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Sustainable Theory -Unsustainable
Billions for Sustainability? - Third Briefing
Sustainable Theory -Unsustainable
Billions for Sustainability? - Third Briefing
CEE Bankwatch Net work, 2002
ISBN 963 00 9994 2
Copy right CEE Bankwatch Net work and Friends of the Earth Eu rope,2002
All rights re served. No part of this pub li ca tion may be re pro duced, storedin a re trieval sys tem, or trans mit ted in any form or by any means, elec -tronic, me chan i cal, pho to copy ing, re cord ing or oth er wise, with out theprior per mis sion of the pub lisher.
CEE Bankwatch Net work
PO Box 1231450 Bu da pest
Friends of the Earth Eu rope
29 rue Blanche, B-1060 Brussels
Cover de sign: Ekologika Bt.
Lay out: Annamria Bitt
Printed by: Indigit Press, Bu da pest, Hun gary
Ta ble of Contents
List of Ab bre vi a tions 7In tro duc tion 9Gen eral Re marks 11Coun try Re ports:
Bul garia 21Czech Re pub lic 33Es to nia 47Hun gary 55Lat via 67Lith u a nia 79Po land 93Slo vak Re pub lic 109
Endnotes 127List of ISPA Pro jects 131Addresses of the Pro jects Part ners 151
List of Ab bre vi a tions
CEE Cen tral and East ern Eu rope
DG Di rec tor Gen eral
EC Eu ro pean Com mis sion
EIA En vi ron mental Im pact As sess ment
EBRD Eu ro pean Bank for Re con struc tion and De vel op ment
EIB Eu ro pean In vest ment Bank
EU Eu ro pean Union
GDP Gross Do mes tic Prod uct
IFIs In ter na tional Fi nan cial In sti tu tions
In stru ment for Struc tural Pol icies for Pre-Accession AidJoint Re gional Op er a tional Plan
NGO Non Gov ern men tal Or ga ni za tion
NDP Na tional De vel op ment Plan
NPC ESC Na tional Pro gram Com mit tee for Eco nomic and So cialCo he sion
NUTS No men cla ture of Ter ri to rial Units for Sta tis tics
OLAF Eu ro pean Anti Fraud Of fice
PHARE Po land Hun gary As sis tance in the Re struc turing of theirEcon omies
REC Re gional En vi ron men tal Cen tre for Cen tral and East ernEu rope
ROP Re gional Op er a tional Pro grammes
SAPARD Spe cial Ac tion for Pre-Accession mea sures for Ag ri cul tureand Ru ral De vel op ment
SEA Stra te gic En vi ron men tal As sess ment
List of Abbrreviations
SMEs Small and Me dium-sized En ter prises
SOP Sec toral Op er a tional Pro grammes
TEN Trans-European Net work
TINA Trans port In fra struc ture Needs As sess ment
List of Abbreviations
In tro duc tion
The Co pen ha gen Eu ro pean Coun cil in June 1993 agreed that: theas so ci ated coun tries of Cen tral and East ern Eu rope that so de sire, shall be come mem -bers of the Eu ro pean Un ion. Since then, steps have been taken to en ablethat pro cess. One of the steps was the es tab lish ment of new fi nan cialmech a nisms for pre-accession aid. In the pe riod 2000-2006, the Eu ro -pean Un ion is ex pected to pro vide fi nan cial sup port for ac ces sion coun -tries in an nual amounts of ap prox i mately EUR three bil lion via suchmech a nisms as ISPA, SAPARD and PHARE 2000. At the same time,co-financing from In ter na tional Fi nan cial In sti tu tions (IFIs), mainly the Eu ro pean In vest ment Bank (EIB), is ex pected.
With this amount of fi nan cial aid, pro found changes in the econ o -mies of Cen tral and East ern Eu ro pean (CEE) coun tries are ex pected,which will at the same time have a sig nif i cant im pact on the en vi ron -ment, as the re sources will be used for in fra struc ture pro jects, en ergy,na ture con ser va tion, en vi ron ment and ag ri cul ture. There fore, theabove-mentioned fi nan cial in stru ments should be in line with the prin -ci ples of sus tain able de vel op ment and cross-sectoral in te gra tion of en -vi ron men tal prin ci ples in all pol icy ar eas. The need to in te grateen vi ron men tal con cerns into other EU pol i cies has been ac knowl edgedsince the Sin gle Eu ro pean Act, later of fi cially stated in the Am ster damTreaty. The proper use of pre-accession funds, ac cord ing to the prin ci -ple of sus tain able de vel op ment, is cru cial for the fu ture state of the en vi -ron ment in CEE coun tries.
The ac ces sion pro cess will also have an ir re vers ible im pact on theso ci et ies of CEE coun tries. Civil trans for ma tion is still an on go ing pro -cess in the CEE re gion. With the ac ces sion and planned fi nan cialpre-accession aid mech a nisms, new chal lenges for build ing up civil so ci -ety arise. It is nec es sary that cit i zens of the ac ces sion coun tries un der -stand and sup port changes and in vest ments re lated to ac ces sion. Toachieve that, a better un der stand ing of pre-accession aid mech a nisms, as well as trans par ency and pub lic par tic i pa tion in the in vest ments fi -nanced by EU re lated sources, is nec es sary.
Bil lions for Sustainability? Fi nan cial As pects of Ac ces sionPro ject
This pro ject aims at in creas ing the abil ity of en vi ron men tal NGOsin the re gion to deal with pre-accession aid, mon i tor pro jects fi nancedby these sources, as well as aim ing at the pro mo tion of a more par tic i pa -tory ap proach from both cit i zens and au thor i ties sides, re sult ing in fullcivil so ci ety in volve ment in the de ci sion-making pro cess.
The pro ject is be ing im ple mented by Friends of the Earth Eu ropeand the CEE Bankwatch Net work groups from Po land, Hun gary,Czech Re pub lic, Es to nia, Lith u a nia, Lat via, Bul garia and Slovakia.These groups have much ex pe ri ence with the is sues of en vi ron ment and fi nan cial in sti tu tions. Be ing from the re gion, they have an ob vi ous in ter -est in the is sues.
This re port is the third brief ing pa per con ducted un der the pro ject.It aims to pro vide in for ma tion on the stages of the pre-accession aidmech a nisms in the ac ces sion coun tries. Our main fo cus re mains pub licpar tic i pa tion and ac cess to in for ma tion, as well as the en vi ron men talcon se quences of im ple men ta tion of the pre-accession aid.
The brief ing was pre pared and put to gether by pro ject part ners. The Pro ject is fi nan cially sup ported by the Min is try of For eign Af -
fairs of the Neth er lands and Novib.
General Remarks: What is the UltimateGoal of the Pre-Accession Funds?
This re port is the third up date pre pared in the course of Bil lions forSustainability? fi nan cial as pects of ac ces sion pro ject and builds uponthe two pre vi ous up dates (re leased in Oc to ber 2000 and June 2001).There fore, we en cour age the reader to have a look at the pre vi ous pub li -ca tions in or der to have a better over view of the whole pro cess.
In the last eight months, we have seen in ter est ing de vel op ments interms of the pre-accession funds on both the na tional and Eu ro peanUn ion (EU) level. Es pe cially strik ing was the scan dal in Slovakia withmis use of the EU funds, re veal ing a lot of sys temic de fi cien cies on bothsides. It is a pity, how ever, that we needed a scan dal like that to movethings for ward while at the same time, con stant non-Governmental Or -ga ni za tions (NGO) calls for in creased trans par ency andwell-established in ter nal mech a nisms for su per vi sion and mon i tor ingwere most of the time left un an swered.
There fore, our pre vi ous rec om men da tions re main valid and are re it -er ated here as well as ex panded with an in creas ing amount of ex pe ri ence and ev i dence. The fol low ing gen eral as pects, which we have comeacross in many can di date coun tries, should be un der lined:
Pub lic Par tic i pa tion and Ac cess to In for ma tionThe sit u a tion in the area of pub lic par tic i pa tion and ac cess to in for -
ma tion var ies de pend ing on the coun try and some times also on the re -spon si ble Agency/Min is try. Gen erally, we have ob served a lack ofpub lic par tic i pa tion. It hap pens that the re spon si ble agen cies treat pub -lic in volve ment as an ob sta cle to the smooth and quick prep a ra tion ofplans and pro jects. One can have doubts about the gen u ine in ten tion ofcon sult ing NGOs on Na tional De vel op ment Plans (NDP) or strat e giesif the dead lines given for the NGOs re ac tions are three weeks (in clud -ing Christ mas and New Year hol i days) as in Es to nia, or three days from Fri day to Mon day, as in Lat via. Pub lic par tic i pa tion on a pro jects
level also shows a ma jor def i cit. The Bul gar ian Na tional Cen tre for Haz -ard ous Waste Pro ject is a good ex am ple where pub lic par tic i pa tion re -mains a for mal ex er cise with out sub stance (tick the box ap proach)when the con cerns of the most likely im pacted cit i zens are not se ri ouslytaken into con sid er ation.
NGO par tic i pa tion on In stru ment for Struc tural Pol icies forPre-Accession Aid (ISPA) and Spe cial Ac tion for Pre-Accession mea -sures for Ag ri cul ture and Ru ral De vel op ment (SAPARD) Mon i toringCom mit tees var ies from coun try to coun try. In some coun tries, NGOsare rep re sented on both ISPA trans port and ISPA en vi ron ment com -mit tees, in some coun tries only on en vi ron men tal ones or on none ofthem. A re mark able case was the one in Es to nia, where the Min is tries of En vi ron ment and Fi nance ac tu ally agreed on the NGO par tic i pant butthe Eu ro pean Com mis sion (EC) del e ga tion to Es to nia did not find itap pro pri ate to have NGOs as mem bers of