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  • 2015-05-19Naturvårdsverket | Swedish Environmental Protection Agency 1

    2015-05-19

    Naturvårdsverket | Swedish Environmental Protection Agency

    1

    Swedish Waste Management

    Catarina Östlund

    Waste and Chemicals section

    Swedish Environmental Protection Agency

    Section on Guidance of Environmental Hazardous Activities

    catarina.ostlund@naturvardsverket.se

    www.naturvardsverket.se

  • Outline

    • Swedish EPA – our role waste management

    • Environmental objectives and overall strategy

    • National waste plan

    • Household waste

    • Waste treatment

    • Waste incineration

    2015-05-19Naturvårdsverket | Swedish Environmental Protection Agency 2

  • Swedish EPA – our role waste management

    • Produce regulation, guidelines

    • Licensing process concerning environmental hazardous

    activities – consultation, right to appeal against a permit

    • National waste management plan and program for

    prevention of waste

    • Support government in EU policy, take part in EU-

    committees implementing EU-legislation

    • Waste council

    2015-05-19Naturvårdsverket | Swedish Environmental Protection Agency 3

  • Swedish EPA – our role waste management

    • Follow up and monitoring environmental objectives

    • Waste statistics

    • License for export and import of waste

    • Inspection and register WEEE and packaging waste

    2015-05-19Naturvårdsverket | Swedish Environmental Protection Agency 4

  • 2015-05-19Naturvårdsverket | Swedish Environmental Protection Agency 5

    Other actors - responsibilites

    • Municipalities Treatment of household waste, waste management planning, Supervision

    • County administrative boards

    Issue permits waste facilities (landfills, incineration plants etc). Supervision

    • Environmental courts

    Issue permits for large waste facilities

    • Ministry of environment (ordinances, EU negotiations etc)

    • Other national agencies: - The Swedish National Board of Housing, Building and Planning

    - Swedish Chemicals Agency (REACH, ecodesign)

    - National Food Agency (reduce food waste)

    - Swedish Board of Agriculture (ABP)

    - Swedish Energy Agency (grants for biogas production)

    • Industry and enterprises

    Responsible for waste management on free market

  • “… hand over to the next

    generation a society in which the

    major environmental problems in

    Sweden have been solved,

    without increasing environ-

    mental and health problems

    outside Sweden’s borders.”

    RIKSDAG DECISION ON THE

    ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES

    PHOTO: ELLIOT ELLIOT/JOHNÉR

    Generational goal

  • 2015-05-19Naturvårdsverket | Swedish Environmental Protection Agency 7

    16 Environmental Quality Objectives

    1. Reduced Climate Impact

    2. Clean Air

    3. Natural Acidification Only

    4. A Non-Toxic Environment

    5. A Protective Ozone Layer

    6. A Safe Radiation Environment

    7. Zero Eutrophication

    8. Flourishing Lakes and Streams

    9. Good-Quality Groundwater

    10. A Balanced Marine Environment,

    Flourishing Coastal Areas and

    Archipelagos

    10. Thriving Wetlands

    11. Sustainable Forests

    12. A Varied Agricultural

    Landscape

    13. A Magnificent Mountain

    Landscape

    15. A Good Built Environment

    16. A Rich Diversity of Plant and

    Animal Life

  • 2015-05-19Naturvårdsverket | Swedish Environmental Protection Agency 8

    The waste hierarchy- basic principle for

    waste management

    Prevention

    Reuse

    Preparation for reuse

    Recycling

    Energy recover

    Disposal

  • 0

    0,5

    1

    1,5

    2

    2,5

    3

    3,5

    4

    4,5

    5

    Material recycling

    Incineration

    Landfill

    Biological treament

    Producer

    responsibility

    Landfill tax Landfill ban

    (organic)

    Landfill ban

    (combustible)

    M S W

    c o ll e c te

    d [

    M to

    n /y

    r] Treatment household waste

    Municipal planning

  • 2015-05-19Naturvårdsverket | Swedish Environmental Protection Agency 102015-05-19Naturvårdsverket | Swedish Environmental Protection Agency 10

    Legislation and Policy tools

    • Municipal waste planning (1991)

    • Producer responsibilities (1994)

    • Landfill tax (2000; 27 E/t => 40 E/t)

    • Tax on incinerated household waste (2006-2010)

    • Landfill ban on combustible (2002) and organic waste

    (2005)

    • Governmental investment support in recycling (1998-2008)

    • Higher standards on incineration (2008) and landfilling

    (2005)

  • 2015-05-19Naturvårdsverket | Swedish Environmental Protection Agency 11

    Producer responsibility - areas

    • Electrical/electronic products

    • Cars

    • Packaging

    • Newspaper

    • Tyres

    • Office paper (voluntary agreement)

    • Building- and demolition waste (voluntary agreement)

    • Farming plastics (voluntary agreement)

  • From waste Management to Resource Efficiency Sweden´s new national waste management plan 2012-2017

    • Challenge and vision

    • Waste management today

    • Towards greater resource efficiency

    • Areas of priority

    2015-05-19Naturvårdsverket | Swedish Environmental Protection Agency 12

  • Towards greater resource efficiency

    • Find new instruments for fulfilling waste hierachy

    • Manufacturing of sustainable products

    • Increase recycling of good quality

    • Use of material stored in society (urban mining, landfill mining)

    2015-05-19Naturvårdsverket | Swedish Environmental Protection Agency 13

  • 2015-05-19Naturvårdsverket | Swedish Environmental Protection Agency 14

    National waste management plan 2012-2017

    - areas of priority:

    • Reuse and recycle of construction and demolition waste

    • Reuse and recycle of household waste (including less littering) - textiles - electric and electronical waste - littering

    • Improve the resource efficiency in the food chain - less food waste - recycle of nutrients from food waste

    • Reduce the risk of the spread of hazardous substances from waste treatment - old landfills - fire in waste storage - motor vehicle disposal

    • Stop the illegal export of waste

    http://www.ban.org/photogallery/index.html#Guiyu http://www.ban.org/photogallery/index.html#Guiyu

  • Measures examples

    • Municipalities: Offer reuse at recycling centres

    • Textile industry: Voluntary producer responsibility

    • Swedish National Food Administration: Advice

    consumers how to reduce their food waste

    • Incineration facilities: Continuously sample emissions of dioxins

    • Swedish EPA: National action plan for supervision of cross-border

    waste transportation

    2015-05-19Naturvårdsverket | Swedish Environmental Protection Agency 15

  • 2015-05-19Naturvårdsverket | Swedish Environmental Protection Agency 16

    Ex targets

    • 2018 at least 50 % biological recycling of food waste

    • 2020 at least 70 % reuse and recycle of construction and

    demolition waste

    http://www.ksrr.se/ksrr_bild/aktuellt/matavfall.jpg http://www.ksrr.se/ksrr_bild/aktuellt/matavfall.jpg

  • 2015-05-19Naturvårdsverket | Swedish Environmental Protection Agency 17

    Household waste

  • 2015-05-19Naturvårdsverket | Swedish Environmental Protection Agency 182015-05-19Naturvårdsverket | Swedish Environmental Protection Agency 18

    Household waste

    (461 kg/capita)

    Incineration (50%)

    Recycling

    (33%)

    Biological

    treatment

    (16%)

    Landfill (0,7%)

    Treatment of household waste in Sweden

    2013

    Hazardous

    waste (1,4%)

  • 2015-05-19Naturvårdsverket | Swedish Environmental Protection Agency 19

    Examples of recycling stations in Sweden

    (6 000 in total)

  • 2015-05-19Naturvårdsverket | Swedish Environmental Protection Agency 202015-05-19Naturvårdsverket | Swedish Environmental Protection Agency 20

    Example kerbside collection in 8 fractions:

    paper, newsprints, white and coloured glass, metal,

    plastic, biowaste, restfraction to landfill

  • 2015-05-19Naturvårdsverket | Swedish Environmental Protection Agency 21

    Recycling targets for packages and newsprint (results 2012)

    • Glas 70 % (88%)

    • Metal 65 % (67%)

    • Paper/cardboard 70 % (77%)

    • Plastic 30 % (29%)

    • Newsprint/paper 80%

  • 2015-05-19Naturvårdsverket | Swedish Environmental Protection Agency 222015-05-19Naturvårdsverket | Swedish Environmental Protection Agency 22

    Municipal recycling centres

    − 600 (One central per 10 000 - 25 000 inhabitants)

    − “Collection centrals” in municipality for:

     bulky waste: often sepa

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