survival skills

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  • 1. Survival skills are techniques a person may use in adangerous situation (e.g. natural disasters) to savethemselves or others (see also bushcraft). Generallyspeaking, these techniques are meant to provide the basicnecessities for human life:water , food, shelter, habitat, and the need to thinkstraight, to signal for help, to navigate safely, to avoidunpleasant interactions with animals and plants and forfirst aid. Survival skills are often basic ideas and abilitiesthat ancient humans had to use for thousands of years, sothese skills are partially a reenactment of history.

2. Many of these skills are the ways to enjoyextended periods of time in remote places, or away to thrive in nature. Evenhiking, backpacking, horsebackriding, fishing, hunting, or some otheractivity, you need to make sure you have thebasic wilderness survival skills to handle anemergency situation. Some people usethese skills to better appreciate nature andfor recreation, not just survival. 3. Before building a structure you must first consider yoursituation. Your shelter should be able to protect you fromexcessive heat/cold, wind, rain, sun, snow, and any weatherthat is around you. Shelter is mainly for protection andcomfort. It can protect against the weather, animals, or insects.It should be relatively comfortable because you must be ableto sleep, a basic human need. A shelter can range from a"natural shelter"; such as a cave or a fallen-down (cracked butnot split) thickly-foliaged tree, to an intermediate formof man-made shelter such as a debris shelter, a ditch dug nextto a tree log and covered with foliage, or a snow cave, tocompletely man-made structures such as a tarp, tent, or house. 4. A human being can survive an average of three to five days without the intake ofwater, assuming sea-level altitude, room temperature and favorable relativehumidity. In colder or warmer temperatures, the need for water is greater. Theneed for water also increases with exercise. A typical person will lose minimallytwo to maximally four liters of water per day under ordinary conditions, and morein hot, dry, or cold weather. Four to six liters of water or other liquids aregenerally required each day in the wilderness to avoid dehydration and to keep thebody functioning properly. The U.S. Army survival manual recommends that youdrink water whenever thirsty. Other groups recommend rationing water through"water discipline". A lack of water causes dehydration, which may resultin lethargy, headaches, dizziness, confusion, and eventually death. Even milddehydration reduces endurance and impairs concentration, which is dangerous ina survival situation where clear thinking is essential. Dark yellow or brown urine isa diagnostic indicator of dehydration. To avoid dehydration, a high priority istypically assigned to locating a supply of drinking water and making provision torender that water as safe as possible. 5. Many sources in survival literature, as well as forums and onlinereferences, list ways in which water may be gathered and renderedsafer for consumption in a survival situation, such asboiling, filtering, chemicals, solar radiation / heating(SODIS), and distillation (regular or via solar distillation). Such sourcesalso often list the dangers, such as pollutants, microorganisms, orpathogens which affect the safety of back country water.Recent thinking is that boiling or commercial filters are significantlysafer than use of chemicals, with the exception of chlorine dioxide. Theissues presented by the need for water dictate that unnecessary waterloss by perspiration be avoided in survival situations. To thus avoidthese problems, culinary root tubers, fruit, edible mushrooms, ediblenuts, edible beans, edible cereals or edible leaves, edible moss, ediblecacti and algae can be searched and if needed, prepared (mostly byboiling). With the exception of leaves, these foods are relatively high incalories, providing some energy to the body. Plants are some of theeasiest food sources to find in the jungle, forest or desert becausetheyre stationary and can thus be had without exerting much effort . 6. Also, many commentators discuss the knowledge, skills, and equipment(such as bows, snares and nets) necessary to gather animal food in thewild through animal trapping, hunting, fishing. Some survival bookspromote the "Universal Edibility Test". Allegedly, one can distinguishedible foods from toxic ones by a series of progressive exposures to skinand mouth prior to ingestion, with waiting periods and checks forsymptoms. However, many other experts including Ray Mears andJohn Kallas reject this method, stating that even a small amount ofsome "potential foods" can cause physical discomfort, illness, or death.An additional step called the scratch test is sometimes included toevaluate the edibility of a potential food. Focusing on survival untilrescued by presumed searchers, The Boy Scouts of America especiallydiscourages foraging for wild foods on the grounds that the knowledgeand skills needed are unlikely to be possessed by those findingthemselves in a wilderness survival situation, making the risks(including use of energy) outweigh the benefits. Given that most peoplehave enough body fat to carry them through several days, using theenergy to procure water, fire and shelter is a better use of available timeand energy. 7. Making fire is recognized in the sources as to significantlyincrease the ability to survive physically and mentally.Lighting a fire without a lighter or matches, such as by usingnatural flint and steel with tinder, is a frequent subject ofboth books on survival and in survival courses. There is anemphasis placed on practicing fire-making skills beforeventuring into the wilderness. Producing fire under adverseconditions has been made much easier by the introduction oftools such as the solar spark lighter and the fire piston. 8. Fire is presented as a tool meeting many survivalneeds. The heat provided by a fire warms thebody, dries wet clothes, disinfects water, andcooks food. Not to be overlooked is thepsychological boost and the sense of safety andprotection it gives. In the wild, fire can provide asensation of home, a focal point, in addition tobeing an essential energy source. Fire may deterwild animals from interfering with the survivor,however wild animals may be attracted to thelight and heat of a fire. The light and smokeemitted by a fire can also be used to work at nightand can signal rescue units. 9. First aid (wilderness first aid in particular) can help aperson survive and function with injuries and illnesses thatwould otherwise kill or incapacitate him/her. Common anddangerous injuries include:Wounds, which may become infectedBites or stings from venomous animals, such as snakes,scorpions, spiders, bees, stingrays, jellyfish, catfish,stargazers, etc.Bites leading to disease/septicemia, such as mosquitoes,fleas, ticks, animals infected with rabies, sand flies,komodo dragons, crocodilians, etc.InfectioN through food, animal contact, or drinking non-potable water 10. Bone fracturesSprains, particularly of the ankleBurnsPoisoning from consumption of, or contactwith, poisonous plants or poisonous fungiHypothermia (too cold) and hyperthermia (toohot)Heart attackHemorrhageThe survivor may need to apply the contents of afirst aid kit or, if possessing the requiredknowledge, naturally occurring medicinal plants,immobilize injured limbs, or even transportincapacitated comrades. 11. Natural disasters such as flash floods, fires,and storms to name a few, are frequentlymentioned in survival training. Man madedisasters like terror attacks these days aretaking place also in trainings. Thesetrainings are really important because oftheir role in leading people to safety but alsoinvolve risks. With these tips you can beassured to lessen risks or eventually makeyour survival skills during disasters moreefficient. 12. Mitigation is all you need to be prepared. Theterm means knowing and avoiding risks especiallywhen disaster strikes. It also includes assessmentsof possible risks. Next is preparedness that helpsyou to focus on the aim of safety by using possibleequipments to use during disasters. Byremembering these factors will help you to avoidpanic and start initiatives. 13. Tropical areas are prone to natural disasters forexample: heavy storms, floods, earthquakes, and evenlandslides. When youre in these type of occurrence,make sure that youre in a secure place with strongfoundations for you to be secure or you can even findone is possible but always take caution. Make yourmove as quickly as possible in reacting but dont panic.Take ease with the process and figure possible ways ofcommunication for respondents to assure safety. 14. Wildfires and blizzards are in some areas are occurring. Be ina safe shelter or make your way as safe as you can by instinctor perhaps by keen observation of the occurrence. Get as muchsource of communication attention to respondents either waypossible. In wildfires, finding place with water will be a bighelp for relief when waiting for respondents to arrive.Making your way with to safety when disaster strikes can behard but it will secure your safety and survival skills duringdisasters can help you do it. Focusing on your safety and peaceof mind to secure out of the disaster a better tomorrow surewaiting for those observe. 15. The way to survive in the urban environment is to createemergency disaster plans, to have enough food in storage, andto be prepared with the supplies that you might need in case ofany weather-related, health-related, or government-issuedsituations that may occur. Remember though, that just like inthe wilderness, surviving in an urban setting depends more onyour skills and knowledge than on the equipment and fancytools you own. 16. The most basic thing to develop when trying tosurvive is your will to survive. Your chance ofsurviving a disaster or an emergency