superpowers face off
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DESCRIPTIONSuperpowers Face Off. U.S.S.R. USA. vs. Focus. What do you remember about the Cold War from World History?. The Cold War [1945-1991]: An Ideological Struggle. Soviet & Eastern Bloc Nations [“Iron Curtain”]. US & the Western Democracies. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
FocusWhat do you remember about the Cold War from World History?
The Cold War [1945-1991]: An Ideological StruggleSoviet & Eastern Bloc Nations [Iron Curtain]US & the Western DemocraciesGOAL spread world-wide CommunismGOAL Containment of Communism & the eventual collapse of the Communist world. [George Kennan] METHODOLOGIES:Espionage [KGB vs. CIA]Arms Race [nuclear escalation]Ideological Competition for the minds and hearts of Third World peoples [Communist govt. & command economy vs. democratic govt. & capitalist economy] proxy warsBi-Polarization of Europe [NATO vs. Warsaw Pact]
Yalta ConferenceFeb. 1945The Division of Germany once the war is over
Soviet Union would occupy Eastern European countries and agreed to hold elections in these countries following the war
Potsdam ConferenceJuly 1945
The Soviet Union 1922-1991
Roots of the Cold WarAllies during the war, but not truly friendsSoviets wanted British and Americans to open a second European front earlier in the war. 28U.S. atomic bomb plans worried Soviet Union.PhilosophicalDifferencesDifferences between the Soviet Union and the United States reached back to the 1920s.Soviet Union: communism, totalitarian dictatorshipUnited States: capitalism, republicWorld War IIConflictsThe Soviet Union refused to let Eastern Europe hold elections as promised at Yalta. The United States resisted Soviet expansion.PostwarConflictsMapWhich of the causes do you think was the major sourceOf conflict leading to the Cold War?
Pair ShareWhat were some causes of the Cold War?
The Iron Curtain
What is an Iron Curtain?
Stalin wanted to retain political and economic control over Eastern Europe.The Soviets managed to install Communist governments throughout Eastern Europe.Stalin outlawed political parties or newspapers that opposed the Communists.The Soviets jailed or killed some political opponents.The Soviets rigged elections to ensure the success of Communists.Yugoslavia was the one Eastern European nation that was not under the direct control of Stalin and the Soviet Union. Josip Broz Tito, a Communist, refused to take orders from the Soviet Union.The Soviet Union relocated Germans living in Poland and other countries of Eastern Europe.
Western Views of the Iron CurtainSoviet Views of the Iron CurtainWinston Churchill attacked the Soviet Union for creating an Iron Curtain.The term reflected Churchills belief that communism had created a sharp division in Europe.Harry S Truman urged his secretary of state to get tough with the Soviets.Stalin believed that the Iron Curtain was necessary to protect the Soviet Union from western attacks.Stalin used Churchills words to help persuade his people that the United States and Great Britain were their enemies.He also used this as an excuse to rebuild the military. The Iron Curtain
Explain the meaning of the political cartoon. Who are the people? What are they doing? Etc.
Soviet Union & Communism
Russian History of InvasionFrance (Napoleon) 350,000 Russians killed
Germany (WWI) 5 million Russians killedTotal deaths of WWI- 16 million
Germany (WWII) 30 million Russians killed *Japan 2 million, Germany 7 million killed Total deaths of WWII- 60-70 million
Stalin wanted a Buffer Zone against future attacksWhat is a Buffer Zone? Was he Justified?
Analyze this Political Cartoon
Pair Share:Analyze this Political Cartoon
Who said, An Iron Curtain has descended upon the Continent?
What is the Iron Curtain?
United States Response to CommunismGeorge Keenan comes up with the containment policy (keep communism where it is, do not let it spread)Truman Doctrine: We will help countries at risk of becoming communistMarshall Plan: Sent $13 billion to Western European nations Berlin Airlift: Soviets close Berlin; US flies in supplies to the people for nearly 1 year, flying 280,000 flights in and out or Berlin
What is the official Cold War policy of the United States?
ContainmentGeorge F. Kennan created a policy known as containment.This policy stated that the United States should resist Soviet attempts to expand its power.Containment included economic aid, sanctions, and military force.Truman DoctrineSaid that the United States would help people fight against oppressorsTruman wanted to send aid to Greece and Turkey to help them fight Soviet pressure.Congress agreed to send millions of dollars to Greece and Turkey.How did the United States respond to Soviet actions in Europe?Marshall Plan An aid program to rebuild the economies of European countries to create stable conditions for democracies17 countries received $13.4 billion dollars in aid.Helped build strong political support in Western EuropeMapPlan
What was the Truman Doctrine?
What was the Marshall Plan?
Crisis in BerlinWith the start of the Cold War, it became clear that the Soviets planned to keep their German zone under Communist control.The British, Americans, and French began to take steps to set up a free, democratic government within their German zones.The western zone eventually became known as the Federal Republic of Germany, or West Germany.The British, Americans, and French also tried to set up a democratic government in West Berlin.The Soviets were not happy with the idea of a Western-style government and economy in the middle of the Soviet zone of occupation.
Soviets Bloc TrafficIn June 1948 the Soviets announced that they would block any road, rail, or river traffic into West Berlin.West Berlins residents were cut off from food, coal, and other products.West Berlin was not completely cutoff because it had airstrips.The Berlin AirliftBritish and American planes began making deliveries to West Berlin.The Berlin Airlift continued for months and months.Finally, the Soviet Union lifted its blockade on May 12, 1949.The Crisis in BerlinNATO Forms In 1949 the U.S. and 6 other nations joined Belgium, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and the U.K. to form NATO.An armed attack against one would be considered an attack against all.Today, 26 countries belong to NATO.Berlin
Berlin Air LiftJune 1948- May 19497,000 tons of supplies daily
Analyze this Political Cartoon.
Why did the Soviet Union block all traffic into West Berlin?
How did the U.S. respond?
What is NATO?
BackWhat were two different ways that the Marshall Plan benefited the United States?
Why did the U.S. offer aid to Eastern European countries?Why do you think the Soviet Union refused U.S. aid?
Crisis In BerlinThe Soviet Union has just blocked all access routes into West Berlin. 2.1 million residents are now without food, water, and other basic necessities? If you were the president, what would you do?Back
Why help Greece and Turkey?Back