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  • SugarConditioning TheBasics

    Malcolm TopferMalcolmTopfer

    SugarKnowledgeInternationalLtd

  • Introduction to SKILIntroductiontoSKILSugarKnowledgeInternationalLtd,knownthroughout the sugar industry as SKIL is a modernthroughoutthesugarindustryasSKIL,isamodern,multinationalprofessionalservicescompanywiththe resources necessary to provide consultancytheresourcesnecessarytoprovideconsultancy,projectengineering,projectmanagementandoperational management support to the worldsoperationalmanagementsupporttotheworld ssugarindustry.We are a truly independent organisation notWeareatrulyindependentorganisation,notconnectedtoanysugarproducer,anysupplierofequipment and/or consumables nor to anyequipmentand/orconsumablesnortoanycontractor.

  • Introduction to SKILIntroductiontoSKILThisallowsustoprovidetotallyunbiasedadvicetoclients so that we are able to optimise the totalclientssothatweareabletooptimisethetotalproject.The directors and staff of SKIL developed theirThedirectorsandstaffofSKIL developedtheircareerswithmultinationalsugarcompaniessuchasTate & Lyle British Sugar Illovo and Sucrogen (CSR)Tate&Lyle,BritishSugar,IllovoandSucrogen (CSR).Inadditiontotheproventechnicalexpertisethereisth f lid b f i l ithereforeasolidbaseofcommercialawarenessintermsofprojectdevelopmentandimplementation.Thi i i d b li h i l d ED&F MThisisrecognisedbyclientsthatincludeED&FMan,Tate&Lyle,BungeandLouisDreyfus.

  • Introduction to SKILIntroductiontoSKILSKIL projectsinthelast12months:

    ASCBahrainRefinery BungeSugarandBioenergy worldwide ED&FManSugar worldwide Eritreasugarcanefactory LaGloriasugarcanefactory LouisDreyfusCommodities XiamenRefinery Racelandsugarcanefactory Rusagro sugarbeetstorage

    li i i d i i i SalimGrouptrainingandcommissioning SriLankasugarcaneagriculture

    Y l b i Yeletssugarbeetpowerstation

  • Sugar Caking Why Condition Sugar? Thailandhasdevelopedareputationfora

    SugarCaking WhyConditionSugar?

    caking/lumpingproblemoverthelastfewyears.

    In the worst cases this is apparent in 50 kg bags over aIntheworstcasesthisisapparentin50kgbagsoveraveryshorttimeperiod onetotwoweeks.

    The Thai industry is competitive in terms of its refined TheThaiindustryiscompetitiveintermsofitsrefinedsugarcostbut,toutilisethisgoodpricestructure,oneneeds to be able to ship good quality free flowingneedstobeabletoshipgoodquality,freeflowingsugartoallmarketsinanyformofpackaging 25or50 kg big bag and bulk50kg,bigbagandbulk.

    5

  • Sugar Caking Why Condition Sugar? Mitr Phol andKorach currentlyhavetheabilityto

    SugarCaking WhyConditionSugar?

    conditionsugar.Otherswillfollow.

    Competitors in neighbouring countries have recentlyCompetitorsinneighbouringcountrieshaverecentlyinstalledconditioning.

    A number of design and process control issues can Anumberofdesignandprocesscontrolissuescanmakecakingworsewhilegoodrefinerypracticescanhelp to alleviate poorly designed equipmenthelptoalleviatepoorlydesignedequipment.

    Modernpracticecombinescountercurrentdrying/li ith h t id ti diti i Thicoolingwithshortresidencetimeconditioning.This

    isnowbeingimplementedinThailand.

    6

  • Where does the problem start? Crystallisationisthefirstareatohaveamajor

    Wheredoestheproblemstart?

    influenceinsugardrying/coolingandtheneedorotherwiseforconditioning.

    GoodCoefficientofVariation CV. CVs of 28 32 are considered good by producers CV sof28 32areconsideredgoodbyproducersalthoughsomeconditioningsuppliersaskforlowerand this is very difficult and costly to maintainandthisisverydifficultandcostlytomaintain.

    TheshapeoftheCVcurvealsohasaninfluence.Ifth i bi t d th ll ti l i ththereisabiastowardsthesmallerparticlesizethenthiswillincreasethesurfaceareaandmakethe

    blproblemworse.7

  • Graph ofTypicalSugarScreeningResults

    8

  • Vacuum Pans Moderndesignsaredifferenttothosefrom30years

    VacuumPans

    ago

    Older designs were tall with poor circulation andOlderdesignsweretallwithpoorcirculationandweakstirrers.

    Modern design are low head short calandria with Moderndesignarelowhead,shortcalandriawithcentrewells,goodheatingsurfacetovolumeratiosand powerful stirrersandpowerfulstirrers.

    Goodautomaticcontrolsystemsandcareintheti f l h l i bt i i i t tpreparationofslurryhelpinobtainingconsistent

    results.

    9

  • Centrifugal Machines Shouldberunasconsistentlyaspossible.

    CentrifugalMachines

    Dryersdonotlikelargeflowvariations.

    10

  • Dryers Therehavebeenmanychangesindryerdesignoverthe

    Dryers

    lastthirtyyears: Vibratingbed hotairg Fluidisedbed hotandcoldair,horizontalandvertical Rotary cocurrent,countercurrent,mixedflow,y , , ,

    cascade,cruciform,fallingfilm,multibarrel

    Theaimistodrythecrystalasgentlyaspossiblewhilee a s to d y t e c ysta as ge t y as poss b e elimitingtheamountofcrystaldamage.

    11

  • Dryers Inthelastfiveyearsmostnewbuildrefinerieshave

    Dryers

    usedcountercurrent,lowtemperature,rotaryfallingfilm.Airflowcanbelinkedtosugarflow.

    Gooddryingdoes90%oftheworkinobtainingfreeflowing sugar.flowingsugar.

    12

  • How is Sugar Conditioned? PasslowrH airthroughthemassofsugarfor

    HowisSugarConditioned?

    sufficienttimetobringthetotalmoisturedowntoanacceptablelevel.

    13

  • How is Sugar Conditioned? PasslowrH airthroughthemassofsugarfor

    HowisSugarConditioned?

    sufficienttimetobringthetotalmoisturedowntoanacceptablelevel. Whattimeissufficient? WhatrH? Whattemperature? Whatisanacceptablestartingpoint?p g p Whatisanacceptablefinalpoint?

    14

  • Typical Parameters Inputtempnottoodifferenttosugartemp avoid

    TypicalParameters

    temperatureshock.

    Input rH normally 3045 again avoid air that isInputrH normally30 45 againavoidairthatisverylowrH.

    Time? As long as it takes to get total moisture to a Time?Aslongasittakestogettotalmoisturetoareasonablelevel between0.04to0.06.Anythingfrom 6 hrs to plus 72 hrsfrom6hrstoplus72hrs.

    Finaltestis75daysinbulkforminacontaineracrossdiff t li tidifferentclimaticzones.

    15

  • Tips and Tricks Howtogetthesugarin.

    TipsandTricks

    Howtogettheairin. How to get the sugar out Howtogetthesugarout. Howdoesthedesignavoidchannelling doestheair

    h ll th d i ll th diti dreachallthesugarandisallthesugarconditionedforthesametime oneofthebiggestproblems.

    16

  • History Thebeetindustryhasusedconditioningfor50years

    History

    shortseasonsanddirectwhitesugarproductionmeansthatsugarneedstobestoredforuptoninemonths.Theirsolutionscombineconditioningandstorage.

    Itdidnotstartinthecanesugarrefiningindustryuntildecades later.decadeslater.

    Itisnotcommoninthecanesugarrefiningindustrybut the requirement is increasing as different shippingbuttherequirementisincreasingasdifferentshippingmethodsareusedandcustomersarebecomingmoredemandingdemanding.

    17

  • History Conditioningsilosaredifferenttostoragesilos.

    History

    Conditioningsilosaresmallwhilestoragesilosmaybeas big as 80,000 tonnes.asbigas80,000tonnes.

    18

  • FIFO or Mass Flow Thewholecontentslidesdownevenly;inthetapered

    FIFOorMassFlow

    orconicalsectionsugariscompressedsideways.

    Due to friction and compression loads there are largeDuetofrictionandcompressionloadstherearelargeforcesonwalls.

    Strength calculations are difficult and are best carried StrengthcalculationsaredifficultandarebestcarriedoutbyaSpecialist.

    Th t i l ti l hi h b f th h i ht d Thecostisrelativelyhighbecauseoftheheightandsometimescomplicatedshapeandreinforcements.

    19

  • FIFO or Mass Flow TherearenotmanytypesfullmassflowFIFOsilos.

    FIFOorMassFlow

    Examplesofhighaspectratiosilo:mainlySouthAfrica Wellman/Bosch.Wellman/Bosch.

    Examplesofmediumaspectratiosilo:Portasilo,MitrPhol flat side designPhol flatsidedesign.

    20

  • FIFO or Mass FlowDifferenttypesofmassflowsiloshavebeendeveloped

    FIFOorMassFlow

    High aspect ratio Medium aspect ratio Low aspect ratio H/D 5 H/D 3 - 4 H/D 1.5 2 H 40 50 m H 35 40 m H 25 35 m D 8 10 m D 11 m D 15 22 m Inverted cone outlet Steep cone outlet(s) Multiple outlets Inverted cone outlet Steep cone outlet(s) Multiple outlets 1,000 3,000 t 1,000 3,000 t 3,000 10,000 t Full mass-flow Full mass-flow Partial mass-flow Start-up problems Clean-out problems

    21

  • High aspect ratio silo 1800 t Feed rate 40 t/h

    Inlet with 12 pipe diverterInlet with 12 pipe diverter12 radial outlets to central hopper

    22

  • Medium aspect ratio mass-flow silo 1700 tD 11 m, H 35 m

    Feed / reclaim rate 30 t/hCentral inlet

    Outlet hoppers (2 x)

    23

  • Sugar Refinery Mitr Phol Thailand (2007)

    Huge wall reinforcements

    Left container loading station

    24

  • Flat Bottom Silos Silowithnumerousoutletsinbottom.

    FlatBottomSilos

    Airdiffusersinbottom. Sugar should leave silo through all outlets Sugarshouldleavesilothroughalloutletssimultaneously.

    I th b t th it b f Inthebasementtherearequiteanumberofconveyorstocollectsugarandtransportittowardsai l t kisingleconveyortopacking.

    25

  • Flat Bottom Silos Alargeportionsugarremainsstagnant(ratholing

    FlatBottomSilos

    effect),considerablyreducingtheretentionperiod.Partofthestagnantsugarrequireshandcleanout.

    Animprovedtypeisthemulticoneoutletsilo(ACMB),where most of the cleanout is without manualwheremostoftheclean outiswithoutmanualinterference.

    26

  • Sugar Refinery Mackay Australia (1995)Low aspect ratio flat bottom concrete silo 3000 t under constructionLow aspect ratio flat bottom concrete s

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