surgery 5th year, 2nd lecture (dr. ari raheem qader)

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The lecture has been given on May 5th, 2011 by Dr. Ari Raheem Qader.

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Page 1: Surgery 5th year, 2nd lecture (Dr. Ari Raheem Qader)

BYDr Ari Raheem Qader

Page 2: Surgery 5th year, 2nd lecture (Dr. Ari Raheem Qader)

1. Skin Review2. Definitions3. Difference between Grafts & Flaps4. Classification of Skin Grafts5. Types of Skin Grafts (according to depth)6. Indications for Grafts7. Donor Sites8. Harvesting Tools

Page 3: Surgery 5th year, 2nd lecture (Dr. Ari Raheem Qader)

EPIDERMIS DERMIS

Page 4: Surgery 5th year, 2nd lecture (Dr. Ari Raheem Qader)

EPIDERMIS No blood vessels. Relies on diffusion from

underlying tissues. Stratified squamous

epithelium composed primarily of keratinocytes.

Separated from the dermis by a basement membrane.

Page 5: Surgery 5th year, 2nd lecture (Dr. Ari Raheem Qader)

DERMIS Composed of two “sub-

layers”: superficial papillary & deep reticular.

The dermis contains collagen, capillaries, elastic fibers, fibroblasts, nerve endings, etc.

Page 6: Surgery 5th year, 2nd lecture (Dr. Ari Raheem Qader)

GraftA skin graft is a tissue of epidermis and varying amounts of dermis that is detached from its own blood supply and placed in a new area with a new blood supply.

FlapAny tissue used for reconstruction or wound closure that retains all or part of its original blood supply after the tissue has been moved to the recipient location.

Page 7: Surgery 5th year, 2nd lecture (Dr. Ari Raheem Qader)

GraftDoes not maintainoriginal blood supply.

FlapMaintains original bloodsupply.

Page 8: Surgery 5th year, 2nd lecture (Dr. Ari Raheem Qader)

1. Autografts – A tissue transferred from one part of the body to another.

2. Homografts/Allograft – tissue transferred from a genetically different individual of the same species.

3. Xenografts – a graft transferred from an individual of one species to an individual of another species.

Page 9: Surgery 5th year, 2nd lecture (Dr. Ari Raheem Qader)

Grafts are typically described in terms of thickness or depth.

Split Thickness(Partial): Contains 100% of the epidermis and a portion of the dermis. Split thickness grafts are further classified as thin or thick.

Full Thickness: Contains 100% of the epidermis and dermis.

Page 10: Surgery 5th year, 2nd lecture (Dr. Ari Raheem Qader)
Page 11: Surgery 5th year, 2nd lecture (Dr. Ari Raheem Qader)

Type of Graft Advantages Disadvantages

Thin Split Thickness

-Best Survival

-Heals Rapidly

-Least resembles original skin.

-Least resistance to trauma.

-Poor Sensation

-Maximal Secondary Contraction

Thick Split Thickness

-More qualities of normal skin.

-Less Contraction

-Looks better

-Fair Sensation

-Lower graft survival

-Slower healing.

Full Thickness

-Most resembles normal skin.

-Minimal Secondary contraction

-Resistant to trauma

-Good Sensation

-Aesthetically pleasing

-Poorest survival.

-Donor site must be closed surgically.

-Donor sites are limited.

Page 12: Surgery 5th year, 2nd lecture (Dr. Ari Raheem Qader)

Phase 1 (0-48h) – Plasmatic ImbibitionDiffusion of nutrition from the recipient bed.

Phase 2 – InosculationVessels in graft connect with those in recipient bed.

Phase 3 (day 3-5) – Neovascular IngrowthGraft revascularized by ingrowth of new vessels into bed.

Page 13: Surgery 5th year, 2nd lecture (Dr. Ari Raheem Qader)

Bed must be well vascularized. The contact between graft and recipient

must be fully immobile. Low bacterial count at the site.

Page 14: Surgery 5th year, 2nd lecture (Dr. Ari Raheem Qader)

Systemic Factors Malnutrition Sepsis Medical Conditions (Diabetes) Medications

Steroids Antineoplastic agents Vasonconstrictors (e.g. nicotine)

Page 15: Surgery 5th year, 2nd lecture (Dr. Ari Raheem Qader)

Bone Tendon Infected Wound Highly irradiated

Page 16: Surgery 5th year, 2nd lecture (Dr. Ari Raheem Qader)

Extensive wounds. Burns. Specific surgeries that may require skin

grafts for healing to occur. Areas of prior infection with extensive

skin loss. Cosmetic reasons in reconstructive

surgeries.

Page 17: Surgery 5th year, 2nd lecture (Dr. Ari Raheem Qader)

The ideal donor site would provide skin that isidentical to the skin surrounding the recipient

area.Unfortunately, skin varies dramatically from

oneanatomic site to another in terms of:

- Colour- Thickness- Hair - Texture

Page 18: Surgery 5th year, 2nd lecture (Dr. Ari Raheem Qader)

Razor Blades Grafting Knives (Blair, Ferris, Smith, Humbly,

Goulian) Manual Drum Dermatomes (Padgett, Reese) **Electric/Air Powered Dermatomes

(Brown, Padgett, Hall)

Electric & Air Powered tools are most commonly used.

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Contraction of the graftContraction of the graft

Page 26: Surgery 5th year, 2nd lecture (Dr. Ari Raheem Qader)

Blood supply random axial

Tissue movement rotation advancement transposition

Page 27: Surgery 5th year, 2nd lecture (Dr. Ari Raheem Qader)

Most common Based on subdermal plexus Unpredictable

Length:width of 3:1 or 4:1

Page 28: Surgery 5th year, 2nd lecture (Dr. Ari Raheem Qader)

Limited by available vessels Based on direct cutaneous vessels Random flap at distal tip Examples

nasolabial midline forehead flaps

Page 29: Surgery 5th year, 2nd lecture (Dr. Ari Raheem Qader)

Rotation Advancement Transposition

Not concrete, variations exist

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Forehead, Brow 3:1 ratio Burow’s triangles

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Inferiorly based

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Superiorly based