SY Anaerobic Digestion Toolkit

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<p>This project is supported by the Sustainable Development Fund and East Midlands Development Agency</p> <p>A TOOLBOX GUIDE FOR ASSESSING THE FEASIBILITY OF AN ANAEROBIC DIGESTION PROJECT DEVELOPED FOR THE BENEFIT OF A COMMUNITY OR FOR A SINGLE FARM</p> <p>Prepared by Methanogen ltd Tooracurragh Ballymacarbry Co.Waterford Ireland With the advice &amp; assistance of The Andersons Centregredman@theandersonscentre.co.uk</p> <p>and Rutherford Renewablesdavid@rutherfordrenewables.co.uk</p> <p>AD Development Toolbox</p> <p>March 2010</p> <p>DISCLAIMERS FOR SY AD REPORT</p> <p>This report was commissioned by Sustainable Youlgrave and produced by Methanogen &amp; Associates. Neither they nor the Peak District National Park Authority accept liability for any costs or losses arising as a result of the use or reliance upon the contents of this report by any person. The content of this report does not constitute legal advice, nor does it necessarily represent the views, aims or policies of the Peak District National Park Authority. This Guide has been part funded by the East Midlands Development Agency Limited (emda). The purpose of the Guide is solely for general interest and should not be used as a substitute for advice. The emda logo on the front of this Guide is for the purpose only of recognition of emdas contribution to the cost of the Guide and its preparation. This Guide or any part of it is neither endorsed by emda nor represents emdas views. Emda makes no warranty, representation or promise as to the accuracy of this Guides content. Emda hereby excludes all liability for any loss howsoever caused to the fullest extent permitted by law.</p> <p>1</p> <p>AD Development Toolbox</p> <p>March 2010</p> <p>ContentsIntroduction................................................................................................................................... 3 Defining different types of Anaerobic Digestion (AD) situations.............................................. 4 How to use this document........................................................................................................... 5 Acronyms used in the document................................................................................................. 7 Chapter 1 - Introduction to AD ................................................................................................... 9 1.1 What is Anaerobic Digestion?.......................................................................................... 9 1.2 Technical Matters................................................................................................................ 11 1.2.1 Feedstock .................................................................................................................... 12 1.2.2 Maintaining a Good Process ...................................................................................... 14 1.2.3 Quality and type of outputs ......................................................................................... 15 1.2.4 Integration of the digester into surrounding systems ................................................ 17 1.2.5 Capital and operational (including maintenance) costs............................................ 21 1.2.6 Management............................................................................................................... 21 1.2.7 Layout of site.............................................................................................................. 22 1.2.8 Storage ....................................................................................................................... 23 1.2.9 Sites .............................................................................................................................. 24 1.3 Technology providers ........................................................................................................ 24 Chapter 2 - Deciding whether to develop an AD ..................................................................... 25 2.1 Identifying what is the primary purpose of the digester ..................................................... 25 2.2 Determining the size of AD ................................................................................................ 25 2.3 Choosing an optimum mix of Feedstock .......................................................................... 27 Chapter 3 - External effects of AD ............................................................................................ 28 3.1 Agricultural Effects........................................................................................................... 28 3.2 Environmental Effects ...................................................................................................... 29 3.3 Social Effect on Other Businesses &amp; the Community ....................................................... 31 3.4 Community Development .................................................................................................. 33 3.5 Health................................................................................................................................ 36 3.6 Waste Management........................................................................................................... 37 Chapter 4 - Undertaking a feasibility study for an AD project.............................................. 39 Stage 1 research ........................................................................................................................ 39 Stage 2 - Assessment of information ........................................................................................ 41 2</p> <p>AD Development Toolbox</p> <p>March 2010</p> <p>4.1 Farm Assessment .............................................................................................................. 42 4.2 Assessing a community CAD ........................................................................................... 43 4.3 Regulations ....................................................................................................................... 45 4.4 Finance .............................................................................................................................. 45 4.4.1 Supports ...................................................................................................................... 45 4.4.2 Banking ....................................................................................................................... 46 4.4.3 Local currency ............................................................................................................ 47 4.4.4 Investors...................................................................................................................... 48 4.5 Crucial internal &amp; external factors related to development of AD ................................... 49 4.5.1 Internal......................................................................................................................... 50 4.5.2 External....................................................................................................................... 50 4.6 Factors pertinent to an on-farm AD .................................................................................. 51 4.7 Factors pertinent to a community digester........................................................................ 52 4.8 Public Consultation ........................................................................................................... 53 APPENDIX 1 Options for the use of Biogas? ......................................................................... 55 Heat Only .............................................................................................................................. 55 Electricity production ........................................................................................................... 55 Biogas Cleaned to Biomethane............................................................................................. 56 Future uses for biogas .......................................................................................................... 58 APPENDIX 2 Options for the use of Digestate Products........................................................ 59 Land bank for utilising the digestate .................................................................................... 60 APPENDIX 3 Technology Types ............................................................................................ 61 APPENDIX 4 Technology Providers ...................................................................................... 64 APPENDIX 5 Farm Assessment Form.................................................................................... 70 APPENDIX 6 - Possible Business Models for a Community CAD ......................................... 73 APPENDIX 7 Agricultural Considerations ............................................................................. 77 Farm Business....................................................................................................................... 77 Nutrient management............................................................................................................ 78 APPENDIX 8 Environmental Effects..................................................................................... 80 APPENDIX 9 Details concerning Regulations........................................................................ 85 APPENDIX 10 Getting connected.......................................................................................... 95 APPENDIX 11 APPENDIX 12 FINANCE - Banking.................................................................................. 100 FINANCE - Grants .................................................................................... 106</p> <p>APPENDIX 13 - Checklists................................................................................................... 107 APPENDIX 14 - Bibliography of very useful reading ........................................................... 111 3</p> <p>AD Development Toolbox</p> <p>March 2010</p> <p>IntroductionDefining different types of Anaerobic Digestion (AD) situations Different situations require different AD technologies. Technologies also vary according to the feedstock, the prime focus of the project, the type, quality and use of the outputs and the applicable regulations. There is a wide variance in understanding and use of the following types of digester system. It is therefore necessary to define the terms as they will be used within this document. On-Farm Digester - is a digester designed to improve the management of the farm. An on-farm digester processes feedstock (manure and crops) produced on that farm. However, additional off farm material may be imported to co-digest with the feedstock produced on-farm, but the total amount of liquid digestate produced is utilised to meet the fertiliser requirements of the farm and the digester is operated as part of the farm management system. Shared digester - is similar to an on-farm digester, the only difference being that the digester is utilised by two or more farms, in a similar manner to an on-farm digester. On-site digester - is a digester designed to provide improved waste management and/or energy for the business on the site (e.g. dairy, abattoir etc). Some additional feedstock may be imported to improve the process or to increase the energy output to meet the on-site needs. Stand alone business digester - this type of digester is developed primarily to maximise the financial return for its owner, and can be located on a farm or elsewhere. The objective is to maximise revenue from gate fees and from the sale of electricity, and so often very little or no manure, is processed. Typically, these digesters are large (&gt;500kW), the location is such that most of the spare heat often cannot be utilised, and the quality of the processed material is considered sufficient so long as it meets regulatory requirements. Centralised digester - this type of digester usually processes the manure and possibly crops from 3 or more farms, along with biodegradable wastes. In many ways it is similar to the stand alone business digester, except that the farms involved usually have a shareholding and manure and crops are co-digested with the feedstock that can earn gate fees. Because of the farmer involvement there is usually more emphasis put on producing a high quality fertiliser product in the digestate. The digester may provide a function of re-distribution of nutrients between farms. Community digester - this type of digester is similar to the centralised digester, but it has other functions and parameters as well. Although the digester must be capable of financing its development and operation, the effect that the digester has on the surrounding community and environment are considered equally as important and considered in the overall assessment of the project. The number of jobs created, the amount of additional money in circulation in the local economy, the amount of transport miles, whether production costs on farms can be reduced, whether ground/surface water quality could be improved etc. would be considered while developing the project. In other words the digester is developed for the welfare of the surrounding community, as well as the project owners. 4</p> <p>AD Development Toolbox</p> <p>March 2010</p> <p>This document refers only to on-farm and community digesters as defined above. Therefore, it is only concerned with digester systems that use a wet anaerobic digestion process and process feedstock, with a combined average of more than 5% dry matter, when loaded into the digester, are considered to be relevant to this document. How to use this document This document is to serve as a guide for communities, farmers and individuals who are considering whether anaerobic digesters might have something to offer them. There is a lot of information on AD available through the internet, and from technology companies. Many people have said that when they have completed some research into AD, they are more confused than when they started. This guide is valid in March 2010, after that some aspects may change. This guide is designed to; provide some basic information on AD and associated technology and help you to understand enough to be able to ask the right question to get the information you actually need assist you in deciding what you might want from an AD and to determine the optimum size of AD for your individual situation decide how to integrate the AD into existing management systems know how to collect some basic research data to know if the AD is viable know how you might be able to finance your project and to decide what business structure might be suitable for your AD help you to know what regulations and other issues you may have to comply with and to know where to go to get the inf...</p>