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DESCRIPTIONThis presentation was originally prepared for the Keystone Goat Producers Association Fall Seminar Series on November 8, 2014.
- 1. SUSAN SCHOENIAN (Shy n n)Sheep & Goat SpecialistUniversity of Maryland Extensionsschoen@umd.edu sheepandgoat.com wormx.info
2. Breeding Nutrition Vaccinations Periparturient egg rise Normal kidding Kidding problems Newborn kid problems Colostrum Artificially rearing kids 3. Does Healthy Sound Moderate body condition ProductiveBucks Healthy Sound Fertile Moderate body condition Productive Genetically-superior* 4. Nutrient requirements areaffected by stage and levelof production. Energy (TDN) requirementsincrease throughoutpregnancy and are highestduring late gestation. Protein (CP) requirementsincrease throughoutpregnancy and are highest during early lactation. Calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) requirements increase duringpregnancy and are highest during lactation. 5. DRY MATTER (DM) Livestock nutrient requirementsare based on dry matter. Nutrients are contained in the drymatter portion of the feed. All feeds contain water; dry matteris whats left after the water isremoved. Feedstuffs vary in dry mattercontent, from < 10 to > 90percent. Most common feedstuffs (haysand grain) are 88-90 percent DM. Feedstuffs must be compared on a An animals nutrient requirementsare based on its size (weight),along with other factors. Animals require certain amounts(lb, kg, oz, g, or mcal) of nutrients,not percentages. Percentage requirements arebased on assumed dry matterintakes, e.g. 3 lbs. of hay + lb. ofgrain Percentages are used to describethe nutrient density of a feed andare a tool for balancing rations.dry matter (and weight) basis. WEIGHT 6. 4.003.503.002.502.001.501.000.502.51DMI TDN2.753.153.343.851.321.451.672.222.0553%53%53%67%53%MAINTENANCE BREEDING EARLY GESTATION LATE GESTATION EARLY LACTATIONPercentagerequirements arebased on anassumed drymatter intake(DMI); if less drymatter isconsumed, ahigher energy (%)diet would berequired.Energy requirements (TDN) of a 132-lb. non-dairy doe (twins).3.85 lbs. DM= ~4.25 lbs. as-fed 7. Late gestation (6-8 weeks) Early lactation (6 -8 weeks)2.402.202.001.801.601.962.222.35SINGLE TWINS TRIPLETS OR MORE2.202.102.001.901.801.701.601.802.052.13SINGLE TWINS TRIPLETS OR MOREEnergy (TDN) requirements of a 132 lb. non-dairy doe, lbs./day 8. 2.502.001.501.000.500.00Energy (TDN) requirements of 132-lb does, lbs./day0.720.79Dairy Non-dairy0.871.121.382.050.600.660.761.010.93Maintenance Breeding Early gestation Late gestation Early lactation Parlor milking 9. Requirements: 2.22 lbs. TDN per dayOrchardgrass hay88% DM59% TDNBarley grain89% DM84% TDNFeed 3 lbs. of orchardgrass hay per day3.0 x 0.88 = 2.64 lbs. DM2.64 x 0.59 = 1.58 lbs. TDN2.22 - 1.58 = 0.64 lbs. differenceFeed barley to meet TDN requirements0.64 0.84 = 0.73 lbs. barley DM0.73 0.89 = 0.82 lbs. barley as-fed 10. Percentagerequirements arebased on anassumed drymatter intake; ifless dry matter isconsumed, ahigher protein (%)diet would berequired.Protein requirements (CP) of a 132-lb. non-dairy doe (twins).0.180.200.310.45 0.460.500.450.400.350.300.250.200.150.107.2%7.3%9.8%13.5% 11.9%Maintenance Breeding Early gestation Late gestation Lactation 11. Requirements: 0.45 lbs. CP per dayOrchardgrass hay (3 lbs)88% DM10% CPBarley grain (0.8 lbs)89% DM12% CPFeed 3 lbs. of orchardgrass hay per day3.0 0.88 = 2.64 lbs. DM2.64 x 0.10 = 0.264 lbs. CP0.45 0.26 = 0.19 lb. differenceConcentrate portion of ration needs to contain 26% CP0.19 lb. DM 0.73 lb. DM 12. BarleyProteinpellet123826%121426 26 = 46% Barley 26 = 54% pellet~ 50:50 mix of barley to pellets 13. 10.09.08.07.06.05.04.03.02.01.0Ca and P requirements of a 132-lb. non-dairy doe (twins), g/dayCALCIUM PHOSPHORUS18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.59.25.6Maintenance Breeding Early gestation Late gestation Early lactation 14. Feed balanced rations Balance rations by handusing simple math. Evaluate rations using aspreadsheet. Balance rations using LangstonUniversitys Online NutrientCalculator. Weigh animals Weigh feed Test foragesFollow someone elsesrecommendationsExample: North Carolina State University Free choice trace minerals, w/Se Free choice forage When forage or browse is limitedor of low quality (< 10% CP) feed 1lb. of a 16% CP diet to pregnantand lactating does and developingbucks. Use body condition scoring tomonitor feeding program.http://www.sheepandgoat.com/articles/rationbalancing.html 15. Underfeeding Inadequate energy intake cancause pregnancy toxemia(ketosis), birth of small/weak kids,higher kid mortality, and poorcolostrum and milk production. Not enough calcium can causemilk fever in pregnant doe. Inadequate selenium in diet cancause white muscle disease inkids and other reproductiveproblems. Overfeeding can result indystocia (difficult births), dueto oversized fetuses andincreased abdominal fat indoes. Too much calcium can causemilk fever in lactating doe. Fat does are also more proneto pregnancy toxemia. Fat, lazy does Extra feed costs extra money!Overfeeding 16. Caused by insufficient consumptionof energy during late gestation. Old, fat does, carrying multiple fetusesare most prone. Symptoms include off-feed, depression,lethargy, poor coordination, andrecumbency. Diagnosis based on lab tests and/orresponse to treatment. Treat with glucose orally,subcutaneously, or intravenously,depending upon severity of symptoms. Can induce labor or perform c-sectionin more advanced cases.Pregnancy toxemia (ketosis)Low blood glucose Can be caused by not enough(gestational) or too much (lactational)calcium being consumed during lategestation. Most common in heavy milking doesand does carrying multiple fetuses. Similar symptoms as pregnancy toxemia;often treated simultaneously. Diagnosed with lab tests and/orresponse to treatment. Treat with calcium orally,subcutaneously, or intravenously (slow),depending upon severity of symptoms.Milk fever (hypocalcemia)Low blood calcium 17. Coccidiostats (Rx)Feed/mineral Bovatec (lasalocid) Rumensin (monensin) Deccox (decoquinate)Water Corid Sulfa drugs Do not treat coccidiosis;reduces shedding of oocytesinto environment. Must be fed several weeksahead of risk period. Reduces exposure of kids tococcidia organism. Coccidiostats (Rumensin andDeccox) may aid in the controlof abortions caused bytoxoplasmosis. 18. It is generally recommendedthat goats be vaccinated forcertain clostridial diseases,especially enterotoxemia(overeating disease) andtetanus. There are several combinationvaccines to choose from.1. CDT (most commonly used) providesprotection against clostridiumperfringins types C and D and tetanus.2. Covexin-8 provides protection against8 clostridial bacteria, including CDT,black leg, and malignant edema.Toxoid vs. Antitoxin Toxoids provide long termprotection (immunity);however, immunity is notimmediate and a series ofshots is usually required. Toxoids are used toprevent disease. Antitoxins provideimmediate short-termimmunity. Antitoxins are used toprevent or treat disease. 19. Vaccinate does during latepregnancy in order to transferimmunity to newborn kids viacolostrum (first milk). If doe has never been vaccinated orvaccination status is unknown, givetwo vaccinations during latepregnancy, 3-4 weeks apart. Vaccinate bucks and wethersannually. Vaccines may not be as effective ingoats as sheep; some producersbooster every six months. 20. DAM VACCINATED(and adequate colostrum consumption) Kids will acquire temporary,passive immunity when theyconsume their damscolostrum. Vaccinate at approximately 6-8weeks of age, when passiveimmunity wanes. Repeat in 3-4 weeks. Vaccinate feeder goats beforeputting them on feed. Make sure club goats have beenvaccinated twice for CDT. Vaccinate at approximately 3-4weeks of age. Earlier vaccinations may not beeffective. Repeat in 3-4 weeks Can give antitoxins in event ofdisease outbreak or high risk. Can give tetanus antitoxin atthe time of disbudding and/orcastration.DAM NOT VACCINATED(or inadequate colostrum consumption) 21. Abortion (ELDU, Rx)Pre-breeding Caseous lymphadenitis(goat, sheep) Foot rot (ELDU)(hard to find) Pneumonia1) Pasteurella2) Nasalgen Sore mouth (orf) Rabies (ELDU, Rx) 22. Who? Kids inpersistentlyinfected herds Open herds thatshow a lot. Vaccinating aclean herd willintroduce thevirus to the farm. Can vaccinatedoes during latepregnancy. Kids shortly afterbirth or weaning Show goats atleast 6 weeksbefore first showWhen?How? Scratch skininside of ear, onunder-side of tail,or on inside ofthigh or flank (innon-lactatingdoes). Wear gloves! 21-d withdrawal 23. WHY? Manage disease risk. Prevent and control disease. Insurance against diseaseoutbreak. Disease risk is high. Cost effective. Increase value of animals. Required by law (e.g. rabies).WHY NOT? Disease risk is low. Not cost effective. Vaccine not effective. Too many side effects. No approved vaccine Withdrawal period too long It will introduce the disease toyour farm, e.g. soremouth Youre not going to do it right. 24. Does suffer a temporary loss ofnaturally-acquired immunity toparasites at the time of parturition. May start 2-4 weeks before kiddingand last for up 6-8 weeks after;varies by breed, individual, and season. When kidding occurs in the spring,the eggs deposited during the PPERare largely responsible for theinfections that kids acquire duringsummer grazing. The PPER is not as well documented in goats as sheep and is not welldescribed for different kidding seasons. 25. Deworm does prior to breeding or afterfirst killing frost to kill hypobiotic larvae. Deworm does prior to kidding(especially with late winter-springkidding), with dewormer that iseffective against hypobiotic larvae. Targeted selective treatment: onlydeworm those that require or wouldbenefit from treatment, based onFAMACHA score and 5 Point . Increase protein, especially by-passprotein, in late gestation ration. Keep does and kids indoors during risk period (late gestation-early lactation). 26. Remove bucks after desiredbreeding period. Feed and manage pregnantdoelings separate from maturedoes until secon