)Lower energy also QGS1QGSIISIBYLLEPOSCollider observables78Leading baryonsMulti meson productionWhat to be measured at accelerators?proton / neutron0+-1. Inelastic cross sectioninteraction mean free path3. Nuclear effectelasticity (Ebaryon/E0)baryon spectruminelasticity (Emeson/E0= 1-elasticity)multiplicitymeson spectrum2. Particle productionNote: s=14TeV Elab=1017eV

Where to be measured at colliders?multiplicity and energy flux at LHC 14TeV collisionspseudo-rapidity; = -ln(tan(/2))Multiplicity Energy fluxAll particlesneutralMost of the particles produced into central,Most of the energy flows into forward910 result @ 7TeV

The TOTEM Collaboration, CERN-PH-EP-2012-353R.Ulrich et al., PRD, 83 (2011) 054026Before LHCAfter LHCmultiplicity@central11

D.DEnterria et al., Astropart. Phys., 35 (2011) 98-113

Forward Energy Flow (Hadronic Forward Calorimeter)12

The CMS Collaboration, JHEP, 11 (2011) 148

LHCf13T.Iso, Y.Itow, K.Kawade, Y.Makino, K.Masuda, Y.Matsubara, E.Matsubayashi, G.Mitsuka, Y.Muraki, T.SakoSolar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, JapanH.Menjo Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute, Nagoya University, Japan K.Yoshida Shibaura Institute of Technology, JapanK.Kasahara, Y.Shimizu, T.Suzuki, S.Torii Waseda University, JapanT.Tamura Kanagawa University, JapanM.Haguenauer Ecole Polytechnique, FranceW.C.Turner LBNL, Berkeley, USAO.Adriani, L.Bonechi, M.Bongi, R.DAlessandro, M.Grandi, P.Papini, S.Ricciarini, G.Castellini INFN, Univ. di Firenze, ItalyA.Tricomi INFN, Univ. di Catania, Italy J.Velasco, A.Faus IFIC, Centro Mixto CSIC-UVEG, SpainA-L.Perrot, D.Pfeiffer CERN, Switzerland

The LHCf collaboration14The LHC forward experiment15

ATLAS140mLHCf Arm#1LHCf Arm#2Two independent detectors at either side of IP1 (Arm#1, Arm#2 )Charged particles (+)BeamCharged particles (-)Neutral particlesBeam pipe96mmAll charged particles are swept by dipole magnetNeutral particles (photons and neutrons) arrive at LHCf0 degree is covered

LHCf Detectors

Arm#1 Detector20mmx20mm+40mmx40mm4 XY SciFi+MAPMTArm#2 Detector25mmx25mm+32mmx32mm4 XY Silicon strip detectorsImaging sampling shower calorimetersTwo calorimeter towers in each of Arm1 and Arm2 Each tower has 44 r.l. of Tungsten,16 sampling scintillator and 4 position sensitive layers 1617Which E-pT range LHCf sees ?

pp 7TeV, EPOS

photons 0 (Arm1)Summary of 2009-2010 run and current statusWith Stable Beams at s = 900 GeV Total of 42 hours for physicsAbout 105 shower events in Arm1+Arm2

With Stable Beams at s = 7 TeV (Elab = 2.5x1016 eV)Total of 150 hours for physics with different setupsDifferent vertical position to increase the accessible kinematical rangeRuns with or without beam crossing angle~ 4x108 shower events in Arm1+Arm2~ 106 0 events in Arm1 and Arm2StatusPhoton spectra at 900 GeV and 7 TeV, 0 spectra at 7TeV are publishedTaking data at 4TeV/Z p-Pb collision NOWUpgrade to more rad-hard detectors for 14TeV in 20151818Observed event

Energy & PIDPosition & multihit IDLongitudinal developmentLateral developmentSilicon XSilicon Y

Particle Identification

20

(L90% indicates the depth of shower)Photon eventHadron event(Adriani et al., PLB, 2011)+ ; dataHistograms; MC

90%21

Photon spectra @ 7TeV (Data vs. Models) DPMJET 3.04 QGSJET II-03 SIBYLL 2.1 EPOS 1.99 PYTHIA 8.145Adriani et al., PLB, 703 (2011) 128-134Around 0 degree (On axis)Off axisPhoton spectra @ 900GeV22

Adriani et al., PLB, 715 (2012) 298-303

small- = Large towerbig- =Small tower900GeV vs. 7TeV

Normalized by # of evnetsXF > 0.1Statistical error onlyXF spectra : 900GeV data vs. 7TeV dataGood agreement of XF spectrum shape between 900 GeV and 7 TeV.PreliminaryData 2010 at s=900GeV(Normalized by the number of entries in XF > 0.1)Data 2010 at s=7TeV (>10.94)LHCf coverage in XF-pT plane (XF = E/Ebeam)900GeV vs. 7TeVwith the same PT region900 GeV Small+large tower23230 analysis 0 candidate599GeV & 419GeV photons in 25mm and 32mm tower, respectivelyM = (E1xE2)24

Longitudinal developmentLateral developmentSilicon XSilicon YSmall Cal.LargeCal.

I.P.11(E1)2(E2)140mR

25

Adriani et al., PRD, 86, 092001 (2012)0 pT distribution in different rapidity (y) ranges0 26 comparison with UA7 at 630GeV (Pare et al., PLB, 242, 531 (1990))

ybeam - y

xF = E/E0Playing a game with air shower (effect of forward meson spectra)27

DPMJET3 always overpredicts productionFiltering DPMJET3 mesonsaccording to an empirical probability function, divide mesons into two with keeping pTFraction of mesons escape out of LHCf acceptanceThis processHolds cross sectionHolds elasticity/inelasticityHolds energy conservationChanges multiplicityDoes not conserve charge event-by-eventE=E1+E2E1E2xF = E/E0pTAn example of filtering28

0 spectrumphoton spectrum

DPMJET3+filter2.5x1016 eV proton~30g/cm2FutureNeutron spectra in 7TeV p-p analysis on going4TeV/Z p-Pb data taking on goingJoint analysis with ATLAS data ready14 TeV p-p in 2015 detector upgrade on goingLight nuclei at LHC, RHIC??? possibility in discussion29Neutron Spectra at 7TeV pp(models)30

Model predictionsModel predictions smeared by the LHCf energy resolution31p-Pb collisions

Photon spectrum at the p remnantNeutron spectrum at the p remnant(energy resolution taken into account)1st collider experiment pA (dA done at RHIC)LHCf triggers ATLAS to take common events with central32Leading baryonsMulti meson productionWhat to be measured at accelerators?proton / neutron0+-1. Inelastic cross sectioninteraction mean free path3. Nuclear effectelasticity (Ebaryon/E0)baryon spectruminelasticity (Emeson/E0= 1-elasticity)multiplicitymeson spectrum2. Particle productionNote: s=14TeV Elab=1017eVSummary33Experiments at LHC provide useful data to calibrate CR interaction modelsLHCf is a dedicated experiment to measure forward particles effective to the air shower developmentLHCf completed operation at 900GeV and 7TeV p-p collisions and published photon and 0 spectra None of the models perfectly describe the LHCf results, but models well bracket the experiment (this is generally true for the other LHC results).No sizable collision energy dependence is so far foundForward meson spectra is effective in LHCf is proceeding more analysis, takes more data with p-Pb collisions and 14TeV p-p collisions, and more 34Cosmic-ray spectrum & Colliders

LHC 14TeVTevatronLHC 0.9TeVLHC 7 TeVSppSRHICISR10101020 eVKnee: end of galactic proton CREnd of galactic CR and transition to extra-gal CRAnkle(GZK) cutoff: end of CR spectrumPerfect (or best at least) understanding up to 1017eV helps CR physics Backup35LHC

n, gamma

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