Post on 13-Jul-2015
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COMPANY WORKFLOW PROCESSES
BRIEF INTRODUCTION INTO OUR MANUFACTURING PROCESSES AND CONTROL MEASURES.
Quality Assurance Department: Suraaj LinenQuality Assuarance Manager: Shiv Kumar
MANUFACTURING WORKFLOWConsumption planning to order fabricFabric order placementReceipt of fabricFabric inspection(Check physical appearance and properties)Marker Planning(For bulk production)SamplingSpreading & CuttingPresewing operations(Fusing, embroidery, marking- if required in style)BundlingFeeding in lines(As per production plan)FinishingPackingWarehousingPacking and dispatch
PRODUCT ENGINEERINGIt starts in design development stage because it directly affects the costing of the products .People involved: Designers, sample room manager, industrial engineering department and production management should all report from cutting to finishing.Key areas for analysis: Seam types Various seam types should be analyzed and considered to simplify/reduce the work. Stitch types- Explore various options in terms of seam types. For example replace lock stitches by chain stitch in case of Multineedle seams. Machine types- Optimum use of technology to maximize, look in to machine type, bed shapes and automation thats possible. Attachments Attachment help in simplifying and reducing the work content and to increase line balancing efficiency. Special work aids- Special work aids can be used to simplify/reduce the work content. Fabric consumption- Fabric being 70% of the product cost is vitally important to monitor and if the engineering is done properly we can certainly expect to save fabric or reduce consumptions. Cutting- how should it be done- we do not have Tailors now, we have operators instead and they should be working with clippers in their hands Finishing- Finishing is the last link of the value chain which is essential for p erformance point of view.CAD DEPARTMENTReceiving tech pack: Tech pack is received from Head office that contains all the information regarding the style illustration, size, trims, colors, stitch and seam class, fit, sampling details, and packing and finishing details.
Make basic pattern: Basic pattern is made manually by pattern master in one base size.Digitizing: This base size is then digitized on the Gerber digitizer board.
Grading: After digitizing, its transferred to the computer on Gerber pattern design studio. Patterns initially are made in only one size. We need to proportionally increase or decrease the size of a pattern, while maintaining shape, fit, balance and scale of style details. Getting correct fit and drape of a product but also maintain the measurements as graded specs is essential.Using the CAD system, the pattern is resized according to a predetermined table of sizing increments (or "grade rules"). The computerized plotter can then print out the pattern in each size.Incorporating shrinkage in pattern grading First fabric has to be relaxed so that there is no tension or strain during rolling or unrolling while layering or cutting. This will ensure that there is minimum shrinkage in products. So unwashed products are made with additional shrinkage tolerance included so that they gain their original measurements after washing. Woven fabric products shrink about 2-3%. This shrinkage incorporated in patterns could be lengthwise or width wise depending on type of fabric.
Shrinkage adjustingShrinkage adjustments should not distort the original shape and balance of the patterns. When shrinkage is applied to a panel in product all corresponding patterns must also be applied with shrinkage adjustments.The picture on the left shows how a product panel looks like after it has been scanned and graded.
Gerber plotter printing: The patterns are then printed on the Gerber plotter. They are then pasted to thick aortic sheets and converted into full fledged patterns.Send patterns to cutting department OTHER CONSIDERATIONS Efficiency: Marker plans indicate efficiency of the cutting process i.e. the efficiency of fabric consumption. Lay plan: determines the no. of lays required to cut the specified quantity in the predetermined size ratio. Precision in checks in stripes
FABRIC STOREThis is the most important department of the unit, where in the quality and quantity of fabric is inspected as soon as it is received in the store, along with storing and maintaining stock levels and ensuring to stock up in proper clean way.When the fabric is in-house, it should be capable of being supplied to the cutting department.Inspection is done prior the cutting room issue so as to remove the defective fabrics. WORKFLOW OF FABRIC STORED/OReceive P.O at head office
Fabric received at gate (challan)Document are sent to dept for checking
Bales received in fabric dept
Bales countingFabric unloaded
Swatches and cuts maintainedBales opened
JC & GRN MadeChecking 4 point system
Fabric sent for inspectionFabric mounted on greasy perch
FCR preparedFabric stored
Fabric issued to cutting room as and when required.
FABRIC VISUAL INSPECTIONThe 4 point system is generally used for fabric inspection. In this system, points are assigned for every possible defect in the fabric as follows.Width wise point criteriaPenalty points
Upton 31 point
Length wise point criteriaPenalty points
Upton 51 point
Area wise point criteriaPenalty points
1X1 cm float1 point
Upto 1X1 cm hole/stain2 points
Over 1X1 cm to 2X2 hole/stain3 points
Over 2X2 cm hole/stain4 points
Yarn variation/Beam motion/Barre effectPenalty points
3 points and 4 points are pointed and are called cutable defects. 1 and 2 point are identified by stickers and panels replaced cutting.
The maximum points and flags allowed as follows:-FABRICMax. no. of allowed pointsMax. no. of flags per linear mts.
100% cotton and its blends405
100% linear and its blends404
Defect points/100m2 = Total pointsX3600/Fabric widthXFabric length. If defect points/100m3 < 40 then accept the fabric. If defect points/100m3 > 40 then reject the fabric.
Major woven defects : slubs, holes, missing yarns, yarn variation, end out, soiled yarns, wrong warns.Major dyeing or printing defects: out of register, dye stops, machine stops, color out, color smear, or shading. These defects are marked wth colored tape so that they can be easily located.OthersPenalty points
Count or composition variationCutable defect
Short endReject roll
Selvedge looseReject roll
Wrong drawingReject roll
Reed marksReject roll
Temple marksReject roll
Damaged selvedgeReject roll
Wrong weaveReject roll
Other points to remember:1. No linear meter shall be assigned more than 4 point or a flag.2. All holes regardless of size small be assigned be assigned 4 point.3. There should not be a major defect within 5 meters from beginning or the end of the roll or part therein.4. The shade of the fabric should match with the approved shade of fabric from H.O.5. There should not be shade variation from selvedge to selvedge, centre to selvedge and start and end 6. A repeating defect or running should not extend for more than 3 yards (2.73 meters), otherwise the roll will be considered second quality.7. No piece will be acceptable as first quality if it has noticeable side-to-side, side-to-centre or end-to-end shading within a roll or a piece. FABRIC INSPECTION MACHINEThis is used to inspect the fabric defects and measure the total meters of the fabric
FABRIC TESTS Fabric Shrinkage is a very important factor for any physical inspection. Mistakes in appropriate checking might prove disadvantageous for the pilot run followed by production. An optimum conduction of the width and shrinkage properties has to be made. The fusing of lining to some parts may also be done in the cloth store. If the shrink characteristics are consistent, then the patterns may be designed to the correct oversize and sampling checks for consistent shrinkage carried out. Color changes can also occur at the time of fusing as the temperatures might have been controlled or were out of the prescribed limits. E .g Size of the fabric= 100 * 100Or 50 * 50
According to the above picture, a fabric piece of the above mentioned specification is cut and marked accordingly. Then a wash with a soft enzyme is given. The deviation is shrinkage if any is marked between the points. Shrinkage of 1-1.5 cm is acceptable. If it is more than this then the merchandiser is supposed to take the desired action. Color Fastness or Crocking: In order to check color fastness, 2 fabric swatches are taken. On 1 of the swatch, a white seam is put on all the four sides of the fabric. Both of the them are washed and the results are compared. If it is stained or slotted then its rejected. C.S or Centre Selvedge test: This test is used to check the color variation in the fabric. Full width of the fabric is taken (length can vary according to requirement say 10). The Fabric is divided into 6 pieces and their grain line is marked.
These pieces are then cut and re stitched in a random series. For e.g. 3, 6, 2, 5, 4, 1. When we arrange these fabric pieces in a series, we can see the shade variation in the same fabric. Noting of this variation is very important at the time of cutting.Maximum CS is seen in solid/printed fabrics as compared to stripes and checks.
Others include dry clean and washability, abrasion resistance, pilling (especially for mixed fibers), Bow and skew (using a ruler and set square for checks and stripes), Drape