Sustainable Land Management: Learning from the Past for the Future

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  • Sustainable Land Management

  • .

  • Selim Kapur Hari Eswaran W. E. H. BlumEditors

    Sustainable LandManagement

    Learning from the Past for the Future

  • EditorsDr. Selim KapurDepartment of Soil Science &ArchaeometryUniversity of Cukurova01330 Adana, Turkeykapurs@cu.edu.tr

    Dr. Hari EswaranUnited States Department of AgricultureNatural Resources Conservation ServicePO Box 2890Washington, DC, USAhari.eswaran@wdc.usda.gov

    Dr. Winfried E. H. BlumInstitute of Soil ResearchDepartment of Forest and Soil SciencesUniversity of Natural Resourcesand Applied Life Sciences (BOKU)Vienna, Austriaherma.exner@boku.ac.at; winfried.blum@boku.ac.at

    ISBN 978-3-642-14781-4 e-ISBN 978-3-642-14782-1DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-14782-1Springer Heidelberg Dordrecht London New York

    Library of Congress Control Number: 2010938610

    # Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved, whether the whole or part of the material isconcerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting,reproduction on microfilm or in any other way, and storage in data banks. Duplication of this publicationor parts thereof is permitted only under the provisions of the German Copyright Law of September 9,1965, in its current version, and permission for use must always be obtained from Springer. Violationsare liable to prosecution under the German Copyright Law.The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, etc. in this publication does not imply,even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective lawsand regulations and therefore free for general use.

    Cover design: deblik, Berlin

    Printed on acid-free paper

    Springer is part of Springer Science+Business Media (www.springer.com)

  • Dedicated to the Dear Memoryof Prof. Dr. Cemil Cangir (19462010)

    Cemil Cangir the warrior of soil protection in Thrace, Turkey, passed away

    suddenly in Tekirdag on May 10th 2010, at the age of 64, now lying in a village

    cemetary, whom he sought to be buried as a site overlooking the view of the soils

    which he dedicated his life in search of his unique protection strategies. The ever-

    threatened fertile soils of Thrace by the inappropriate growth of the industry and

    urbanisation are now seeking for the decendants of the Cangir School to take over

    the task and proceed the fight for their protection. The incomparable community

    and NGO solidarity Cemil had achieved as his life-long dream was based on a

    simple key, namely the Integrated Sustainable Basin Management of the land.

    Selim Kapur and Koray Haktanr

  • .

  • Preface

    Inappropriate use of land and water is still on-going, despite all efforts undertaken

    by numerous institutions dealing with land and soil protection, as for example the

    European Soil Protection Strategy, aiming at a common legal instrument for soil

    protection in Europe.

    One of the failures lies in conceptual problems, because the protection of land

    and water have to be done at river basin scale.

    The Anthroscape-approach presented in this book is thought as a contribution

    to improve the sustainable management of land and water at river basin scale, based

    on an analysis of the past developments, in order to shape the contemporary and

    future use of land in a sustainable way.

    Moreover, this book contains information about traditional techniques and

    knowledge, shown at specific examples of the Anthroscapes, which were devel-

    oped by an integrated management, with a holistic perspective, to meet the needs of

    humans in a landscape, like water, food, biodiversity and culture.

    Therefore, the title of this book is Sustainable Land Management: Learningfrom the Past for the Future.

    Each chapter of the book has been discussed on several occasions in the field as

    well as during international conferences and meetings related to the topic of

    Anthroscape development. Moreover, the chapters were arranged in such a way

    that they are complimentary, regarding specific aspects of the Anthroscape

    concept.

    Chapter 1 introduces into the book, describing the key components of sustain-

    able land and water management at river basin scale, which was specifically

    developed by H. Eswaran who has devoted the many efforts to develop a conceptual

    framework on the basis of his long-standing and world wide experience on soils and

    landscapes. Chapter 2 is mainly designated to the recent development of the EU

    Soil Thematic Strategy. Chapter 3 reflects the major benefit of studies of land/soil at

    river basin scale, disregarding frontiers and regions. Chapter 4 describes the major

    soils of Mediterranean Anthroscapes, with special reference on renovated tradition-

    al land use techniques in the Apulia region of southern Italy. Chapter 5 discusses the

    .vii

  • presently observed side-effects of touristic activities in the Italian Alps, including

    major threats to European water sources. Chapter 6 deals with North European

    Anthroscapes, and negative impacts, by measures within a particular region in

    South East Norway. Chapter 7 describes an expensive and time consuming practice,

    partially discussed very controversially, in the use of contemporary technology, for

    using soils with calcrete (petrocalcic) horizons in Sardinia, Italy, for increasing the

    productivity of vineyards. Chapter 8 deals with the use of soils on mine waste

    deposits in southeast Spain and Chap. 9 describes important Asian Anthroscapes,

    created by anthropogenic activities during thousands of years, for the cultivation of

    rice.

    In Chap. 10, Anthroscapes from Morocco were described, under the aspect

    of the use of exotic plants to rehabilitate degraded rangeland and to mitigate

    desertification.

    Chapter 11 deals with anthropogenically re-shaped land and its historical and

    cultural background in the Adana region in Turkey.

    Chapter 12 explains the impact of the ancient practice of shifting agriculture to

    the forest ecosystem and the low-input agricultural system to the Anthroscapes in

    Sarawak, Malaysia and Chap. 13 refers to impacts by improper land use in the

    Mediterranean area, and especially attempts to re-use abandoned mining landscapes

    in Murcia, southern Spain. Chapter 14 deals with possible future impacts of climate

    change on Mediterranean coastal areas, including the Anthroscape in Adana,

    Turkey.

    In Chap. 15 field trials for the evaluation of indigenous techniques for soil and

    water conservation in Niger (Africa) were discussed, searching less costly and

    labor-intensive conservation techniques.

    Similarly, Chap. 16 deals with local knowledge in protecting landscapes in

    Japan, with special attention to the cultural background and wisdom of the eco-life.

    Chapter 17 is very specific and deals with an experimental study, aiming to

    recover ancient natural landscapes in the Adana region, reconstructing lost parts of

    the landscape and regenerating biodiversity.

    Economic and social problems in degraded landscapes, including the evaluation

    of the costs of land degradation are discussed in Chap. 18.

    We specially thank the everlasting encouragement and patience of Drs. Hans

    Guenther Brauch and Christian Witschel, from Springer Editors. Our thanks are

    also due to Dr. Ismail Celik, Dr. E. Akca, Dr. Kemal Gulut, Dr. M. Dingil and Mr.

    K. Y. Koca for their support in editing this book.

    We finally express our sincere gratitude to all the authors of this book.

    Adana, Turkey Selim Kapur

    Hari Eswaran

    Winfried E. H. Blum

    viii Preface

  • Contents

    The Anthroscape Approach in Sustainable Land Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1H. Eswaran, S. Berberoglu, C. Cangir, D. Boyraz, C. Zucca,

    E. Ozevren, E. Yazc, P. Zdruli, M. Dingil, C. Donmez, E. Akca,

    I. Celik, T. Watanabe, Y.K. Koca, L. Montanarella, M. Cherlet, and S. Kapur

    Anthroscapes in the Light of the EU Soil Thematic Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51Luca Montanarella

    Soil Erosion-Desertification and the MiddleEastern Anthroscapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57Uriel N. Safriel, Pedro Berliner, Ariel Novoplansky,

    Jonathan B. Laronne, Arnon Karnieli, Itzhak Moshe,

    A. Kharabsheh, A. Ghaleb Mohammad, and G. Kusek

    Soils of the Mediterranean Region, Their Characteristics,Management and Sustainable Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125Pandi Zdruli, Selim Kapur, and Ismail Celik

    Mountain Anthroscapes, the Case of the Italian Alps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143Franco Previtali

    Development and Challenges of the Anthroscapes in the ClaySoil District of Eastern Norway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163Arnold Arnoldussen

    Anthroscapes and Anthropogenic Soils in North-Western Sardinia:The Soils with Calcrete Horizon in the Alghero Area (Italy) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179S. Madrau and C. Zucca

    Stimulated Soil Formation in a Degraded Anthroscape:A Case Study in Southeast Spain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193J.M. Arocena, J.M. van Mourik, and A. Faz Cano

    ix

  • Asian Anthroscapes: China and Taiwan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205Zeng-Yei Hseu, Chen-Chi Tsai, Heng Tsai, Zueng-Sang Chen,

    and Hari Eswaran

    An Anthroscape from Morocco: Degraded Rangeland Systemsand Introduction of Exotic Plant Material and Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243C. Zucca, F. Previtali, S. Madrau, E. Akca, and S. Kapur

    The Historical Anthroscape of Adana and the Fertile Lands . . . . . . . . . . . . 259Nurettin Celmeoglu

    Impact of Shifting Agriculture on the Sustainabilityof Anthroscapes in Sarawak, Malaysia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285E. Padmanabhan and H. Eswaran

    Roman Mining Landscapes in the Murcia Region,SE Spain: Risk Assessment of Mine Ponds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293A. Faz Cano, A. Zanuzzi, P. Martinez-Pagan, J. Acosta,

    D. Carmona, S. Martinez-Martinez, and M. Munoz

    Anthroscape of the Mediterranean Coastal Area in the Contextof Hydrogeology: Projected Impacts of Climate Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311Katsuyuki Fujinawa

    Re-evaluating Indigenous Technologies for Sustainable Soiland Water Management in the Sahel: A Case Study from Niger . . . . . . . . 333Takanori Nagano, Haruhiko Horino, and Takashi Kume

    Local Wisdom of Land and Water Management:The Fundamental Anthroscape of Japan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351Tsugihiro Watanabe

    Reconstructing the Past by Regenerating Biodiversity:A Treatise on Weed Contribution to Soil Qualityat a Post-cultivation Succession . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363I. Celik, K.T. Yilmaz, H. Eswaran, A. Mermut, M. Dingil, Z. Kaya,

    A. Demirbas, I. Aksit, I. Ortas, M. Gok, C. Akpnar, T. Nagano, N. Ae,

    Y.K. Koca, and S. Kapur

    Economic and Social Impact of the Degraded Antroscapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379Nejat Erk

    Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411

    x Contents

  • Contributors

    J. Acosta Sustainable Use, Management and Reclamation of Soil and WaterResearch Group, Agrarian Science and Technology Department, Technical Univer-

    sity of Cartagena, Paseo Alfonso XIII, 52, 30203 Cartagena, Murcia, Spain

    N. Ae Kobe University, Kobe, Japan, aenoriha@kobe-u.ac.jp

    E. Akca Department of Technical Programs, University of Adiyaman,Adyaman, Turkey

    C. Akpinar Department of Soil Science, University of Cukurova, Adana, Turkey,cakpinar@cu.edu.tr

    I. Aksit University of Erciyes, Kayseri, Turkey, iaksit@erciyes.edu.tr

    Arnold Arnoldussen Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute, PB 115, 1431As, Norway, Arnold.Arnoldussen@skogoglandskap.no

    J.M. Arocena Canada Research Chair in Soil and Environmental Sciences,University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, BC, Canada V2N4Z9,

    arocenaj@unbc.ca

    S. Berberoglu Department of Landscape Architecture, University of Cukurova,Adana, Turkey

    Pedro Berliner Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University,Negev, Israel

    D. Boyraz Department of Soil Science, Namk Kemal University, Tekirdag,Turkey

    xi

  • C. Cangir Department of Soil Science, Namk Kemal University, Tekirdag,Turkey

    D. Carmona Sustainable Use, Management and Reclamation of Soil and WaterResearch Group, Agrarian Science and Technology Department, Technical Univer-

    sity of Cartagena, Paseo Alfonso XIII, 52, 30203 Cartagena, Murcia, Spain

    Ismail Celik Department of Soil Science, University of Cukurova, 01330 Adana,Turkey, icelik@cu.edu.tr

    Nurettin Celmeoglu Greater Municipality of Adana, Adviser to the Mayor,Ataturk Bulv. 67, Kat 8, Adana, Turkey, celmeoglun@gmail.com

    Zueng-Sang Chen Department of Agricultural Chemistry, National TaiwanUniversity, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC, soilchen@ntu.edu.tw

    M. Cherlet Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (JRC), Institutefor Environment and Sustainability (IES), Land Management and Natural Hazards

    Unit, DESERT Action, Via E. Fermi 2749, TP28, I-21020 Ispra (VA), Italy,

    michael.cherlet@jrc.ec.europa.eu

    A. Demirbas Department of Soil Science, University of Cukurova, Adana,Turkey, ademirbas@cu.edu.tr

    M. Dingil Department of Soil Science, University of Cukurova, 01330 Adana,Turkey, mdingil@cu.edu.tr

    C. Donmez Department of Landscape Architecture, University of Cukurova,Adana, Turkey

    Nejat Erk Department of Economics, University of Cukurova, 01330 Balcal,Adana, Turkey, erk@cu.edu.tr

    H. Eswaran United States Department of Agriculture, Natural ResourcesConservation Service, PO Box 2890, Washington, DC, USA, hari.Eswaran@wdc.

    usda.gov

    A. Faz Cano Departamento de Ciencia y Technologa Agraria, UniversidadPolitecnica de Cartagena, Paseo Alfonso XIII, 52, 30203 Cartagena, Murcia,

    Spain; Sustainable Use, Management and Reclamation of Soil and Water Research

    Group, Agrarian Science and Technology Department, Technical University

    of Cartagena, Paseo Alfonso XIII, 52, 30203 Cartagena, Murcia, Spain, angel.

    fazcano@upct.es

    xii Contributors

  • Katsuyuki Fujinawa Shinshu University, Wakasato 4-17-1, Nagano 380-8553,Japan, fujinawa@shinshu-u.ac.jp

    A. Ghaleb Mohammad Hebron University, Hebron, Palestinian NationalAuthority

    Haruhiko Horino Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences,Osakafu University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Sakai-shi, Osaka 599-8231, Japan

    Zeng-Yei Hseu Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, NationalPingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan, ROC

    Selim Kapur Department of Soil Science, University of Cukurova, 01330 Adana,Turkey; Department of Archaeometry, University of Cukurova, 01330 Adana,

    Turkey, kapurs@cu.edu.tr

    Arnon Karnieli Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University,Negev, Israel

    Z. Kaya Department of Soil Science, University of Cukurova, Adana, Tur...

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