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  • 7/27/2019 Survey on Internet-based Mobile Ad Hoc Networking

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    Survey on Internet-based Mobile Ad Hoc

    Networking

    Omung Goyal Swati Jaiswal Prateek Poste

    Dept. of CSE Dept. of CSE Dept. of ECE

    UITRGPV,Bhopal UITRGPV,Bhopal UITRGPV,Bhopal

    Abstract: InternetbasedMobileAdHocNetworking(MANET)isanemergingtechnologythatsupports

    selforganizingmobile networking infrastructures. This is expected to be of great use in commercial

    applicationsfor

    the

    next

    generation

    internet

    users.

    A

    number

    of

    technical

    challenges

    are

    faced

    today

    duetotheheterogeneous,dynamicnatureofthishybridMANET.AnewhybridroutingschemeAODV

    ALMAisproposed,whichactsimultaneouslycombiningmobileagentstofindpathtothegatewayand

    ondemanddistance vector approach to findpath in localMANET isoneof the unique solution.An

    adaptive gateway discovery mechanism based on mobile agents making use of pheromone value,

    pheromonedecaytimeandbalanceindexisusedtoestimatethepathandnexthoptothegateway.The

    mobilenodesautomaticallyconfiguretheaddressusingmobileagents firstselectingthegatewayand

    thenusing thegatewayprefixaddress.Themobileagentsarealsoused to track changes in topology

    enablinghighnetworkconnectivitywithreduceddelayinpackettransmissiontoInternet.

    Keywords:HybridMANET,mobileagents,AODVALMA,adaptivegatewaydiscovery.

    IntroductionAmobileadhocnetwork(MANET)isanautonomousnetworkthatcanbeformedwithoutneedofany

    establishedinfrastructureorcentralizedadministration.Itnormallyconsistsofmobilenodes,equipped

    withawirelessinterface,thatcommunicatewitheachother.Becausethesekindsofnetworksarevery

    spontaneousandselforganizing,theyareexpectedtobeveryuseful.Itisalsohighlylikelythatauserof

    thenetworkwillhavetheneedtoconnecttothe Internet.The InternetEngineeringTaskForce (IETF)

    has proposed several routing protocols for MANETs, such as Ad hoc OnDemand Distance Vector

    (AODV) [1],Dynamic SourceRouting (DSR) [2],Optimized Link StateRoutingProtocol (OLSR) [3] and

    TopologyDisseminationBasedonReversePathForwarding(TBRPF)[4].However,theseprotocolswere

    designedfor

    communication

    within

    an

    autonomous

    MANET,

    so

    arouting

    protocol

    needs

    to

    be

    modified

    inordertoachieveroutingbetweenamobiledeviceinaMANETandahostdeviceinawirednetwork

    (e.g.the Internet).Toachievethisnetwork interconnection,gatewaysthatunderstandnotonlythe IP

    suite, but also theMANET protocol stack, are needed. Thus, a gateway acts as a bridge between a

    MANETandthe Internetandallcommunicationbetweenthetwonetworksmustpassthroughanyof

    thegateways.

    (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,

    Vol. 11, No. 6, June 2013

    123 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

  • 7/27/2019 Survey on Internet-based Mobile Ad Hoc Networking

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    Researcherspresentlymakeuseofthesocialbehaviorsofinsectsandofotheranimalsfordevelopinga

    varietyofdifferentorganizedbehaviorsatthesystemlevel.Inparticular,antshaveinspiredanumberof

    methodsandtechniquesamongwhichthemoststudiedandthemostsuccessfulisthegeneralpurpose

    optimizationtechniqueknowasAntColonyOptimization(ACO).ACOtakesinspirationfromthe

    Foragingbehaviourofsomeantspecies.Theseantsdepositpheromoneonthegroundinordertomark

    somefavourable

    path

    that

    should

    be

    followed

    by

    other

    members

    of

    the

    colony.

    Because

    of

    the

    robustnessandefficiencyofACOtheyhave recentlybecomea sourceof inspiration for thedesignof

    routingalgorithms. FollowingtheACOprinciples,AntlikeMobileagentsALMA)aresimplepacketsthat

    explorethenetworkandcollectdataforrouting[2,3].Theycommunicatewithoneanother indirectly

    byexchangingroutinginformationbywritingandreadingdatatofromroutingtables.This issimilarto

    antsexchangingfoodinformationwitheachother.Byusingmobileagentexploration,theideaistoput

    the intelligence across the network and make the routing distributed with high connectivity. The

    importantconstraintinusingthemobileagentsforroutingisthattheoverhead isproportionaltothe

    number of agents present in the network. This in return reduces the overhead compared with

    traditional routing protocols that use frequent updates and reactive updates. Figure 1 shows the

    architecturein

    which

    the

    mobile

    nodes

    form

    local

    MANET

    access

    with

    multi

    hop

    wireless

    links

    to

    provideservicewithinthem.TheInternetGateway(IGW)nodesformglobalaccesstoprovideinternet

    service to mobile nodes. The main technical challenges faced today in this scenario are Internet

    gateway discovery, address autoconfiguration and reaching the destination. TheACOmechanism is

    usedasanadaptivereactivegatewaydiscoveryapproach integratedwithaddressauto configuration.

    Thenewhybrid scheme,proposed in thispaper, combines localaccesswithglobalaccess,namedas

    AODVALMA.The remainderofthepaper isorganizedas follows.Thepapergivesanoverviewof the

    relatedworkinsectionII.ThenewprotocoldescriptionisgiveninsectionIII.Theperformanceanalysis

    issimulatedandcomparedinsectionIV.ThefutureenhancementisgivenasconclusioninsectionV.

    II.RelatedExistingProposalsThefirstproposalbyBroch etal.[2]isbasedonintegrationofMobileIPandMANET,employasource

    routingprotocol.ThesecondproposalMIPMANET[6]followedasimilarapproachbasedonAODV,but

    works only with Mobile IPv4 approach, because it requires Foreign Agents (FAs). The proposal by

    Ammari et al. [1] gives a mobile gateway approach based on DSDV protocol and analyzed the

    performance. InRatanchandani etal.[8]proposal,ahybridschemeforpropagatingtheadvertisements

    up toacertainnumberofhops isgiven.Themobilenodes locatedoutof thispropagationscopewill

    reactivelyfindthegatewayswhenneeded.TheperformanceofthisapproachdependsontheTimeTo

    Live (TTL) value, set for particular scenario and network conditions under consideration. In Lee [5]

    proposal, another more sophisticated hybrid approach the advertisements are sent out only when

    changes intopologyaredetected.However,theyrelyonasourcebasedroutingprotocol,which limits

    theapplicabilitytoparticulartypeofroutingprotocol. InRuiz etal.[9]proposal,anadaptivegateway

    discoverymechanismthatoutperformsexistinghybridapproachesisproposed.Thekeyschemeisthat

    TTL value for proactive gateway advertisements is adjusted dynamically to network conditions. The

    mobilenodesoutofthepropagationscopereactivelyfindthegateways.Theproposalsavailabletilldate

    focused only on gateway discovery and are not a complete solution for interworkingwith fixed IP

    networks.Thecompleteproposalsavailabletointegratebothautoconfigurationandgatewaydiscovery

    (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,

    Vol. 11, No. 6, June 2013

    124 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/

    ISSN 1947-5500

  • 7/27/2019 Survey on Internet-based Mobile Ad Hoc Networking

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    arenamelyWakikawa[12],Jelger[4] andSingh etal.[11]. InWakikawa [12],mobilenodesdiscover

    thegatewayeitherreactivelyorproactivelytoconfiguretheirIPaddressautomatically.Intheproactive

    approach,gatewayperiodically floods the gateway advertisementmessagesup to certainnumberof

    hopsintheMANET.Inthereactiveapproach,mobilenodesfloodthegatewaysolicitationmessagetoall

    gateways reachable. The gateway receiving the gateway solicitation will unicast back the gateway

    advertisementto

    the

    mobile

    nodes.

    The

    gateway

    advertisement

    message

    contains

    the

    global

    IPv6

    addressofthegateway,thenetworkprefixadvertisedbythegateway,theprefixlengthandthelifetime

    associatedwiththisinformation.

    III.ProactiveGatewayDiscoveryTheproactivegatewaydiscoveryisinitiatedbythegatewayitself.Thegatewayperiodicallybroadcastsa

    gatewayadvertisement (GWADV)messagewiththeperioddeterminedbyADVERTISEMENT_INTERVAL

    [2]. The advertisement period must be chosen with care so that the network is not flooded

    unnecessarily.Themobilenodesthatreceivetheadvertisement,createa(orupdatethe)routeentryfor

    the gateway and then rebroadcast themessage. To assure that allmobilenodeswithin theMANET

    receivethe

    advertisement,

    the

    number

    of

    retransmissions

    is

    determined

    by

    NET_DIAMETER

    defined

    by

    AODV. However, this will lead to enormously many unnecessary duplicated advertisements. A

    conceivablesolutionthatpreventsduplicatedadvertisementsistointroduceaGWADVIDfieldinthe

    advertisementmessageformatsimilartotheRREQIDfieldintheRREQmessageformat(seeSect.The

    advantageofthisapproachisthatthereisachanceforthemobilenodetoinitiateahandoverbeforeit

    loosesitsInternetconnection.Thedisadvantageisthatsinceacontrolmessageisfloodedthroughthe

    wholeMANETperiodically,limitedresourcesinaMANET,suchaspowerandbandwidth,willbeuseda

    lot.

    ReactiveGatewayDiscoveryThe reactivegatewaydiscovery is initiatedbyamobilenode that is tocreateorupdatea route toa

    gateway. The mobile node broadcasts a RREQ with an I flag (RREQ_I) to the

    ALL_MANET_GW_MULTICAST[6]address,i.e.theIPaddressforthegroupofallgatewaysinaMANET.

    Thus,onlythegatewaysareaddressedbythismessageandonlytheyprocess it. Intermediatemobile

    nodesthatreceiveaRREQ_Iarenotallowedtoanswer it,sotheyjustrebroadcast it.Whenagateway

    receivesaRREQ_I, itunicastsbackaRREP_Iwhich,amongotherthings,containsthe IPaddressofthe

    gateway.T

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