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- 1. PARASYMPATHOLYTICS
- 2. CONTENTS
- 3. INRODUCTION
- 4. 11/8/2010
- 5. 11/8/2010
- 6. 11/8/2010
- 7. MECHANISM OF ACTION
- 8. Blocks action of Ach on autonomic effectors through muscarinic receptors.
- 9. Classification
1. Natural alkaloids:
2. Semisynthetic derivatives:
Hyoscine butyl bromide
- 10. 3. Synthetic compounds:
- GANGLIONIC BLOCKING AGENTS.
- 12. COMPETATIVE BLOCKERS
- 13. Hexamethonium
- 14. Mecamylamine
- 15. PERSISTANT DEPOLARISING BLOCKERS
- 16. Nicotine
- 17. Anticholinesterases
- 18. PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIONS
Stimulates many medullary centres.
Vagal, respiratory and vasomotor.
Anti-motion sickness property.
High dose cause
- 19. CVS
primarily in modifications of the heart rate:
very low dose, it can give a slight cardiac slowing
therapeutic dose there is generally cardiac acceleration
It does not have vascular effects since there is no parasympathetic tonus on the vessels but it inhibits vasodilatation caused by an intravenous injection of acetylcholine.
It does not induce modifications of arterial pressure in spite of increased cardiac rate.
in very high or toxic dose, it induces a fall of the arterial pressure by depression of the vasomotor centers
- 20. PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIONS
Tone is reduced
- 21. PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIONS
Acid, pepsin and mucus in stomach.
Inhibition of sweating
Temperature regulatory centre in hypothalamus
- 22. Sensitivity
- 23. TROPICAMIDE
Blocks the response of sphincter muscle of iris and ciliary muscles to cholinergic stimulation thus causing mydriasis.
Stronger preparation also paralyzes accommodation.
Acts within 15-30 m and duration is 3-8 h.
typically used during eye examinations such as the dilated fundus examination, but it may also be used before or after eye surgery.
- 25. ADVERSE REACTIONS:
Increased intraocular pressure
- 26. DICYCLOMINE
It is a smooth muscle relaxant.
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (also known as spastic colon).
It relieves muscle spasms and cramping in the gastrointestinal tract by blocking the activity of acetylcholine on cholinergic (muscarinic) receptors on the surface of muscle cells.
- 27. ADVERSE REACTIONS:
- 28. HEXAMETHONIUM
N receptor antagonist, acts in autonomic ganglia.
Does not have any effect on muscarinic Ach receptors.
Acts at receptors at neuromuscular junction responsible for skeletal muscle motor response.
- 29. ADVERSE EFFECTS :
Decreased lacrymal secretion
Dry mouth (xerostomia)
- 30. USES
The main reasons for using anticholinergic drugs were drying of secretions and protection against vagal over activity.
Blocks responses to vegal refluxes induced by sergical manipulations of visceral organs.
- 31. Antispasmodic
Nervous and drug induced diarrhoea.
- 32. References
Tripathi KD. Anticholinergic drugs.In Essentials of medical Pharmacology. 5th ed. JP Brothers Medical publishers (P) Ltd: New Delhi; 2003. pp. 93-102.
Katzung, Bertram.G, Basic and clinical pharmacology.10th ed. Mc Graw Hill. USA(NY); 2006. pp. 482-9.
Goodman & Gilmans, The Pharmacological Basis Of Therapeutics. 11th ed. Mc Graw Hill. USA(NY); 2006. pp. 121-9.
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