Syed parasympatholytics

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<ul><li> 1. PARASYMPATHOLYTICS<br />BY<br />SYED FAYYAZUDDIN<br />11/8/2010<br />1<br /></li> <li> 2. CONTENTS<br />INTRODUCTION <br />CLASSIFICATION<br />PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIONS<br />DRUGS<br />USES<br />11/8/2010<br />2<br /></li> <li> 3. INRODUCTION<br />Acetylcholine.<br />11/8/2010<br />3<br /></li> <li> 4. 11/8/2010<br />4<br /></li> <li> 5. 11/8/2010<br />5<br /></li> <li> 6. 11/8/2010<br />6<br /></li> <li> 7. MECHANISM OF ACTION<br />11/8/2010<br />7<br /></li> <li> 8. Blocks action of Ach on autonomic effectors through muscarinic receptors.<br />Competitive antagonists.<br />Prototype Atropine.<br />11/8/2010<br />8<br /></li> <li> 9. Classification<br />1. Natural alkaloids:<br />Atropine<br />Hyoscine<br />2. Semisynthetic derivatives:<br />Homatropine<br />Hyoscine butyl bromide<br />Atropine methonitrate.<br />11/8/2010<br />9<br /></li> <li> 10. 3. Synthetic compounds:<br />Mydriatics:<br />Tropicamide<br />Antisecretory-antispasmodic:<br />Dicyclomine.<br />Propanthaline.<br />Biperden.<br />Antiparkinsonian:<br />Tryhexyl phenidyl.<br />11/8/2010<br />10<br /></li> <li> 11. <ul><li>GANGLIONIC BLOCKING AGENTS. </li> <li> 12. COMPETATIVE BLOCKERS </li> <li> 13. Hexamethonium </li> <li> 14. Mecamylamine </li> <li> 15. PERSISTANT DEPOLARISING BLOCKERS </li> <li> 16. Nicotine </li> <li> 17. Anticholinesterases</li></ul>11/8/2010<br />11<br /></li> <li> 18. PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIONS<br />CNS<br />Stimulates many medullary centres.<br />Vagal, respiratory and vasomotor.<br />Anti-motion sickness property.<br />High dose cause<br />Restlessness<br />Disorientation<br />Hallucinations<br />Respiratory depression<br />Coma. <br />11/8/2010<br />12<br /></li> <li> 19. CVS<br />primarily in modifications of the heart rate:<br />very low dose, it can give a slight cardiac slowing<br />therapeutic dose there is generally cardiac acceleration<br />It does not have vascular effects since there is no parasympathetic tonus on the vessels but it inhibits vasodilatation caused by an intravenous injection of acetylcholine.<br />It does not induce modifications of arterial pressure in spite of increased cardiac rate.<br />in very high or toxic dose, it induces a fall of the arterial pressure by depression of the vasomotor centers<br />11/8/2010<br />13<br /></li> <li> 20. PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIONS<br />EYS<br />Mydriasis<br />Cycloplegia<br />Photophobia.<br />SMOOTH MUSCLES<br />Relaxation<br />M3 Blokade<br />Tone is reduced<br />Constipation<br />Bronchodilation (asthma)<br />11/8/2010<br />14<br /></li> <li> 21. PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIONS<br />GLANDS<br />Sweat<br />Bronchial secretions<br />Lacrinal secretions.<br />Acid, pepsin and mucus in stomach.<br />BODY TEMPERATURE<br />Inhibition of sweating<br />Temperature regulatory centre in hypothalamus<br />Atropine fever<br />11/8/2010<br />15<br /></li> <li> 22. Sensitivity<br />11/8/2010<br />16<br /></li> <li> 23. TROPICAMIDE<br />Blocks the response of sphincter muscle of iris and ciliary muscles to cholinergic stimulation thus causing mydriasis.<br />Stronger preparation also paralyzes accommodation.<br />Acts within 15-30 m and duration is 3-8 h.<br />typically used during eye examinations such as the dilated fundus examination, but it may also be used before or after eye surgery. <br /></li> <li> 24. </li> <li> 25. ADVERSE REACTIONS: <br />Blurred vision<br />Photo phobia<br />Increased intraocular pressure<br />Dry mouth<br />Tachycardia<br />Headache<br />Allergic reactions<br />Nausea <br />Vomiting<br /></li> <li> 26. DICYCLOMINE<br />It is a smooth muscle relaxant. <br />Irritable Bowel Syndrome (also known as spastic colon). <br />It relieves muscle spasms and cramping in the gastrointestinal tract by blocking the activity of acetylcholine on cholinergic (muscarinic) receptors on the surface of muscle cells. <br /></li> <li> 27. ADVERSE REACTIONS:<br />Dry mouth<br />Tachycardia<br />Headache<br />Allergic reactions<br />Nausea <br />Vomiting<br />confusion <br />agitation<br /></li> <li> 28. HEXAMETHONIUM<br />Ganglionic blocker<br />N receptor antagonist, acts in autonomic ganglia.<br />Does not have any effect on muscarinic Ach receptors.<br />Acts at receptors at neuromuscular junction responsible for skeletal muscle motor response.<br /></li> <li> 29. ADVERSE EFFECTS : <br />Constipation<br />Urinary retention<br />Glaucoma<br />Blurry vision<br />Decreased lacrymal secretion<br />Dry mouth (xerostomia)<br /></li> <li> 30. USES<br />Antisecretory<br />Preanaesthtic<br />The main reasons for using anticholinergic drugs were drying of secretions and protection against vagal over activity. <br />Blocks responses to vegal refluxes induced by sergical manipulations of visceral organs.<br />Peptic ulcer<br />Pulmonary embolism<br />11/8/2010<br />24<br /></li> <li> 31. Antispasmodic<br />Spactic constipation<br />Nervous and drug induced diarrhoea.<br />Asthama, COPD<br />Cardiac vagolytic<br /> Bradycardia<br />Central actions<br />Parkinsonism<br />Motion sickness<br />11/8/2010<br />25<br /></li> <li> 32. References<br />Tripathi KD. Anticholinergic drugs.In Essentials of medical Pharmacology. 5th ed. JP Brothers Medical publishers (P) Ltd: New Delhi; 2003. pp. 93-102.<br />Katzung, Bertram.G, Basic and clinical pharmacology.10th ed. Mc Graw Hill. USA(NY); 2006. pp. 482-9.<br />Goodman &amp; Gilmans, The Pharmacological Basis Of Therapeutics. 11th ed. Mc Graw Hill. USA(NY); 2006. pp. 121-9.<br />11/8/2010<br />26<br /></li> </ul>