suport curs eai

4 FOREWORD At no time during the last three or four decades have the communication skills of individuals in the business world come under closer scrutiny than today. And never before have those who work in the business world needed better, more effective communication skills. The emerging technology appears to be increasing, rather than decreasing, the need for effective communication skills. As more individuals have ready access to desk-top equipment to process written communication, fewer support personnel will be readily available to provide editing assistance. Therefore, well- developed communication skills among originators are more important to success than ever before. This book is suitable for several different audiences, including undergraduate and graduate students. The organization of this manual is a logic sequence of chapters including both business communication and correspondence. The first part is dedicated to business communication and the second to business correspondence. The special features found in this edition are: 1. Examples of effective letter writing. Studies have shown students studying written business communication can learn as much, if not more, from ineffective examples of written communication as they do from effective examples. 2. Varied application problems in the writing-oriented chapters. The number of problems has been increased. While the majority of problems require the writing of a letter or report, some are designed to give students an opportunity to develop the often overlooked skill of editing. 3. Many new application problems in the non-writing- oriented chapters. 4. New topics, such as nonverbal communication language, various types of speeches and presentations.

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Page 1: Suport Curs EAI



At no time during the last three or four decades have the communication skills of individuals in the business world come under closer scrutiny than today. And never before have those who work in the business world needed better, more effective communication skills.

The emerging technology appears to be increasing, rather than decreasing, the need for effective communication skills. As more individuals have ready access to desk-top equipment to process written communication, fewer support personnel will be readily available to provide editing assistance. Therefore, well-developed communication skills among originators are more important to success than ever before. This book is suitable for several different audiences, including undergraduate and graduate students.

The organization of this manual is a logic sequence of chapters including both business communication and correspondence.

The first part is dedicated to business communication and the second to business correspondence.

The special features found in this edition are: 1. Examples of effective letter writing. Studies have shown students studying written business communication can learn as much, if not more, from ineffective examples of written communication as they do from effective examples. 2. Varied application problems in the writing-oriented chapters. The number of problems has been increased. While the majority of problems require the writing of a letter or report, some are designed to give students an opportunity to develop the often overlooked skill of editing. 3. Many new application problems in the non-writing-oriented chapters. 4. New topics, such as nonverbal communication language, various types of speeches and presentations.

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Part 1


1. The Business Letter 1.1. The Lay-Out of the Letter

Subordinated to the aim envisaged by the letter, the form of a business letter contributes to obtaining a favourable atmosphere and business environment. The business letter is most of the times unique, but in the case of repeatable operations containing small or series merchandise, for certain parts of a business transaction, forms may be used. These include the enquiry, the offer, technical specifications, the invoice, transportation instructions, etc. In order to have an aesthetic aspect of the letter, certain requirements must be fulfilled:

• A balanced placement of the text on the paper • Alignment • Avoiding to split words into syllables • Text must be written in paragraphs • Text should be continued on a new page only if it contains

more than two lines. • The extra documents connected to the letter should be

placed in enclosures • Post scriptum should be avoided

In international business correspondence, there are two main forms of arranging the text in a page: the indent style – especially used by UK and USA firms, and the bloc forma letter style. The latest is considered to be a modern layout and used more and more. As variants the semi-bloc form and the modified bloc form can be used. Each one has distinctive features () .

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1. The Indent Style

- the first line in each paragraph will be placed few intervals from the left border the inside address, the ending formula and the signature will be placed few intervals to the inside compared to the upper line

2. The Bloc Style

- all the elements of the letter are aligned from the left border - a double space is placed between paragraphs

3. The Semi-Bloc Style - the text of the body-letter can be written in the indent form - lines including the internal address are placed to the left and the lines containing the ending formula and the signature are placed to the right in the bloc form

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4. The Modified Bloc Style - the text is written completely in the bloc style - the date and the rows representing the salutation formula, the ending formula and the signature are placed to the right

Writing business letters and memos differs in certain important ways from writing reports. Keep the following advice in mind when you write and especially when you revise your business letters or memos.

State the main business, purpose, or subject matter right away. Let the reader know from the very first sentence what your letter is about. Remember that when business people open a letter, their first concern is to know what the letter is about, what its purpose is, and why they must spend their time reading it. Therefore, avoid round-about beginnings. If you are writing to apply for a job, begin with something like this: "I am writing to apply for the position you currently have open...." If you have bad news for someone, you need not spill all of it in the first sentence. Here is an example of how to avoid negative phrasing: "I am writing in response to your letter of July 24, 1997 in which you discuss problems you have had with an electronic spreadsheet purchased from our company."

If you are responding to a letter, identify that letter by its subject and date in the first paragraph or sentence. Busy recipients who write many letters themselves may not remember

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their letters to you. To avoid problems, identify the date and subject of the letter to which you respond: Dear Mr. Stout: I am writing in response to your September 1, 19XX letter in which you describe problems that you've had with one of our chainsaws. I regret that you've suffered this inconvenience and expense and.... Dear Ms. Cohen: I have just received your August 4, 19XX letter in which you list names and other sources from which I can get additional information on the manufacture and use of plastic bottles in the soft-drink industry....

Keep the paragraphs of most business letters short. The paragraphs of business letters tend to be short, some only a sentence long. Business letters are not read the same way as articles, reports, or books. Usually, they are read rapidly. Big, thick, dense paragraphs over ten lines, which require much concentration, may not be read carefully - or read at all. To enable the recipient to read your letters more rapidly and to comprehend and remember the important facts or ideas, create relatively short paragraphs of between three and eight lines long. In business letters, paragraphs that are made up of only a single sentence are common and perfectly acceptable. Throughout this section, you'll see examples of the shorter paragraphs commonly used by business letters.

"Compartmentalize" the contents of your letter. When you "compartmentalize" the contents of a business letter, you place each different segment of the discussion - each different topic of the letter - in its own paragraph. If you were writing a complaint letter concerning problems with the system unit of your personal computer, you might have these paragraphs:

• A description of the problems you've had with it

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• The ineffective repair jobs you've had • The compensation you think you deserve and why Study each paragraph of your letters for its purpose, content,

or function. When you locate a paragraph that does more than one thing, consider splitting it into two paragraphs. If you discover two short separate paragraphs that do the same thing, consider joining them into one. Provide topic indicators at the beginning of paragraphs. Analyze some of the letters you see in this section in terms of the contents or purpose of their individual paragraphs. In the first sentence of any body paragraph of a business letter, try to locate a word or phrase that indicates the topic of that paragraph. If a paragraph discusses your problems with a personal computer, work the word "problems" or the phrase "problems with my personal computer" into the first sentence. Doing this gives recipients a clear sense of the content and purpose of each paragraph. Here is an excerpt before and after topic indicators have been incorporated: Problem: I have worked as an electrician in the Decatur, Illinois, area for about six years. Since 1980 I have been licensed by the city of Decatur as an electrical contractor qualified to undertake commercial and industrial work as well as residential work. Revision: As for my work experience, I have worked as an electrician in the Decatur, Illinois, area for about six years. Since 1980 I have been licensed by the city of Decatur as an electrical contractor qualified to undertake commercial and industrial work as well as residential work.(Italics not in the original.)

List or itemize whenever possible in a business letter. Listing spreads out the text of the letter, making it easier to pick up the important points rapidly. Lists can be handled in several ways, as explained in the section on lists.

Place important information strategically in business letters. Information in the first and last lines of paragraphs tends

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to be read and remembered better. Information buried in the middle of long paragraphs is easily overlooked or forgotten. Therefore, place important information in high-visibility points. For example, in application letters which must convince potential employers that you are right for a job, locate information on appealing qualities at the beginning or end of paragraphs for greater emphasis. Place less positive or detrimental information in less highly visible points in your business letters. If you have some difficult things to say, a good (and honest) strategy is to de-emphasize by placing them in areas of less emphasis. If a job requires three years of experience and you only have one, bury this fact in the middle or the lower half of a body paragraph of the application letter. The resulting letter will be honest and complete; it just won't emphasize weak points unnecessarily. Here are some examples of these ideas:

Problem: In July I will graduate from the University of Kansas with a Bachelor of Science in Nutrition and Dietetics. Over the past four years in which I have pursued this degree, I have worked as a lab assistant for Dr. Alison Laszlo and have been active in two related organizations, the Student Dietetic Association and the American Home Economics Association. In my nutritional biochemistry and food science labs, I have written many technical reports and scientific papers. I have also been serving as a diet aide at St. David's Hospital in Lawrence the past year and a half. (The job calls for a technical writer; let's emphasize that first, then mention the rest!) Revision: In my education at the University of Kansas, I have had substantial experience writing technical reports and scientific papers. Most of these reports and papers have been in the field of nutrition and dietetics in which I will be receiving my Bachelor of Science degree this July. During my four years at the University I have also handled plenty of paperwork as a lab assistant for Dr. Alison Laszlo, as a member of two related organizations, the Student Dietetic Association and

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the American Home Economics Association, and as a diet aide as St. David's Hospital in Lawrence in the past year and a half. Find positive ways to express bad news in your business letters. Often, business letters must convey bad news: a broken computer keyboard cannot be replaced, or an individual cannot be hired. Such bad news can be conveyed in a tactful way. Doing so reduces the chances that business relations with the recipient of the bad news will end. To convey bad news positively, avoid such words as "cannot," "forbid," "fail," "impossible," "refuse," "prohibit," "restrict," and "deny" as much as possible. Focus on the recipient's needs, purposes, or interests instead of your own. Avoid a self-centered focusing on your own concerns rather than those of the recipient. Even if you must talk about yourself in a business letter a great deal, do so in a way that relates your concerns to those of the recipient. Avoid pompous, inflated, legal-sounding phrasing. Watch out for puffed-up, important-sounding language. This kind of language may seem business-like at first; it's actually ridiculous. Of course, such phrasing is apparently necessary in legal documents; but why use it in other writing situations? When you write a business letter, picture yourself as a plain-talking, common-sense, down-to-earth person (but avoid slang). Give your business letter an "action ending" whenever appropriate. An "action-ending" makes clear what the writer of the letter expects the recipient to do and when. Ineffective conclusions to business letters often end with rather limp, noncommittal statements such as "Hope to hear from you soon" or "Let me know if I can be of any further assistance." Instead, or in addition, specify the action the recipient should take and the schedule for that action. If, for example, you are writing a query letter, ask the editor politely to let you know of his decision if at all possible in a month. If you are writing an application letter, subtlety try to set up a date and time for an interview.

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1.2. Business Letter Formatting Examples The Indent Form 5 Hill Street Madison, Wisconsin 53700 15 March 2005 Ms. Helen Jones President Jones, Jones & Jones 123 International Lane Boston, Massachusetts 01234 Dear Ms. Jones: Ah, business letter format - there are block formats, and indented formats, and modified block formats . . . and who knows what others. To simplify matters, we're demonstrating the indented format on this page, one of the two most common formats. For authoritative advice about all the variations, we highly recommend The Gregg Reference Manual, 9th ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2001), a great reference tool for workplace communications. There seems to be no consensus about such fine points as whether to skip a line after your return address and before the date: some guidelines suggest that you do; others do not. Let's hope that your business letter succeeds no matter which choice you make! If you are using the indented form, place your address at the top, with the left edge of the address aligned with the center of the page. Skip a line and type the date so that it lines up underneath your address. Type the inside address and salutation flush left; the salutation should be followed by a colon. For formal letters, avoid abbreviations. Indent the first line of each paragraph one-half inch. Skip lines between paragraphs. Instead of placing the closing and signature lines flush left, type them in the center, even with the address and date above, as illustrated here. Now doesn't that look professional? Sincerely,

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John Doe The Bloc Format 5 Hill Street Madison, Wisconsin 53700 March 15, 2005 Ms. Helen Jones President Jones, Jones & Jones 123 International Lane Boston, Massachusetts 01234 Dear Ms. Jones: Ah, business letter format-there are block formats, and indented formats, and modified block formats and who knows what others. To simplify matters, we're demonstrating the block format on this page, one of the two most common formats. For authoritative advice about all the variations, we highly recommend The Gregg Reference Manual, 9th ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2001), a great reference tool for workplace communications. There seems to be no consensus about such fine points as whether to skip a line after your return address and before the date: some guidelines suggest that you do; others do not. Let's hope that your business letter succeeds no matter which choice you make! When you use the block form to write a business letter, all the information is typed flush left, with one-inch margins all around. First provide your own address, then skip a line and provide the date, then skip one more line and provide the inside address of the party to whom the letter is addressed. If you are using letterhead that already provides your address, do not retype that information; just begin with the date. For formal letters, avoid abbreviations where possible. Skip another line before the salutation, which should be followed by a colon. Then write the body of your

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letter as illustrated here, with no indentation at the beginnings of paragraphs. Skip lines between paragraphs. After writing the body of the letter, type the closing, followed by a comma, leave 3 blank lines, then type your name and title (if applicable), all flush left. Sign the letter in the blank space above your typed name. Now doesn't that look professional? Sincerely, John Doe Administrative Assistant

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The Semi-bloc Letter Format

3303 West Valley Cove Round Rock, Texas 78664 August 5, 1990

Personnel Assistant JD Employee Credit Bank of Texas P.O. Box 32345 Austin, Texas 78745 Dear Personnel Assistant: I am writing about your newspaper ad in the August 1 Austin-American Statesman concerning your need for an experienced programmer in the database environment. I believe that I have the qualifications and experience that you are looking for. As for my experience with database programming, I have worked for the past year as a programmer/analyst in the Query database environment for Advanced Software Design. In that capacity, I have converted a large database that was originally written in a customized C language database into the Query database environment. I am currently working on a contract with Texas Parks and Wildlife to make major modifications to its existing Query database application. On both of these assignments, I have also served as customer contact person. Related to this database-programming experience is the work I have been doing to write and market an automated documentation utility for Query database applications. This product was written using a combination of C, Pascal, and Query programming languages. I was responsible for the authorship of the Pascal and Query programs. The Pascal programs are completely responsible for the user interface and system integration management. Enclosed you will find a resume, which will give you additional information on my background and qualifications.

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I would welcome a chance to talk further with you about the position you are seeking to fill. I can be reached by phone between 9:00 a.m. and 6:00 p.m. at (512) 545-0098. Sincerely, Virginia Rementeria Encl.: resume

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The Alternative Bloc Format Green Tree Freight Co., Inc. Columbus, Ohio 45453, (315) 565-6789 March 29, 19XX Complete Table, Inc. P.O. Box 3132,Austin, TX 78703 Subj.: March 24 letter about damaged freight Dear Mrs. Hughes: I have just received your March 24 letter about the damaged shipment you received through Green Tree Freight and regret the inconvenience that it has caused you. From your account of the problem, I am quite sure that your request for the $240 adjustment on the damage to the 2 crates of Valjean Cristal stemware will be granted. A certain amount of breakage of this sort does unavoidably occur in cross-country shipping; I am sorry that it was your company that had to be the one to suffer the delay. I must remind you to keep the damaged crates in the same condition in which you received them until one of our representatives can inspect them. That inspection should take place within 2 weeks. If all is in order, as it sounds to be in your letter, you can expect the full reimbursement within 2 weeks after our representative's inspection. I hope this unfortunate accident will keep you from having merchandise shipped by Green Tree Freight in the future. Sincerely, David F. Morgan, Customer Relations Green Tree Freight Co., Inc. Columbus, Ohio 45453 (315) 565-6789


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1.3.  Contents  of  the  Letter      

International theory and practice have established a certain set of elements as being the essential components of a business letter:

Heading. The heading contains the writer's address and the date of the letter. The writer's name is not included and only a date is needed in headings on letterhead stationery.

Inside address. The inside address shows the name and address of the recipient of the letter. This information helps prevent confusion. Also, if the recipient has moved, the inside address helps to determine what to do with the letter. In the inside address, include the appropriate title of respect of the recipient; and copy the name of the company exactly as that company writes it. When you do have the names of individuals, remember to address them appropriately: Mrs., Ms., Mr., Dr., and so on. If you are not sure what is correct for an individual, try to find out how that individual signs letters or consult the forms-of-address section in a dictionary.

Salutation. The salutation, the "Dear Sir" of the letter, is followed by a colon (except when a friendly, familiar, sociable tone is intended, in which case a comma is used). Notice that in the simplified letter format, the salutation line is eliminated altogether. If you do not know whether the recipient is a man or woman, traditionally you write "Dear Sir" or "Dear Sirs" and just not worry about it. More recently, however, salutations such as "Dear Sir or Madame," "Dear Ladies and Gentlemen," "Dear Friends," or "Dear People" have been recommended. Deleting the salutation line altogether or inserting "To Whom It May Concern" in its place, however, is not always a good solution; it's quite impersonal. Try to get a person's name within the organization; make a quick, anonymous phone call to get a name. Or, address the salutation to a department name, committee name, or a position name: "Dear Customer Relations Department," "Dear

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Recruitment Committee," "Dear Chairperson," "Dear Director of Financial Aid," for example.

Subject or reference line. As shown in the order letter, the subject line replaces the salutation or is included with it. The subject line announces the main business of the letter.

Body of the letter. The actual message of course is contained in the body of the letter, the paragraphs between the salutation and the complimentary close. Strategies for writing the body of the letter are discussed in the section on business-correspondence style.

Complimentary close. The "Sincerely yours" element of the business letter is called the complimentary close. Other common ones are "Sincerely yours," "Cordially," "Respectfully," or "Respectfully yours." You can design your own, but be careful not to create florid or wordy ones. Notice that only the first letter is capitalized, and it is always followed by a comma.

Signature block. Usually, you type your name four lines below the complimentary close, and sign your name in between. If you are a woman and want to make your marital status clear, use Miss, Ms., or Mrs. in parentheses before the typed version of your first name. Whenever possible, include your title or the name of the position you hold just below your name. For example, "Technical writing student," "Sophomore data processing major," or "Tarrant County Community College Student" are perfectly acceptable.

End notations. Just below the signature block are often several abbreviations or phrases that have important functions.

Initials. The initials in all capital letters are those of the writer of the letter, and the ones in lower case letters just after the colon are those of the typist.

Enclosures. To make sure that the recipient knows that items accompany the letter in the same envelope, use such indications as "Enclosure," "Encl.," "Enclosures (2)." For example, if you send a resume and writing sample with your application letter, you'd do this: "Encl.: Resume and Writing Sample." If the enclosure is lost, the recipient will know.

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Copies. If you send copies of a letter to others, indicate this fact among the end notations also. If, for example, you were upset by a local merchant's handling of your repair problems and were sending a copy of your letter to the Better Business Bureau, you'd write this: "cc: Better Business Bureau." If you plan to send a copy to your lawyer, write something like this: "cc: Mr. Raymond Mason, Attorney."

Following pages. If your letter is longer than one page, the heading at the top of subsequent pages can be handled in one of the following ways:

If you use letterhead stationery, remember not to use it for subsequent pages. However, you must use blank paper of the same quality, weight, and texture as the letterhead paper (usually, letterhead stationery comes with matching blank paper).

1.3.1.  The  Letter-­‐heading  

The heading of a business letter should contain the return

address (usually two or three lines) followed by a line with the date. The heading is indented to the middle of the page in the modified block and semi-block styles. It begins at the left margin in the block style. If the stationery is imprinted with the return address, then the return address may be omitted.

Sometimes a line after the address and before the date may include a phone number, a fax number, an E-mail address, or the like. Particularly if the address uses three or more lines, it is good to skip a line before the date. When using the block style, always skip a line before the date. Always include the date. In the contemporary commercial correspondence, the form and the graphics of the letter heading is extremely variated, but generally extremely simple, good looking, without useless ornamental elements. It usually fulfils an identification, informative and advertising function. Eg.: Acme Explosives, Inc. 100-B Dry Gulch Alley

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Lonesome Coyote AZ 85789 (602) 555-5555 July 14, 1997

 1.3.2.  The  Reference  Line  

References are usually placed to the left of the paper, under the date in the case of the bloc format, or on the same line with the date to the right in the case of the indent format. References are included in the letter in order to easier identify the department, the bureau or the employee dealing with the matter, but also in order to facilitate the correspondence distribution. References are introduced using the abbreviation "Ref." (reference) and include the name of the employee or the secretary (separated by slash or “:” for American firms) and also the different reference numbers released by the secretariat or registration, file number or contract number, etc. Eg.:(EB) Ref: NBI Oc 545 LP (EA)

Ref: -YS: MS - 7050 XMD

It is common to also introduce the references of the sending firm using the abbreviation "Our Ref.", and the ones of the receiving firm using the abbreviation "Your Ref." in order to easier identify this one in previous correspondence. Eg.: Our Ref: NSI Mo 393 P - 0 Your Ref: IRI YB 39 M 45

1.3.3. The Inside Address

 The inside address is placed to the left of the paper, under

the reference line, its purpose being the correct identification of the letter by the postal services especially for the envelopes having a transparent band. This address includes the name of the addressee, its quality, the headquarters of the institution we are addressing, including the country. The way we address the

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addressee differs according to the type of letter, that may be formal, official, social or personal. We shall now present as following, the different addressing possibilities that have generalized in commercial correspondence.

• To a certain person from a firm or institution, we address using the full or complete name, as used by this one, with no abbreviations

(Eg: Mary Brown; Robert F.G. Gibson). The name will be accompanied by the politeness formula or

the honorific or official functions of the person. In English, the according formulas are: - Mr. (Abbreviation from "Mister", used for a man); - Mrs. (Abbreviation from "Mistress", used for a woman); - Miss ( the word used for an unmarried woman ); - Ms. (abbreviation used when the civil status of a woman is unknown).

The following formulas precede a person’s name: - Esq. (abbreviation of the word "esquire" – old nobles title,

only used in UK for men and placed after the person’s name

(Eg: John Smith, Esq.) - Dr. (abbreviation for "doctor") the title of doctor (Eg: Dr.

John Brown) - Prof. (for the title of professor) Other abbreviations are placed after the persons’ names: Jr.,

Jun., Jur., (for "junior"), Bros. for "brothers". Eg.: Dan White Jr.; Daniel White Jun., Esq; Gibson, Bros. In UK, the addresses function is indicated before the name, preceded by the politeness formula

(Eg.: Mr./ Mrs./ Miss W.Browing, General Manager).

In the case of persons having official positions, the addressing formula is "His Excellency", followed by the specific formula

(Eg.: His Excellency the Trade Minister). • To a clerk whose name we do not know or to a department

in a institution, or firm that we address, we name the function or the department. (Eg.:The Managing

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Director, The Secretary, The Customs Officer, The Export Department). This indication can also be placed at the end of the interior address, preceded by "Attention"... or "For the attention of..." . This can be under lined. (Eg. For the attention of the Secretary Attention the Managing Director Attention: The Export Department). After the name of the person to whom the letter is addressed, we have to indicate the name of the firm, the institution, the bank etc. and the organization form. (Ltd., Co., Corp., Inc.).

• A firm, institution, bank, we can address by mentioning its name (Eg.: Ed. White & Bob Green, Ltd.; National Iran Oils, Ltd.). Underneath the firm’s name, we must state the address – street name, number, city, postal code and the country. For the business correspondence sent to the English language countries, the house number will go first, then the street. As far as the destination country is concerned, we have to remember that the official name of the British Isles is Great Britain, comprising England, Scotland and Wales. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland abbreviated UK also includes Northern Ireland. For the correspondence having as destination the US, the name of the state must be stated after the city name, as cities having the same name may be encountered in different states.

Eg.: New York, N.Y., U.S.A. New York City, U.S.A.

 1.3.4.  The  Salutation  

The salutation formula is placed appreciatively three lines

under the addressee’s address. The manner in which we present this depends on the addressing formula used. In case, the addressee is a person, to whom we have addressed using the his/her position, the salutation formulas will be: - Dear Sir, for a man

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- Dear Madam, for a woman. If personal names have been used, they will also be used in salutation formulas, but mentioning at the same time titles or functions, or even only one of them.    

1.3.5.  The  Subject  line    

The formulation constituting the subject of the letter is placed to the middle of the page, one line underneath the salutation formula and it should be underlined. Its role is to briefly present the problem the specific letter deals with. Customary, the letter subject was preceded by abbreviations Re: (from Latin "res" = thing, matter) or Ref: ( "referring") when the writer wishes to draw attention on a previous letter concerning the matter, but these are more and more rare in modern correspondence. Eg:1. Dear Sirs,

Re: Letter of Credit No... 2. Dear Sirs, Ref: Our letters MCl 3 MCl f of... 3. Dear Sirs, Wool Contract No...

 Apart from the other elements of the letter, the inclusion of

subject of the letter is not compulsory and may be omitted, in case the treated matter is briefly presented in the first paragraph of the letter. If we address an institution or a firm in general, the formula will be - Dear Sirs, - Dear Madames. The formulas Sir and Sirs are only rarely encountered, due to the fact that they create a distanced atmosphere between partners. In the correspondence written in American institutions or firms, the formula is : Dear Mr. Brown, Dear President Brown, Dear Miss Brown, Dear Mr. Vice-President Dear Mrs. Brown, Dear Sir John,... etc, Dear Professor Brown,  

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1.3.6.  The  Body  of  the  Letter   The content of letter represents the essential element of the

business correspondence, and thus, it should be written carefully. Usually, it contains:

- the introductory paragraph, - the message of the letter, - the ending. 1. The introductory paragraph is connected to the subject of the letter and it contains this subject as it is: the confirmation of correspondence, merchandise or documents’ delivery, formulation of an answer to previous correspondence etc. 2. The message of the letter comprises the point of view of the sender concerning the treated matters; thus, ideas should be stated clearly, in a logic concatenation, using adequate vocabulary and a corresponding tone. It is advisable to use short, direct phrases for each and every treated matter in a separate paragraph. 3. The ending must present the logic conclusion of the point of view comprised in the message. This may be achieved and materialized in expressing a promise, a will to continue or strengthen the collaboration relations with partners, thanks, recommendations or apologies for certain errors.

1.3.7. The Complimentary Close

The ending formula and salutation is usually placed 2 or 3 rows underneath the text of the letter, to the middle of the page. Most common formulas are:

- Yours faithfully,; Faithfully yours, (we a firm or an institution is addressed.) - Yours sincerely,; Sincerely yours, (when the sender addresses a well-known person, even if they can also be used for the previous situation)

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- Yours (very) truly; (Very) truly yours, (especially used in the US).

It is to be remembered the fact that all these formulas are followed by comma. The salutation presented above may be preceded by some formulas that give it a more formal character, such as: - We/I hope to hear from you soon, - We are/ I am - With our/my best wishes/ Kind regards.

1.3.8. The Signature

The signature is placed underneath the complementary close and the salutation formula, preceded by the name of the firm. The complete name of the person signing the correspondence should also be placed under this line, the position (Managing Director, Deputy Director, Manager etc.)and eventually the title (doctor, professor, civil engineer etc.). This requirement is a legal consequence that derive from the engagement of the firm or institution through that signature. For female addressees, the civil status will be mentioned using the abbreviations "Mrs" or "Miss" in order to know the addressing manner for the answering correspondence. Sometimes, correspondence may be signed for and in the name of the firm’s management. In this case, the correspondence has a special annotation referring to the quality of the person signing: - per procurationem per prof p. p - for and on behalf of Eg.: 1. Yours faithfully,

THE MODERN TOOL CORPORATION William Brian Vice-president

2. Yours sincerely, A.JOHNSON & Co, Ltd. (Mrs) Dr. DIANA PINK Managing Director

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Table no1 Scheme of salutation and addressing formulas according to the


Addressee Salutation Complementary clause

The Woolen Mills, Ltd (E.B.)

Dear Sirs, Dear Mesdames Yours faithfully, Faithfully yours,

Roger Brothers Co, Inc.(E.A.)

Gentlemen: Yours truly, Very truly yours,

Robert Gibson, Esq. Mr. Robert Gibson

Dear Sir, Dear Mr. Gibson,

Yours sincerely, Yours very sincerely

Mrs. Vivian Grant Miss Ann Porter

Dear Madam, Dear Mrs. Grant.

Dear Miss Porter

Sincerely yours, Yours sincerely,

Yours truly

1.3.9. Initials and Postscript

In certain institutions or firms, the custom of indicating the initials of the person writing the letter in the left bottom corner has been established, instead of stating these elements in the reference line. The number of copies should also be mentioned here, the destination of the letter, the firm or the person it is sent to.

As far as the post scriptum is concerned is concerned, it is advisable that it is avoided, because its use may be interpreted by the addressee as an omission from the content of the letter and thus as a proof of negligence from the sender.

Even though, sometimes, the post-scriptum is used aiming to draw attention on a very important or most recent element.

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1.3.10. Enclosures

When the letter is accompanied by enclosures, this is mentioned in the end of the letter in the bottom corner of the paper. Eg.: 1. - Enclosure/ Enclosures- Enc./ Encl/ Encs 2. -Enclosures: 3

- Invoice - B/ L

- Certificate of origin

1.3.11. The Envelope

As it is the case for the letter, the paper used should be of

good quality and resistant. The text written on envelope should contain the following elements:

1. – The addressee’s address, the same as the interior one as form and content, five rows at most. In case we use a transparent envelope, the inside address becomes

2. – Mailing specifications (referring either to the postal category or tariff, or to the sending status):

- Registered mail - By air mail - Registered air mail - By express mail - Printed matter - Printed paper - reduced rate - Books only - Season's card - Unsolicited gifts - Sample without value - Return if not delivered

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- Please do not bend - Special delivery - To be called for 3. – Special indications (referring to the correspondence

features): - Personal/ Private - Confidential 4. – Indications for correspondence mailing to a certain

department or person. E.g.:

For the attention of: Selling Department Attention: Managing Director Mr. Smith, Deputy Director

In case the sender does not know the address of the person he wants to contact, but considers that an other person/institution could hand it over, the letter will be addressed to the latter and in order to draw attention the it will contain the abbreviation C/ 0 (care of). All such directions are present both in the letter and under the inside address.

E.g.: Dr.Samuel Horn c/ 0 London University

London Great Britain

5 – the space reserved for stamps or mail markings S (postage/ stamps). As far as the sender’s address is concerned, this will be written

(printed) on the back of the envelope or an envelope printed with the firm’s heading should be used.

Forma bloc TEHNOFOREST 4 Piata Rosetti Bucharest - Romania

stamp Mr.John Brown c/ 0 The Furniture Co.Jnc. 12 W.Thirty-Second St. New York 43, N.Y. U.S.A.


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1.4. Essential Letter Types Business correspondence theory and practice have isolated

several types of business letters in connection to different economic activities or requirements of the business activity. Business Letters have a variety of uses. Organizations use them to contact outside parties. They are also used to respond to requests, motivate some kind of action, request or provide information, and to sell goods and services. A good business letter is brief, to the point, straightforward and polite. If possible, it should be limited to one typewritten page. Because they are so brief, such letters are often judged on very small, but important, things: grammar, punctuation, openings, closings and formats. A business letter is not the place to try out fancy fonts or experimental writing styles. A direct, conservative style works best. Listed here are the elements of standard business letters and their functions. Most commonly used types of letters can be synthesized as following:

• Enquiries • Offers • Orders • Appointments • Reservations • Complaints • Adjustments • Acknowledgments • Agreements • Announcements • Confirmations etc. Business letters can be also be classified by following the

criteria of the addressing entity – a partner firm (supplier, client etc) , an employee/employer, a bank or even an official body.

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1.4.1. The Enquiry Letter

An enquiry is a short and simple business letter, sometimes pre-printed, form of business correspondence through which the firm ask a potential partner for:

• Catalogues, price lists, presentation brochures or prospectuses

• Samples and demonstrations • Terms and methods of payment • Discounts • Goods on approval, sale or return • Estimate or tender. Enquires can be made by telephone, telex, fax, e-mail or mail.

A first enquiry (sent to a supplier with whom you have not previously done business) should include:

• As short mention of the source of information of the supplier’s name and contact address (embassy, chamber of commerce, exhibition or trade fair, recommendation from a business associate, advertisement in the mass-media etc.)

• The demand in the area for the products that the suppliers deals

• Details concerning the required information (catalogues, methods of payment, delivery terms, delivery times, discounts, price lists, samples, etc.)

• A closing sentence. The enquiry letter is useful when you need information,

advice, names, or directions. Be careful, however, not to ask for too much information or for information that you could easily obtain in some other way, for example, by a quick trip to the library.

There are two types of enquiry letters: solicited and unsolicited.

A solicited letter of enquiry is written when a business or agency advertises its products or services. For example, if a

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software manufacturer advertises some new package it has developed and you can't inspect it locally, write a solicited letter to that manufacturer asking specific questions. If there are no information on a technical subject, an enquiry letter to a company involved in that subject may represent a solution. In fact, that company may supply much more help than expected.

The letter of enquiry is unsolicited if the recipient has done nothing to prompt the enquiry. For example, as a consequence to an article by an expert, there may come up further questions or more information may be needed.

As the steps and guidelines for both types of enquiry letters show, the unsolicited type must be constructed more carefully, because recipients of unsolicited letters of enquiry are not ordinarily prepared to handle such inquiries.

Enquiry Letters have the following organization: 1. Early in the letter, the purpose-to obtain help or

information must be identified (if it's a solicited letter, information about an advertised product, service, or program).

2. In an unsolicited letter, the sender, the working activity and the reason generating the need for the requested information must be identified, and also the source of the primary information that determined the enquiry. In an unsolicited letter, the source that prompted the enquiry must also be identified, for example, a magazine advertisement.

3. In the letter, list questions or information needed in a clear, specific, and easy-to-read format. If many question have to be included, the person writing the enquiry letter must consider making a questionnaire and including a stamped, self-addressed envelope.

4. In an unsolicited letter, the writer must try to find some way to compensate the recipient for the trouble, for example, by offering to pay copying and mailing costs, to accept a collect call, to acknowledge the recipient in your report, or to send him or her a copy of your report. In a

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solicited letter, suggest that the recipient send brochures or catalogues.

5. In closing an unsolicited letter, the writer must express gratitude for any help that the recipient can provide you, acknowledge the inconvenience of your request, but do not thank the recipient "in advance." In an unsolicited letter, tactfully suggest to the recipient will benefit by helping you (for example, through future purchases from the recipient's company).

Sample Enquiry Letter

1102 West 30th Lawrence, KS 66321 August 4, 19XX Dr. Maria Gomez-Salinas Director of the Diabetes Clinic St. David's Hospital 1000 Greenberg Lane Wichita, KS 66780 Dear Dr. Gomez-Salinas: I am writing you in hopes of finding out more about how the new Glucoscan II blood glucose monitoring system, which a representative at Lifescan informed me that your clinic is currently using. Originally, I saw Lifescan's advertisement of this new device in the January 19XX issue of Diabetes Forecast and became very interested in it. I wrote the company and got much useful information, but was recommended to write several current users of the system as well. For a technical report that I am writing for a technical writing class at Johnson County Junior College, I need some help with the following questions:

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1. How often does the Glucoscan II need to be calibrated in practical, everyday use conditions?

2. How accurate is the Glucoscan II compared to other similar systems that your patients have used?

3. What problems do your patients experience with this new device?

The Lifescan representative indicated that your clinic is one the leaders in implementing new technology for diabetics, and therefore I am eager to hear from you. In the report I will acknowledge your contributions, and I will send you a copy of the completed report if you wish. Thank you for your time, and I hope to hear from you soon. Sincerely, Anita Teller Student, Medical Technology Johnson County Junior College

1.4.2. The Offer

The offer is the second element in the chain of the pre-contractual correspondence, and sometimes it is written as response to the previous enquiry. Through the offer, the seller/exporter declares the availability to sell goods or offer services under certain conditions.

The offer can be solicited, when it is preceded by an enquiry, or unsolicited when it is sent on the sellers initiative. The offer may also be transmitted as a consequence of an invitation of publicitary announcements. Apart from the enquiry, which is always legally unengaged, the offer can be ferm or informative. Also, it can be conditioned or under the reserve of annulment. Despite the existence of several types of offers, this

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document can be structured according to certain elements. The introductory paragraph should make reference to the circumstances that determined the contact and it should also express the satisfaction of establishing/continuing business relations. For the case of un unsolicited offer, the introductory paragraph includes the motivation for the offer. Basic compositional element includes:

a. product name b. quality c. price d. delivery terms e. delivery date f. payment conditions g. guarantee . h. type of offer ands its validity. The new compositional element is represented by the

publicitary paragraph. It can not be found in all offers, but where it is present, it generates higher quality and raises interest. This one includes supplementary information referring to products/services, suppliers etc. in order to create a positive image for the products and the firm.

1.4.3. The Order

As a consequence of the offer analysis, the buyer/importer transmits the seller an order for goods or services, usually using:

- an order form - a registered letter of order - both, in case the letter aims to stress some details - the return of the offer or of the pro-forma invoice signed

by the buyer - a fax letter. Rarely, the order is transmitted by phone or verbally (with

a written confirmation). Besides the order we can also encounter: - the (trial order) in order to test the goods ; the buyer has

the right to return the goods on his own expense if it is not

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satisfactory, - the (repeat order) for goods and services identical to the

ones from the original order ; specifying only the number of the order.

In English the term used for the external order is indent. The order is compulsory from the legal point of view, that’s why, attention should be granted to clarity and precision in formulation. If the order replaces the contract (for goods and services with low value), it will comprise all the elements of a contract.

1.4.4. Acknowledgement of Orders

The acknowledgement of orders is transmitted using the

same types of documents to the ones mentioned above for the order. Rarely, this can also be sent by phone with a written confirmation. The acknowledgement must:

- transmit at once with the receival of the order; - express gratitude for the order; - specify the date and/or the number of the order; - repeat the essential elements of the indent in order to avoid any misunderstanding; - ensure to respect all indications regarding the order, and specify the expedition date.

1.4.5. The Complaint Letter

Complaint letter requests some sort of compensation for

defective or damaged merchandise or for inadequate or delayed services. While many complaints can be made in person, some circumstances require formal business letters. The complaint may be so complex that a phone call may not effectively resolve the problem; or the writer may prefer the permanence, formality, and seriousness of a business letter. The essential rule in writing a complaint letter is to maintain your poise and diplomacy, no matter how justified your gripe is. Avoid making the recipient an adversary.

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1. In the letter, identify early the reason the person is writing for - to register a complaint and to ask for some kind of compensation. Avoid leaping into the details of the problem in the first sentence.

2. State exactly what compensation is desired, either before or after the discussion of the problem or the reasons for granting the compensation. (It may be more tactful and less antagonizing to delay this statement in some cases).

3. Provide a fully detailed narrative or description of the problem. This is the "evidence."

4. Explain why your request should be granted. Presenting the evidence is not enough: state the reasons why this evidence indicates the request should be granted.

5. Suggest why it is in the recipient's best interest to grant the request: appeal to the recipient's sense of fairness, desire for continued business, but do not threaten. Find some way to view the problem as an honest mistake. Do not imply that the recipient deliberately committed the error or that the company has no concern for the customer. Toward the end of the letter, express confidence that the recipient will grant the request.

Sample Complaint Letter 206C Park Lane Austin, Texas 78705 11 February 19XX Director of Consumer Relations American Airways Mail Drop 4F13 P.O. Box 56989 DFW Airport Dallas, Texas 75441-4545 Dear Director: I am writing you concerning a round-trip flight from Austin, Texas, to Detroit, Michigan, I made on December 10, 19XX. Travel demands have made me a consistent patron of American for the past six years. In that time, service on your airlines has always been good to excellent. But an interruption in

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service on the flight mentioned above has prompted my request for a 50 percent reduction in airfare on my next flight. Here is what happened on December 10. While changing planes during the return trip at DFW Airport, I was informed that our flight would be delayed. After two hours' delay, we boarded the plane we had just left in order to meet our Chicago connection in Dallas. After take-off from DFW, our pilot casually informed us that we should be impressed by the fact that the Dallas Cowboys football team had just left our seats. This was the only explanation of our inconvenience. I believe that this re-routing was done purely for promotional gain and was in no way mechanically or technically necessary. As a loyal patron of American Airlines, at least until this point, I have every confidence that the compensation I request above will be provided, considering the high standard of service and consideration your company has demonstrated toward its customers in the past. Sincerely, Scott Woodrow encl.: copy of ticket

1.4.6. The Adjustment Letter

The adjustment letter replies to complaint letters, often called letters of "adjustment," must be handled carefully when the requested compensation cannot be granted. Refusal of compensation tests a person’s diplomacy and tact as a writer. Here are some suggestions that may help you write either type of adjustment letter:

1. Begin with a reference to the date of the original letter of complaint and to the purpose of your letter. If the request is denied, do not state the refusal right away unless the is no way do that tactfully.

2. Express concern over the writer's troubles and appreciation that he has written.

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3. If the request is denied, the reasons why the request cannot be granted must be explained in as cordial and non-combative manner as possible. If the request is granted, it must not sound as if it is done so in a resent way.

4. If the request is denied, try to offer some partial or substitute compensation or offer some friendly advice (to take the sting out of the denial).

5. Conclude the letter cordially, perhaps expressing confidence that the writer will continue doing business.

Sample Adjustment Letter Green Tree Freight Co., Inc. Columbus, Ohio 45453 (315) 565-6789 March 29, 19XX Complete Table, Inc. P.O. Box 3132 Austin, TX 78703 Subj.: March 24 letter about damaged freight Dear Mrs. Hughes: I have just received your March 24 letter about the damaged shipment you received through Green Tree Freight and regret the inconvenience that it has caused you. From your account of the problem, I am quite sure that your request for the $240 adjustment on the damage to the 2 crates of Valjean Cristal stemware will be granted. A certain amount of breakage of this sort does unavoidably occur in cross-country shipping; I am sorry that it was your company that had to be the one to suffer the delay. I must remind you to keep the damaged crates in the same condition in which you received them until one of our representatives can inspect them. That inspection should take place within 2 weeks. If all is in order, as it sounds to be in your letter, you can expect the full reimbursement within 2 weeks after our representative's inspection. I hope this unfortunate accident will keep you from having

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merchandise shipped by Green Tree Freight in the future. Sincerely, David F. Morgan, Customer Relations Green Tree Freight Co., Inc. Columbus, Ohio 45453 (315) 565-6789

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1.4.7. The Business Memo A memorandum (memo) is used to make announcements,

to confirm what transpired during conversations or meetings, and to request or exchange information.

It can be directed to a few specific people but often addresses a group, entire team or department. It is often written in the first person (I or we) and ranges from very informal to extremely formal, depending on the writer and the intended recipients. Its topic is narrow and should be apparent immediately. Since it is a business document, it is important that the writing be up-front and concise. A good memo summarizes facts, analyzes pertinent issues, makes a recommendation, and supports it. It is easy to get overly technical and use unnecessary words to describe a situation; attention to clarity eliminates any need for the writer to go into lengthy explanations. Remember, too, that a memo becomes the property of its recipients and is not “private.” Don’t say anything in a memo that you wouldn’t say in person.

Business memos are not that much different from the letters, for a long time they have been the second type of business correspondence after business letters. Nowadays email has probably ousted them from this position, but still nothing can replace the good old memos and you continue to see them everywhere in the business world.

Business memos are a piece of interoffice correspondence sent between employees in a company or between company subsidiaries to transmit ideas, decisions, requests or announcements. They are more private and more formal than emails but less formal than letters. They can also be compared to reports, but very short ones.

Business memos appeared in the later nineteenth century along with the increased need for internal communication across distances and between levels of management of the corporate enterprises. Initially the term 'memorandum' was used but by the 1920s when the internal documents were already widely spread it was shortened to 'memo'.

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Business memos can always be distinguished from any other piece of business correspondence because of their own specific format which excludes salutation, complimentary closing and formal signature.

Though the format for a memo may vary from one organization to another, the standard heading consists of a series of clearly labeled lines that convey key information about the memo’s contents and its distribution. The following are standard elements of a memo header: Date: The date on which the memo is distributed To: The person(s) to whom it is primarily addressed (sometimes with job title) cc: Name(s) of anyone else who receives a copy (sometimes with job title) From: Name of the writer, usually followed by his/her handwritten initials (sometimes with job title) Subject: or Re: Concise statement of the memo’s topic

Things to remember when writing memos: • Identify your audience before you begin to write. • Ask yourself, should this be persuasive, directive, or

technical? • Be concise and come straight to the point. • Maintain a business-like tone. • Use headings, bullets, and/or numbered lists so key points

stand out and the document is easy to read. • As when writing anything, each paragraph should contain

one main idea. Also, try to keep each paragraph short. • Always proofread very carefully. Check all of your facts. • Don’t forget to identify any attachments. If not, a

recipient would not realize anything was missing. • Never include a closing. The “From” line eliminates the


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Sample Business Memo Memorandum To: Stephen Powers From: Dan Smith Date: July 26, 1999 Re: Computer problems

We are still having problems with the five new computers we have purchased from Bryan Hansen at the Hometown Computer Company. The problems we have been having include: • Two notebook computers won’t boot up. Hometown’s technicians think it may be a problem with the motherboards, but they can’t solve the problem. • One monitor continues to make a high-pitched whining sound. • Two desktop computers came infected with viruses.

I feel that we should check into sending these computers back and get new ones from another supplier. I don’t feel confident with any equipment from this supplier.

The body of a business memo is very similar to the body

of a letter, most of the principles of letter writing can be applied in writing this part of the memo. In most cases the first paragraph in a memo is a purpose or a topic statement, and it foes not need too much of an introduction. Further in your memo provide the reader with any necessary background information including dates, briefly describe the current situation and the related problems - this is sometimes called the discussion segment of a business memo. Close the memo with a courteous ending that states your request or the action you want your reader to take. The tone used in the body of the memo depends on who the memo is addressed to. Memos should not be too informal as they are usually considered to be internal documents as well as pieces of business correspondence.

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Some companies may have very strict format for business memos that each employee is supposed to follow, they even have it stated in their internal manuals. Others pay less attention to the format as long as the memo resembles a memo. Some memos could have just one sentence in the body, the others about 3 pages. Some business memos are initiated by the author near his or her name in the header, others are signed as regular letters would be. Memos could be blocked or indented. In most cases (but not always) a line was drawn under the memo header.

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1.4.8. The Business Report

Business reports are required in disciplines such as accounting, finance, management, marketing and commerce. Often the type of assignment set is a practical learning task requiring you to apply the theories you have been studying to real world (or realistic) situations; for example, accounting and finance students may be asked to analyse a company’s financial data and to write a report detailing their findings, marketing students may be asked to research and develop a marketing campaign for a product and to write a report presenting the proposal to the company, management students may be asked to report on the management structure of a company and make recommendations for its improvement. Learning how to report on financial information, marketing and management strategies and issues to others is an important component of business studies.

Thus business reports can include issues from accounting and finance, marketing or commerce. In these examples there are separate, yet related tasks, and this will be reflected in the structure of the report: information will be divided into sections with headings (for example, Recommendations), and the sections will follow a logical progression.

Business reports will obviously differ according to the specific question and task they seek to answer. It is important, however, to be clear what the overall purpose of your report is: is it to inform, to make a proposal, or to solve a problem?

In business, the information provided in reports needs to be easy to find, and written in such a way that the client can understand it. This is one reason why reports are divided into sections clearly labelled with headings and sub-headings. Technical information which would clutter the body of the report is placed in the appendix.

The structure of a report and the purpose and contents of each section is shown below.

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TITLE PAGE report title your name submission date

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY overview of subject matter methods of analysis findings recommendations

TABLE OF CONTENTS list of numbered sections in report and their page numbers

INTRODUCTION terms of reference outline of report’s structure

BODY headings and sub-headings which reflect the contents of each section. Includes information on method of data collection (if applicable), the findings of the report and discussion of findings in light of theory

CONCLUSION states the major inferences that can be drawn from the discussion makes recommendations

REFERENCE LIST list of reference material consulted during research for report

APPENDIX information that supports your analysis but is not essential to its explanation

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The executive summary provides the reader with an overview of the report’s essential information. It is designed to be read by people who will not have time to read the whole report or are deciding if this is necessary; therefore, in your executive summary you need to say as much as possible in the fewest words (Weaver & Weaver, 1977). The executive summary should briefly outline the subject matter, the background problem, the scope of the investigation, the method(s) of analysis, the important findings arguments and important issues raised in the discussion, the conclusion and recommendations. The executive summary should not just be an outline of the points to be covered in the report with no detail of the analysis that has taken place or conclusions that have been reached.

The executive summary stands as an overview at the front of the report but it is also designed to be read alone without the accompanying report (this would often occur in the workplace); therefore, you need to make sure it is self sufficient and can be understood in isolation. It is usually written last (so that it accurately reflects the content of the report) and is usually about two hundred to three hundred words long (i.e. not more than a page).

In a report longer than several pages a table of contents should be included as it assists the reader to locate information quickly. It also gives the reader a schematic overview of the structure and contents of the report. A table of contents should include all section headings and subheadings:

• worded exactly as they appear in the report • numbered exactly as they appear in the report • with their page numbers.

The table of contents should be on its own page. As well as a table of contents, you may wish to include:

• List of Figures (optional, separate page) This list is used mainly for reports containing numerous figures. It includes the figure number, caption and page number, ordered as they appear in the text.

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• List of Tables (optional, separate page). This list is used mainly for reports containing numerous tables. It includes the table number, caption and page number, ordered as they appear in the text.

• List of appendices (optional, separate page) This list is used mainly for reports containing numerous appendices. It includes the appendix letter (each separate appendix should be lettered i.e. Appendix A, Appendix B, etc.), its title and page number, ordered as they appear at the end of the report.

Nomenclature (optional) - Where symbols are used extensively, a list of symbols and definitions should appear at the beginning of the report. If there is no list, symbols should be defined in the text when first used. The introduction presents:

• the background to the issue (i.e. why was the report commissioned),

• the objective or purpose of the report • a definition of the research problem/topic • a definition of the report’s terms of reference (the what,

where, and when of the research problem/ topic) • an outline of the report’s structure • an overview of the report’s sections and their

relationship to the research problem • an outline and justification of the scope of the report (the

boundaries the report is working within) • a description of the range of sources used (i.e. personal

investigation, interviews, statistics and questionnaires) • acknowledgment of any valuable assistance received in

the preparation of the report While there will be some duplication in the contents of the

executive summary and the introduction, the purpose of the executive summary is to provide a summary of the findings of each section of the report. The purpose of the introduction,

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however, is to outline what the report will cover and how these issues address the research problem.

The body section expands and develops the material in a logical and coherent manner, reflecting the structure outlined in the Introduction. It contains a description of the findings and a discussion of them. It should also relate the findings to any theory of relevance. The following questions are examples of some of the types of questions the body of your report should seek to answer:

• What were the most significant findings or factors involved in the topic/ problem?

• Did the findings support the theory? • Have you found some disagreement with the theory? • Did you uncover any unexpected or new issues that

need to be considered? This section is usually the longest part of the report. The

material must be presented logically. The type of headings you use to organise the information in the body of your report will depend on the purpose of the report you are preparing. Make sure the headings and sub-headings you choose are informative. The following general structures are just examples of ways it may be appropriate to structure your report. Type 1: Findings/ Discussion • Sub-heading 1

• Statement of issue • findings • discussion of whether it supports or

contrasts with theory • discussion of significance to theory/

practice • Sub-heading 2

• Statement of issue 2 • findings • discussion of whether it supports or

contrasts with theory • discussion of significance to theory/


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Type 2: Findings • Sub-heading 1

• Statement of issue 1 • findings

• Sub-heading 2 • statement of issue 2 • findings


• Issue 1 • discussion of whether it supports or

contrasts with theory • discussion of significance to theory/

practice • Issue 2 • discussion of whether it supports or

contrasts with theory • discussion of significance to theory/


If the report requires any collection or analysis of data, it would generally contain a method section in the body of the report briefly describing how the data was collected: literature search, web pages, interviews (details of the questions and the subject pool), financial and other business reports, etc. Details of types of calculations or analysis undertaken would also be detailed. The body of a report will also probably contain supporting evidence such as tables, graphs or figures. Only include those that are essential for reader understanding, the rest can be placed in an appendix that is referred to in the text; for example - Appendix C contains the YoY predicted growth in shareholder accounts for the company.

The conclusion summarises the major inferences that can be drawn from the information presented in the report. It answers the questions raised by the original research problem or stated purpose of the report (Blake & Bly, 1993) and states the conclusions reached. Finally, the conclusion of your report should

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also attempt to show ‘what it all means’: the significance of the findings reported and their impact (Weaver & Weaver, 1977).

The conclusion/s presented in a report must be related to, resulting from and justified by the material which appears in the report. The conclusion must not introduce any new material. It should report on all the conclusions that the evidence dictates as it is NOT the job of a conclusion to “gloss over conclusions that are puzzling, unpleasant, incomplete or don’t seem to fit into your scheme” (Weaver & Weaver, 1977: 98). Doing this would indicate writer bias and mean your conclusion may mislead the reader.

In the workplace, conclusions are quite often read by managers before the main text of the report and hence, should summarise the main points clearly. This section also may include:

• reference to original aim(s) and objective(s) of report, • application(s) of results, • limitations and advantages of the findings, • objective opinion, evaluation or judgement of the

evidence Quite often the present tense is used in the conclusion; for example, “The healthy lifestyles concept analysed in this report is a good candidate for next phase of the marketing campaign for Choice chocolate”.

The conclusions may be ordered in several ways (Weaver & Weaver, 1977). The main conclusion may be stated first and then any other conclusions in decreasing order of importance. Alternatively, it may be better to organise the conclusions in the same order as the body section was organised. Another strategy would be to present the positive conclusions together and then the negative conclusions. The organisational strategy you use may vary; the important thing is that the organisation of your conclusion is logical.

The conclusion must arise from the evidence discussed in the body of the report. It should not, therefore, subjectively tell the reader what to do (Blicq, 1992; Weaver & Weaver, 1977): this job is performed by the recommendations section.

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(NOTE: Sometimes the conclusion and recommendations can be presented together in one section but they should be presented in separately labeled subsections).

It is essential to include a reference list or bibliography of the reference material you consulted during your research for the report. A bibliography is a list of all the reference material you consulted during your research for the report while a reference list is a list of all the references cited in the text of your report, listed in alphabetical order at the end of the report. Each reference in the reference list needs to contain all of the bibliographic information from a source. You should also check with your lecturer or tutor for any Faculty guidelines on referencing formats.

Throughout the text of your report you will also need to provide references when you have included an idea in your report which is not your own original idea. You don't need to reference an idea, however, if it is common knowledge (i.e. enzymes are proteins) or if it has been established by you in your experiment (i.e. in scientific reports reporting on an experiment). A reference is the bracketed or footnoted piece of information within the text of your writing that provides an acknowledgment that you are using someone else's ideas. There are several systems of referencing such as the Harvard or author-date system, footnotes or endnotes. Different faculties, departments and even lecturers will generally have preferences about how you should reference and you should seek these out before submitting your assignment.

Information that is not essential to explain your findings, but that supports your analysis (especially repetitive or lengthy information), validates your conclusions or pursues a related point should be placed in an appendix (plural appendices). Sometimes excerpts from this supporting information (i.e. part of the data set) will be placed in the body of the report but the complete set of information ( i.e. all of the data set) will be included in the appendix. Examples of information that could be included in an appendix include figures/tables/charts/graphs of results, statistics, questionnaires, transcripts of interviews, pictures, lengthy

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derivations of equations, maps, drawings, letters, specification or data sheets, computer program information.

There is no limit to what can be placed in the appendix providing it is relevant and reference is made to it in the report. The appendix is not a catch net for all the semi-interesting or related information you have gathered through your research for your report: the information included in the appendix must bear directly relate to the research problem or the report's purpose. It must be a useful tool for the reader (Weaver & Weaver, 1977).

Each separate appendix should be lettered (Appendix A, Appendix B, Appendix B1, Appendix B2, Appendix C, etc). The order they are presented in is dictated by the order they are mentioned in the text of the report. It is essential to refer to each appendix within the text of the report; for example,

For the manufacturer's specification, see Appendix B


Appendix C contains the YoY shareholder account growth rates. The rates are high. The increasing growth rate of accounts will significantly affect the valuation of the company.

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1.5. Commercial Documents in International Business

1.5.1. The Invoice

An invoice is a commercial document issued by a seller to

a buyer. It indicates products, quantities and agreed prices for products or services which the Seller has provided to the Buyer. It also indicates that unless paid in advance, payment is due by the Buyer to the Seller according to agreed terms. Invoices contain a serial number and date of issue. Invoices are often called bills.

A typical invoice contains: • a purchase order, invoice and internal order numbers • a business name and address • a customer's name and address • supply and invoice dates • a VAT registration number (where applicable) • a description of the goods or services • terms of payment including date the amount is due • an itemised list of products, quantities and prices,

excluding VAT • the total amount due, with and without VAT • the shipping method and cost.

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Sample Invoice

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1.5.2. The International Sales Contract Amongst the various types of commercial contracts used in international trade, here are the most widely used:

• Sale-Purchase Contract • Fungible Contract • Non-fungible Contract – • Cash-Payment Contract – • Credit-Payment Contract • Commercial Banking Contract • Factoring Contract • Forfeiting Contract • Leasing Contract • Lease-back Contract • Licence Contract • Know-how Contract • Agent Contract • Commission Contract • Consignment Contract • Agency Contract

The sales contract, a particular case of the general contract, is the most used type of contract in international trade, especially for buying and selling high or average value goods, large quantities of goods etc.

As far as the shape is concerned, this represents a sequence of clauses (articles) in an order upon which the signing parts have agreed; it is desirable that this sequence follows the practical evolution of the involved operations beginning with the definition of the obligations and ending with the fulfilment of these obligations.

Next, we will briefly present the main clauses of a sales contract, which modified and adapted may represent a starting base for different practical situations.

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58 The Preamble to Contract

Usually, the preamble to contract contains:

- the number of the contract, - the date and the place of the signing - contracting parts and their identification information

in practice, the contracting parts will be called according to their economic relationship and/or the object of the contract, as following

- Seller-Buyer for the contracting parts of the sales contract - Exporter-Importer for the contracting parts of a high tonnage contract - Constructor-Beneficiary for the contracting parts of a construction contract semnatare ale contractelor pentru constructii industriale şi civile, cai ferate, şosele, instalatii portuare, lucrari şi amenajari funciare, conducte etc. - Licensor-Licensee for the contracting parts of a license contract and which may include payments for granting licences or fees, royalties, know-how, engineering and design, technical assistance, service etc. - Consultant-Beneficiary for contracting parts of contracts in the field of consulting and technical assistance - Owner-Leaseholder for contracting parts in renting contracts for terrain, construction, industrial equipment, facilities, etc. - Landlord-Tenant for the contracting parts of contracts dealing with renting premises/ sites, terrain, building, deposits, offices, etc. - Employer-Employee for the contracting parts of the employment contract. The Object of the Contract

The object of the sales contract usually includes:

- parties' obligations - description of the goods - quality - specifications

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- quantity - packing, marking etc. The Quality Clause

The quality clause agreed upon by the contracting parts and appearing in the contract, includes all the physical, chemical, organic etc. properties that define the object of the contract. They must be according to the usual commercial practice as there are lost of possibilities to formulate a quality clause according to the object of the contract (raw materials, natural products, manufactured goods, etc.)

Amongst these, here are the most significant: - by catalogue sent by the firm making the offer - by specification made by the buyer or the seller. The Quantity Clause

The quantity clause in a sales contract is formulated

according to the characteristics of the object of the contract using: A. number of pieces B. weight units – grams, kilograms, tons, long tons, short tons, metric tons, ounces –oz., pounds – Ib., - long hundredweights – cwt or short hundredweight –sh.cwt. C. units of length: - millimetres, centimetres, meters, inches - in., feet - ft., yards - yd. etc.

D.- units of area surface:- square centimetres -, - square meters - sq.m, square inches - sq. in., square feet - sq. ft., square yards - sq.yd.,

D. units of volume: - cubic meters cu.m., cubic inches - cu. in., cubic feet - cu. ft., cubic yards - cu. yd., E. standards F. units of capacity: - gallons - gal., quarts - qt., pints - pt. etc.

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G. the inferior or the superior limit when the total quality is not defined, in the case of bulk merchandise. H. some traditional measurement units, still used, such as: the bale, the sack, the bag, the drum, the demijohn, the barrel, the bushel etc. The Packing Clause

The contract clause referring to the packing contains

specifications meant to ensure the qualitative, quantitative, commercial and technical integrity of the merchandise that represents the object of the contract and that will be transported from the production site to the place of reception. The clause may also state the right of the buyer to an additional delivery or a replacement of goods in case the merchandise has been damaged due to inadequate packing.

Packing is done according to the nature of the goods and to the transportation type involved, and its main function is to protect the goods. In formulating this clause we may use the following formulas: - seaworthy packing; moisture proof packing, water-proof packing, rust-proof packing, pilfer-proof packing, fire-proof packing etc..

This clause may state a sort of packing such as - strong packing to resist rough handling.

An other requirement is to maintain a low cost, to save freight or to keep freight low and that involves the choice of an adequate packing that would avoid dead freight and broken stowage. The packing material should thus be as light as possible, without jeopardising the goods security.

When formulating this clause, the writer should also take into account the dependency of the packing type on the loading and unloading possibilities in destination ports. Thus, the packing should have carrying handles made of rope, ears, in order to facilitate handling or loading/ discharging. The customs specification from the importing country should also be considered.

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If the customs’ taxes are calculated based on the merchandise value - ad valorem duty, the nature of the packing is not essential. But, if the duties are calculated according to the weight or the volume, the nature of the packing is essential to the costs of the transaction.

In the case of weight taxes, this weight can be - gross weight and net weight. According to the nature of the contracted merchandise and to the transportation type, the type of packing and the packing material will be established.

The bag or sack is made of jute, textile material, canvas burlap, rubber or ply-paper.

The bale is covered or is wrapped in waterproof kraft paper. The barrel, cask, keg or firkin is wooden. Barrels are

usually sift-proof and lined with chemicals or waterproof paper. The box or chest is made of wood, cardboard, corrugated

cardboard, plywood. The tin, can is made of metal. The carboy or demijohns made of glass and protected by a basketwork. The carton box is made of cardboard, corrugated cardboard,

or strawboard. The case is made out of wood, strengthened with metal

straps. The crate consists of a bottom and a frame with diagonals. The cylindrical drum is made of steel and iron. The pail is made out of metal, it has a spout and a handle. The jar is made of glass. The Marking Clause

The visible marking of the packing is very important for the merchandise handling of goods during loading, transhipment, unloading. For marking, stencils, burning the marks into the wood, paint, or indelible ink are used. It is advisable to use marking on at least two sides of each packing or, when it is not

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possible, the marking should be fixed on linen tags. Marking envisages both shipper's own distinctive marks and the consignee's distinctive marks. Marking should contain the official marks required by authorities, such as the weight and dimensions. It may also consist in figures, letters or drawings. This clause may also include special directions and warnings.

Here are few examples of special warnings: Do not drop; do not store in damp places; fragile; handle with care; keep in cold place; liquids, do not tilt; machinery, handle with care; open here; (sling here; stowaway from boilers; this side up; top; use no hooks. The Price Clause

In international sales contract, the price is settled both for

piece - unit price, but also total price in the agreed currency. It may appear separated or on categories of deliveries.

The price may be specified either directly – in exact figures, or by reference. In this second case, the price is determinable, in the respect that only the elements serving for the price calculation are present in formulating the price clause.

The price may be fixed price or sliding price. The price of the contract is mentioned both in figures and

letters in order to avoid confusions. It can be expressed either in the Buyer's currency, in the Seller's currency, or in a third currency.

This price can be calculated both for the net weight, and the gross weight. In order to appreciate the parts’ contractual obligations, to the authorities or to third parties, the price may be associated to the following formulas:

• duty paid . • duty unpaid • package included • package excluded • non return(able) package • package returnable within... days

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• freight. charges and expenses prepaid • free/ franco domicile • carriage paid • delivered free to... • free consignee's door • free of charges • delivered at... The Delivery Clause

This contract clause offers the contracting parts - the Seller

and the Buyer the opportunity to establish the obligations residing from the contract in connection to the delivery terms, usually referring to the INCOTERMS. They agree upon the delivery time/ date, according to which the delivery can be: - prompt delivery - ex stock - ex warehouse - ex works etc. - delivery on call - fixed time delivery - delivery on... - by...; within... By reporting to the effective delivery date, this may be:

- delivery in time - advance delivery/ delivery in advance - late/ postponed delivery

In the contract, the parts usually make official the conditions under which they accept - to modify/integral, complete delivery, one lot shipment/ delivery or delivery by instalments, part/ partial The delivery clause may referee to:

- place of delivery - transfer of property and risks from the Seller to the Buyer - evidence of delivery - other elements concerning delivery and documents

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connected to the INCOTERMS. The international set of rules for the interpretation of the

trade terms, also known as INCOTERMS, that the delivery clause makes reference to, has been elaborated by the International Chamber of Commerce in Paris and first published in 1936 an later with modifications in 1953, 1967, 1976, 1980, 1990 and 2000, in order to reflect changes in international trade rules, in transportation and communications.

The last version of the INCOTERMS contains the following grouping:

Group E Group F Group C Group D (Ex works)

EXW (Free carrier)

FCA (Cost and

freight) CFR

(Delivered At Frontier)


(Free along side ship) FAS

(Cost, Insurance and Freight)


(Delivered Ex Ship) DES

(Free on board) FOB

(Carriage paid to)


(Delivered Ex Quay) DEQ

(Carriage and Insurance Paid

to) CIP

(Delivered Duty Unpaid)


(Delivered Duty

Paid) DDP

Inside each delivery term the buyer’s and seller’s obligations

are presented considering ten essential aspects: 1. Provision of goods in conformity with the contract;

Payment 2. Licences, authorisations and formalities 3. Contract of carriage and insurance 4. Delivery 5. Transfer of risks 6. Division of costs 7. Notice to the Buyer/ Seller;

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8. Proof of delivery, transport document or equivalent electronic message;

9. Checking, Packaging, Marking. Inspection of goods 10. Other obligations. The Transportation Clause

This clause specifies the parts’ obligations referring to

transportation – means of transport, (according to the INCOTERMS term agreed upon ), for example the complete or partial chartering of a ship, or of renting a different transportation means, or the space of a railway wagon, truck, plane, etc.

-loading and unloading of goods; -loading, forwarding and unloading - written communication of the departure of the transport form the loading port/ station and the arrival to the unloading port/ station.

The establishment of the transport condition is done accordingly to certain factors such as:

- the type o product - the quantity to be delivered - the existing transportation routes - the partners’ preferences, etc. For example, in the case of petroleum products, for maritime transport, there are the following options: 1. delivery FOB Constanta, in bulk 2. CFR named port of destination, 3. FOB Constanta, drums, stowed 4. CFR named port of destination, drums: liner term, free out 5. FOB Constanta drums containers 6. CFR named port of destination containers 7. tanks, bulk, free on Romanian border

As resulting form this, the transporting conditions are closely connected to the delivery ones, to packing and to the product cost (the cost increases for the drum packing and stewing in containers, for example). The seller is interested in delivering

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the products using his own transportation means, as the income is higher. For these reasons, the transportation clause is negotiated in close connection to the delivery, pecking and price, and also taking into account all the factors that could determine a profitable contract. The Terms of Payment Clause

The clause ruling the payment conditions - terms of payment

will settle the price and the currency the payment will be made in, and also the payment methods - methods of settlement, the payment instruments, the place and time of payment but also the documents necessary for the payment. The sales can be made using payment in advance, payment on delivery, credit payment.

The payment in advance may also be cash payment in advance, or cash down-payment. The payment on delivery can be - cash payment, cash on delivery and it may also be done as payment against documents.

The most largely used payment methods are the documentary credit; documentary letter of credit and the documentary collection; payment upon receipt of documents. Amongst the payment instruments, the most commonly used are the draft or bill of exchange, the cheque and the promissory note. The Penalties and Other Sanctions Clause

This clause makes reference to: - penalties applicable for the un-fulfilment by either of the

parts of one/some contractual obligations - criteria and ways in applying penalties, calculating

penalties and damage amount that must be paid to the injured party by the part generating the damage

- the term of payment for the penalties or damages. Penalties can be fixed penalties, fixed feel percentage per unit

of time or measurement of quality, variable progressive/ regressive sum/ percentage.

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1.5.2. 12. The Force Majeure/ Contincency Clause

This clause includes:

- exoneration from total or partial obligations’ achievement by the party affected by those events/circumstances that represent cases of force majeure/ contingency

- procedural aspects of the claiming of force majeure such as: written notification of the parties concerning the case, the means of probation of the force majeure case, the notification term

- admissible terms for the duration of the force majeure and for the extension of the contract execution. The cases and the terms when the party to whom the force majeure has been claimed has the right to solicit contract cancellation, and when saving the contract becomes impossible. The Arbitration Clause

This clause includes:

- the circumstances settled by arbitration, disputes that came up between parties and could not be settled amicably, procedures submitting a dispute for settlement by arbitration, such as: the question at issue, the arbitrator appointed - parties obligations that convene such a ruling; their a priori commitment to willingly obey the Arbitration Court’s decision that is definitive/ final and binding. Cancellation Clause

The cancellation clause present in the contract is meant to discourage parts in meant to discourage parts in seriously breaking contractual engagements. Even though, being in nature an extreme measure, its application is rare, only for really severe cases and only after all the other amiable solutions in solving disputes have been

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unsatisfactory for the affected part. The following represent limit situations that may lead to the application of the cancellation clause:

- the seller does not respect the delivery dates - the seller can not prove partially or completely the

quality features, performance, etc., - the seller/buyer invokes the force majeure clause

beyond the deadline mentioned in the contract - the seller/buyer proves bad faith, is not solvable, is

bankrupt - the buyer does not put at the seller’s disposal the

material means needed for delivery under the contractual rules.

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1.5.3. Personal correspondence Personal correspondence covers a variety of written materials

either sent or received by a particular individual. Here we make reference to the letters sent by a person to a company/organization in connection to business activities, employment, studies. This type of letter writing may be especially important because it usually involves evaluation from specific professionals and may significantly contribute to the judgment of the writer. This includes writing a CV or a letter of intent and applying for a scholarship or a job.

The CV (resume in American English) is a document meant to introduce a certain individual to a potential employer or to an academic authority. It should be clear, concise and well structured. It represents the record of the most important events in someone’s professional life.

Even if most of the times the two terms CV and Resume are considered similar, differences still exist. The resume: emphasizes information on the experience, abilities and studies relevant for the objectives that must be fulfilled in a certain position for which you are applying, or in which selection process you are taking part.

The CV is a compilation of all the academic data and experience of a person throughout their life (as vitae indicates the Latin term life), unrelated to the position you are applying for or in which selection process you are taking part. The structure usually is personal data, academic, experience, languages, computer science and other data, all in chronological order.

The information given in the CV is structured according to the following chapters:

• Personal details • Education • Work history • Interests • References.

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Certain specific types of CV (e.g. the academic CV) may include some particular chapters such as – publications, scientific titles or prizes etc. Even though some differences may exist, and even if specialized literature may differ in presenting the layout of the CV, this does not affect the main function of the document or the type of information it gives.

Before personal computers, people used one resume for varied kinds of employment searches. However, with less expensive desktop publishing and high-quality printing, people sometimes rewrite their resumes for every new job they go after. For example, a person who seeks employment both with a community college and with a software-development company would use two different resumes. The contents of the two might be roughly the same, but the organization, format, and emphases would be quite different.

There also exist resume-writing software: the data is introduced and they produce a resume.

There is no one right way to write a resume. Every person's background, employment needs, and career objectives are different, thus necessitating unique resume designs. Every detail, every aspect of your resume must start with who you are, what your background is, what the potential employer is looking for, and what your employment goals are - not with from some pre-fabricated design.

• Sections in Resumes Resumes can be divided into three sections: the heading, the

body, and the conclusion. Each of these sections has fairly common contents.

Heading. The top third of the resume is the heading. It contains your name, phone numbers, address, and other details such as your occupation, titles, and so on. Some resume writers include the name of their profession, occupation, or field. In some examples, writers put things like "CERTIFIED PHYSICAL THERAPIST" very prominently in the heading. Headings can also

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contain a goals and objectives subsection and a highlights subsection.

Body. In a one-page resume, the body is the middle portion, taking up a half or more of the total space of the resume. In this section, you present the details of your work, education, and military experience. This information is arranged in reverse chronological order. In the body section, you also include your accomplishments, for example, publications, certifications, equipment you are familiar with, and so on. There are many ways to present this information:

• functionally - into separate sections for work experience and education.

• thematically - into separate sections for the different areas of your experience and education.

Conclusion. In the final third or quarter of the resume, other related information and background can be presented. For example, activities, professional associations, memberships, hobbies, and interests can be listed. At the bottom of the resume, people often put "REFERENCES AVAILABLE ON REQUEST" and the date of preparation of the resume. At first glance, listing non-work and personal information would seem totally irrelevant and inappropriate. Actually, it can come in handy - it personalizes the writer to potential employers and gives something to chat while you're waiting for the coffee machine or the elevator. For example, if the person mentions in the resume other activities, that gives the interviewer something to chat with you about during those moments of otherwise uncomfortable silence.

• Resumes: Types and Design To begin planning the resume, the person should decide which

type of resume is needed. This decision is in part based on requirements that prospective employers may have, and in part based on what your background and employment needs are.

Type of organization. Resumes can be defined according to how information on work and educational experience is handled. There are several basic, commonly used plans or designs you can consider using.

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• Functional design: it starts with a heading; then presents either education or work experience, whichever is stronger or more relevant; then presents the other of these two sections; then ends with a section on skills and certifications and one on personal information. Students who have not yet begun their careers often find this design the best for their purposes. People with military experience either work the detail in to the education and work-experience sections as appropriate; or they create separate section at the same level as education and work experience.

• Thematic design: It divides your experience and education into categories such as project management, budgetary planning, financial tracking, personnel management, customer sales, technical support, publications - whichever areas describe your experience. Often, these categories are based directly on typical or specific employment advertisements. If the job advertisement says that Company ABC wants a person with experience in training, customer service, and sales, then it might be a smart move to design thematic headings around those three requirements. If the thematic approach is used in the resume, take a look at your employment and educational experience - what are the common threads? Project management, program development, troubleshooting, supervision, maintenance, inventory control? Take a look at the job announcement the person is responding to - what are the three, four, or five key requirements it mentions? Use these themes to design the body section of the resume. These themes become the headings in the body of the resume. Under these headings, the person must list the employment or educational experience that applies. For example, under a heading like "FINANCIAL RECORDS," someone might list the accounting and bookkeeping courses you took in college, the seminars on Word or

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EXCEL you took, and the jobs where you actually used these skills.

Type of information. Types of resumes can be defined according to the amount and kind of information they present:

• Objective resumes: This type just gives dates, names, titles, no qualitative salesmanship information. These are very lean, terse resumes. In our technical-writing course, you are asked not to write solely this type. The objective-resume style is useful in resumes that use the thematic approach or that emphasize the summary/highlights section. By its very nature, the thematic approach is unclear about the actual history of employment. It's harder to tell where the person was, what she was doing, year by year.

• Detailed resumes: This type provides not only dates, titles, and names, but also details about your responsibilities and statements about the quality and effectiveness of the work. This is the type most people write, and the type that is the focus of this technical-writing course.

• General Layout and Detail Formats in Resumes At some point in planning a resume, the person writing it must

think schematically about the layout and design of the thing. General layout has to do with the design and location of the heading, the headings for the individual sections, and the orientation of the detailed text in relation to those headings. Detail formats are the way to arrange and present the details of the education and work experience.

Detail formats. A fundamental decision about the presentation of the details of the working and education experience must be made in order to support the application. The elements to work with include:

• Occupation, position, job title • Company or organization name • Time period you were there • Key details about your accomplishments and

responsibilities while there.

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There are many different ways to format this information. It all depends on what the person writing the resume wishes to emphasize and how much or how little information there is.

• Special Sections in Resumes Highlights, summary section. "Highlights" section that occurs just below the heading (the section for name, address, phone number, etc.) and just above the main experience and education sections. This is an increasingly popular section in resumes.

Resume specialists believe that the eye makes first contact with a page somewhere one-fourth to one-third of the way down the page - not at the very top. If you believe that, then it makes sense to put your very best stuff at that point. Therefore, some people list their most important qualifications, their key skills, their key work experience in that space on the page. Actually, this section is useful more for people who have been in their careers for a while. It's a good way to create one common spot on the resume to list those key qualifications that may be spread throughout the resume. Otherwise, these key details are scattered across various employment and educational experience - in fact, buried in them.

Objectives, goals. Also found on some resumes is a section just under the heading in which the person describes the key goals or objectives and key qualifications. Some resume writers shy away from including a section like this because they fear it may cause certain employers to stop reading, in other words, that it limits their possibilities. A key-qualifications section is similar to a highlights section, but shorter and in paragraph rather than list form.

Amplifications page. Some people have a lot of detail that they want to convey about their qualifications but that does not fit well in any of the typical resume designs. For example, certain computer specialists can list dozens of hardware and software products they have experience with - and they feel they must list all this in the resume. To keep the main part of the resume from becoming unbalanced and less readable, they shift all of this detail to an amplifications page. There, the computer specialist can

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categorize and list all that extensive experience in many different operating systems, hardware configurations, and software applications. Similarly, some resume writers want to show lots more detail about the responsibilities and duties they have managed in past employment. The standard formats for resume design just do not accommodate this sort of detail; and this is where the amplifications page can be useful.

Resume design and format must be focused on: • Readability: are there any dense paragraphs over 6 lines? • White space. Picture a resume crammed with detail, using

only half-inch margins all the way around, a small type size, and only a small amount of space between parts of the resume. Our prospective employer might be less inclined to pore through that also. Find ways to incorporate more white space in the margins and between sections of the resume. Again, the "hanging-head" design is also useful.

• Special format. Make sure to use special format consistently throughout the resume.

• Consistent margins. Most resumes have several margins: the outermost, left margin and at least one internal left margin. Typically, paragraphs in a resume use an internal margin, not the far-left margin. Make sure to align all appropriate text to these margins as well.

• Terse writing style. The challenge in most resumes is to get it all on one page (or two if you have a lot of information to present).

• Special typography. Use special typography, but keep it under control.

• Page fill. Avoid spilling over by 4 or 5 lines to a second page. If you need a two-page resume, see that the second page is full or nearly full.

• Clarity of boundary lines between major sections. Design and format the resume so that whatever the main sections are, they are very noticeable. Use well-defined headings and white space to achieve this. Similarly, design your

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resume so that the individual segments of work experience or education are distinct and separate from each other.

• Reverse chronological order. Remember to list education and work-experience items starting with the current or most recent and working backwards in time.

• Consistency of bold, italics, different type size, caps, other typographical special effects. Also, whatever special typography is used, be consistent with it throughout the resume.

• Consistency of phrasing. Use the same style of phrasing for similar information in a resume - for example, past tense verbs for all work descriptions.

• Consistency of punctuation style. For similar sections of information use the same kind of punctuation - for example, periods, commas, colons, or nothing.

• Translations for "inside" information. Do not assume readers will know what certain abbreviations, acronyms, or symbols mean - yes, even to the extent of "GPA" or the construction "3.2/4.00." Take time to describe special organizations you may be a member of.

• Grammar, spelling, usage.

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• Sample Resume (CV)

Amanda Wittig 2345 W. Randolph Lane #112 Seguin, TX 78876 Home: (513) 456-0987 Work: (513) 654-9876 WORK EXPERIENCE Receptionist. Lincoln & Browne, Law Firm. Responsibilities: Answering phone (21 lines); typing business correspondence and legal documents; maintaining logbooks on runners, law clerks and paralegals; calculating deposits and overflow work. November 1987 - present. Receptionist. Seguin Regional Clinic. Responsibilities: Answering phone (5 lines); calculating fee tickets; scheduling appointments. August - November 1987. Receptionist. Louis & Maitre. Responsibilities: Answering phone (5 lines); running errands; calculating deposits; filing; typing letters and memoranda. June - August 1987 Secretary. Downe-Burgues, Oil and Gas Specialists. Responsibilities: Typing of legal documents and title opinions; preparing worksheets for abstracts of title; handling of client billing and accounts payable; maintaining oil and gas drilling maps; maintaining firm library; ordering supplies. 1985 - 1987. EDUCATION Business Management Science, Associate of Arts (expected May 1991), Austin Community College.

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Courses: Introduction to Business Management, Technical Writing, Basic College Accounting. January 1989 - present. Concordia Lutheran. Austin, TX. Courses: Introduction to Computer Science, Business Communications, Macroeconomics. January 1987 - May 1988. Goliad High School, 1986 graduate. Office Education Program. NALS Legal Secretary Institute, June 1986. Professional Legal Secretary Course, April 1986. OFFICE EQUIPMENT Experienced with Lanier (Qume) Word Processor, IBM personal Computer, Hewlett-Packard (vectra Computer), Displaywriter, Apple Computer, Macintosh Plus, Dictaphone, and IBM and XEROX memorywriters.

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The cover letter (the letter of intent) is a document of equal importance to the resume.

The resume cover letter is the first impression the selector will have of the candidate and its negative or positive impact is going to influence his or her further reading (or not ) the CV or resume.

A Cover Letter must be very professional, well written, without misspellings. The content directly explains the candidate meets the requirements for the position, emphasizing and directing the attention of the selector towards the abilities, skills and knowledge the candidate has proved, with concrete examples based on previous experience or non-work experience (if you have never worked or have been outside the job market for a while). The essential features of the cover letter are:

• It highlights the difference with the rest of candidates. • It has to convince the selector to select a certain candidate. • It shows motivation. • It reflects skills in written communication. The cover letter should be structured as following: • Paragraph 1: present and explain the aim of the cover

letter. • Paragraph 2: explains the interest in the company, in the

very industry and in the particular position. • Paragraph 3: presents contribution (achievements,

experience); abilities and capacities that will be used by the individual in order to carry out the position’s functions.

• Paragraph 4: invitation to the interview. Creativity is very important when finishing the letter, this should not be mentioned directly.

Sample cover letter

Dear Mr. Watson, Having broken sales records and exceeded sales

quotas in all my previous positions and recently completed my MBA in marketing from the School of Managerial Leadership at California State University,

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I am an ideal candidate for the regional sales manager position at Hilton Resorts in US and Mexico

As the leading sales representative for Disney Vacation Club, I developed key sales material, trained new sales reps, and reinvented the way club memberships are sold. My team's revenue was more than double the average for the entire operation.

The vacation club industry is a dynamic and growing industry, and I am convinced I can help Hilton grow its reputation and dominant position in the industry.

We should meet to discuss the position. I will contact you in the next 10 days to arrange an interview. Should you have any questions before that time, please feel free to call me at 901-111-2233 or email me. Thank you for your time and consideration.

Cordially, John Smith

The application letter tend to be more and more rare as

firms have development electronic application forms for different jobs or positions inside a firm. The classic application letter is a short one (200-250 words) and it has a clear structure. Its goal is to bring to attention aspects of the applicant’s activity that can support the request and can help the recruiter to make the correct choice. The layout is that of a formal business letter. Anyway, there are some small differences as, for instance, the letter head, which indicates the address of the sender, but without the writer’s name. Any document sent with this letter should be mentioned under the heading “Enclosure”.

The role of the application letter is to draw a clear connection between the job you are seeking and your qualifications listed in the resume. To put it another way, the letter matches the requirements of the job with your qualifications, emphasizing how you are right for that job. The application letter is not a lengthy summary of the resume. It selectively mentions information in the resume, as appropriate.

The types of application letters can be defined according to amount and kind of information:

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• Objective letters - One type of letter says very little: it identifies the position being sought, indicates an interest in having an interview, and calls attention to the fact that the resume is attached. It also mentions any other special matters that are not included on the resume, such as dates and times when you are available to come in for an interview. This letter does no salesmanship and is very brief. (It may represent the true meaning of "cover" letter.)

• Highlight letters - Another type of application letter, the type you'll be doing, tries to summarize the key information from the resume, the key information that will emphasize that the writer is a good candidate for the job. In other words, it selects the best information from the resume and summarizes it in the letter - this type of letter is specially designed to make the connection with the specific job.

As for the actual content and organization of the paragraphs within the application letter, consider the following comon approaches.

Introductory paragraph. That first paragraph of the application letter is the most important; it sets everything up - the tone, focus, your most important qualification. A typical problem in the introductory paragraph involves diving directly into work and educational experience. A better idea is to do something like the following:

• State the purpose of the letter - to inquire about an employment opportunity.

• Indicate the source of your information about the job - newspaper advertisement, a personal contact, or other.

• State one eye-catching, attention-getting thing about yourself in relation to the job or to the employer that will cause the reader to want to continue.

Main body paragraphs. In the main parts of the application letter, the person writing the letter should present his/her work experience, education, training - whatever makes that connection between that person and the job. Remember that this is the most

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important job to do in this letter - to enable the reader see the match between the qualifications and the requirements for the job. There are two common ways to present this information:

• Functional approach - This one presents education in one section, and work experience in the other. If there were military experience, that might go in another section. Whichever of these section has your best stuff should come first, after the introduction.

• Thematic approach - This one divides experience and education into groups such as "management," "technical," "financial," and so on and then discusses your work and education related to them in separate paragraphs.

Another section worth considering for the main body of the application letter is one in which you discuss your goals, objectives -the focus of the person’s career. A paragraph like this is particularly good for people just starting their careers, when there is not much to put in the letter.

Closing paragraph. In the last paragraph of the application letter, the person writing the letter can indicate how the prospective employer can get in touch with applicant and when are the best times for an interview. This is the place to urge that prospective employer to make a contact and arrange an interview. Common Problems in Application Letters

• Readability and white space - Are there any dense paragraphs over 8 lines? Are there comfortable margins all the way around the letter? Is there adequate spacing between paragraph and between the components of the letter?

• Page fill - Is the letter placed on the page nicely: not crammed at the top one-half of the page; not spilling over to a second page by only three or four lines?

• General neatness, professional-looking quality - Is the letter on good quality paper, and is the copy clean and free of smudges and erasures?

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• Proper use of the business-letter format - Have you set up the letter in one of the standard business-letter formats? (See the references earlier in this chapter.)

• Overt, direct indication of the connection between your background and the requirements of the job - Do you emphasize this connection?

• A good upbeat, positive tone - Is the tone of the letter bright and positive? Does it avoid sounding overly aggressive, brash, over-confident (unless that is really the tone you want)? Does the letter avoid the opposite problem of sounding stiff, overly reserved, stand-offish, blase, indifferent?

• A good introduction - Does the introduction establish the purpose of the letter? Does it avoid diving directly into the details of your work and educational experience? Does the person writing letter present one little compelling detail about him/her that will cause the reader to want to keep reading?

• A good balance between brevity and details - Does the letter avoid becoming too detailed (making readers less inclined to read thoroughly)? Does the letter avoid the opposite extreme of being so general that it could refer to practically anybody?

• Lots of specifics (dates, numbers, names, etc.) - Does the letter present plenty of specific detail but without making the letter too densely detailed? Is there hard factual detail (numbers, dates, proper names) that make you stand out as an individual?

• A minimum of information that is simply your opinion of yourself – Does it avoid over-reliance on information that is simply your opinions about yourself.

• Grammar, spelling, usage - And of course, does the letter use correct grammar, usage, and spelling?

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Sample Application Letter 1225 Hampton Street Yonkers, NY 10407 March 15, 2003 Ms. Dianne C. Strand Manager of Human Resources ABC Industries 2000 Smith Street White Plains, NY 10592 Dear Ms. Strand: I am applying for the position of systems analyst, which was advertised on March 12 with the career services office at Manhattan College. The position seems to fit very well with my education, experience, and career interests. Your position requires experience in computer systems, financial applications software, and end-user consulting. With a major in computer information systems, I have training on mainframes, minicomputers, and microcomputers as well as with a variety of software programs and applications. My practical experience in my college’s computer center as a programmer and as a student consultant for system users gave me valuable exposure to complex computer operations. Additionally, I worked as an intern in computing operations for a large bank where I gained knowledge of financial systems. My enclosed resume provides more details on my qualifications. My background and career goals seem to match your job requirements well. I am confident that I can perform the job effectively. Furthermore, I am genuinely interested in the position and in working for ABC Industries. Your firm has an excellent reputation and [comes highly recommended to me. Would you please consider my request for a personal interview to discuss further my qualifications and to learn more about this opportunity? I will call you next week to see if a meeting can be arranged. Should

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you need to reach me, please feel free to call me at 914-779-2050. If I am not in, please leave a message on my answering machine and I will return your call within a day. Thank you for your consideration. I look forward to talking to you. Sincerely, (Written signature) Lisa Watson Enclosure Curriculum Vitae

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