Substitutes, Equivalents & Measurements

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<ul><li><p>8/14/2019 Substitutes, Equivalents &amp; Measurements</p><p> 1/8</p><p>1</p><p>EQUIVALENTS, MEASUREMENTS and YIELDSCompiled by Nola Johnson Cockerham</p><p>NOTE:</p><p>"=" means equals "-" means minus "+" means plus tsp. = teaspoonT. = tablespoon C. = cup oz. = ounce soda = baking soda</p><p>M E A S URE M E NT S: pinch = 1/16 tsp. dash = 6 drops or 1/8 tsp.</p><p>1/4 T. = 3/4 tsp. 3 tsp. = 1 T.</p><p>1/8 C. = 2 T. = 1 fl. oz. 1/4 C. = 4 T. = 2 fl. oz.1/3 C. = 5 T. + 1 tsp. 1/2 C. = 8 T. = 4 fl. oz.</p><p>3/4 C. = 12 T. = 6 fl. oz. 1 C. = 16 T. = 1/2 pint = 8 fl. oz.</p><p>2 C. = 1 pint = 16 fl. oz. 4 C. = 2 pints = 1 quart = 32 oz.16 C. = 4 quarts = 1 gallon 8 quarts = 1 peck</p><p>4 pecks = 1 bushel 1 liter = 1 quart plus 3 oz.2 oz. = 1/8 pound 4 oz. = 1/4 pound</p><p>8 oz. = 1/2 pound 16 oz. - 1 pound</p><p>CA N SIZ E AM OUN T USES</p><p>#1/4 1/2 C. Meat spreads#1/2 1 C. Salmon</p><p>#300 1 3/4 C. (14-16 oz.)#1 tall (303) 2 C. (16-17 oz.) Salmon and fruit cocktail#2 2 1/2 C. (20 oz.) Vegetables, fruits and juices</p><p>#2 1/2 3 1/2 C. (29 oz.) Fruits, tomatoes, beets, pumpkin#5 6 C. (46 fluid oz.) Juices</p><p>#10 12-13 C. Institutional and preparedness</p></li><li><p>8/14/2019 Substitutes, Equivalents &amp; Measurements</p><p> 2/8</p><p>2</p><p>At times it is necessary to use a substitution for a recipe ingredient. The substituted food may not</p><p>perform exactly as the original food. Each ingredient has specific functions in a recipe and a</p><p>substitute may alter the flavor, color, texture or volume, but still result in an acceptable finished</p><p>product. Think about what function the ingredient is to perform.</p><p>YIELDS AND EQUIVALENTSI NGRE DI E N T A M OUNT SUBS T I T UT E/E Q U I V A L E N T</p><p>F A T S:</p><p>1 pound = 2 C. 1 stick = 1/2 C. or 8 T. or 4 ounces- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -</p><p>Shortening, solid 1 C. 7/8 lard OR 1 1/8 C. butter/margarine</p><p>(decrease salt by 1/2)- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -Shortening, melted 1 C. 1 C. cooking oil</p><p>- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -Cooking oil 1 C. 1 C. melted shortening</p><p>OR 1 C. melted butter/margarine- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -</p><p>Butter 1 C. 1 C. margarine</p><p>OR 1 C. shortening + 1/2 tsp. salt</p><p>OR 7/8 C. lard plus 1/2 tsp. saltOR 4/5 C. bacon fat, clarifiedOR 3/4 C. chicken fat, clarified</p><p>OR 7/8 C. oil</p><p>(NOTE: Do not substitute oil for solid fat in a baking recipe unless you have a recipewhich specifically calls for oil or melted fat. Characteristics of the final product</p><p>could be significantly different.)</p></li><li><p>8/14/2019 Substitutes, Equivalents &amp; Measurements</p><p> 3/8</p><p>3</p><p>FRUI TS &amp; V E G E T A B L E S:</p><p>Lemon juice 1 tsp. 1/2 tsp. vinegar- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -</p><p>Lemon 1 medium 1-3 T. juice and 1-2 tsp. grated peel</p><p>- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -</p><p>Onion 1 small 1 tsp. onion powder OR 1 T. minced dried- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -</p><p>Tomatoes 1 C. canned 1 1/3 C. chopped fresh tomatoes, simmered- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -</p><p>Tomato Juice 1 C. 1/2 C. tomato sauce plus 1/2 C. water</p><p>- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -</p><p>Tomato Sauce 1 C. 3/4 C. tomato paste plus 1 C. water- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -</p><p>FL OURS:1 pound of cake flour = 4 3/4 C.1 pound whole wheat kernels = 3 1/3 to 3 3/4 C. grain</p><p>1 pound of whole wheat flour = 3 3/4 C.</p><p>1 pound of cornmeal = 3 C.1 pound of all-purpose flour = 4 C. sifted = 3 1/2 C. unsifted</p><p>= 1 1/8 C. cake flour = 1 C. cornmeal</p><p>= 1/2 C. potato flour = 7/8 C. rice flour= 1 1/2 C. rye flour = 1 1/2 C. oat flour</p><p>- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -</p><p>Flour as thickener 1 T. 1/2 T. cornstarch or arrowroot starchOR 1 T. quick-cooking tapioca</p><p>- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -All-purpose 1 C. sifted 1 C. unsifted all-purpose flour - 2 T.</p><p>OR 1 C. plus 2 T. cake flour</p><p>- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -Cake flour 1 C. 1 C. all purpose flour minus 2 T.</p><p>- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -Self-Rising 1 C. sifted 1 C. sifted all-purpose flour</p><p>+ 1 1/2 tsp. baking powder &amp; 1/2 tsp. salt- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -</p><p>Whole wheat 1 C. 1 C. all-purpose flour</p><p>- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -Cornmeal, self-rising 1 C. 7/8 plain cornmeal + 1 1/2 T. baking powder</p><p>&amp; 1/2 tsp. salt</p><p>- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -</p></li><li><p>8/14/2019 Substitutes, Equivalents &amp; Measurements</p><p> 4/8</p></li><li><p>8/14/2019 Substitutes, Equivalents &amp; Measurements</p><p> 5/8</p><p>5</p><p>- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -</p><p>Cream, light 1 C. 7/8 C. milk plus 1 1/2 T. butter orhalf &amp; half margarine (for use in cooking)</p><p>(12-16% fat) OR 1 C. evaporated milk, undiluted</p><p>- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -</p><p>Cream, sour 1 C. 1 C. plain yogurt- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -</p><p>Egg, whole, raw 1 large 2 egg yolks1 large = 3 T OR 3 T. + 1 tsp. thawed frozen egg</p><p>5 large = 1 C. OR 2 T. + 2 tsp. dry whole egg powder</p><p>6 medium = 1 C. + an equal amount of water</p><p>OR 1 tsp. cornstarch + 3 T. liquid- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -</p><p>Egg Yolk, raw 1 3 1/2 tsp. thawed frozen egg yolk</p><p>1 = 1 1/2 T. OR 2 T. dry egg yolk powder + 2 tsp. water12 large = 1 C.</p><p>- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -</p><p>Egg White, raw 1 2 T. thawed frozen egg white,</p><p>1 = 2 T. OR 2 tsp. dry egg white plus 2 T. water8 large = 1 C.</p><p>- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -</p><p>Milk, whole 1 C. 1 C. reconstituted non-fat dry milk+ 2 1/2 T. butter or margarine</p><p>OR 1/2 C. evaporated milk + 1/2 C. water</p><p>OR 1/4 C. sifted dry whole milk powder+ 7/8 C. water</p><p>- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -Milk 1 C. 1/3 C. instant nonfat dry milk from powdered</p><p>+ (1 C. - 1 T. water)</p><p>OR 3 T. sifted regular nonfat dry milk+ (1 C. - 1 T. water)</p><p>- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -Milk, can = 1 1/3 C. 1 C. + 2 T. dry milk + 1/2 C. warm water</p><p>sweet condensed mix well, + 3/4 C. sugar and 3 T. meltedbutter. Stir until smooth.</p><p>OR 1/3 C. + 2 T. evaporated milk, 1 C.</p><p>sugar and 3 T. melted butter or margarine.Heat &amp; stir until sugar &amp; butter dissolve.</p><p>- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -</p></li><li><p>8/14/2019 Substitutes, Equivalents &amp; Measurements</p><p> 6/8</p><p>6</p><p>PASTA:</p><p>1 lb. uncooked macaroni = 9 C. cooked 1 lb. uncooked noodles = 8 C. cooked1 lb. uncooked spaghetti = 9 C. cooked</p><p>- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -</p><p>Macaroni 1 pound 3 3/4 C. uncooked macaroni</p><p>OR 16 oz. 1" pieces of any pasta- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -</p><p>Macaroni, shell 1 pound 4-5 C. uncooked macaroni- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -</p><p> Noodles 1 pound 6-8 C. uncooked noodles 1" pieces</p><p>- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -</p><p>Spaghetti 1 pound 4-5 C. of 2" piecesOR 7/8 C. sour milk + 1/3 C. butter</p><p>- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -</p><p>R I C E:1 cup uncooked rice = 3 1/2 - 4 C. cooked</p><p>1 cup uncooked, instant rice = 1 C. cooked</p><p>- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -Rice 1 pound 8 C. cooked OR 2 1/4- 2 1/2 C. uncooked</p><p>1 C. uncooked 1 C. uncooked converted rice</p><p>OR 1 C. uncooked brown riceOR 1 C. uncooked wild rice</p><p>- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -</p><p>SUGARS:</p><p>1 pound of granulated sugar = 2 1/4 C.</p><p>1 pound of brown sugar = 2 1/4 C. firmly packed</p><p>1 pound of powdered sugar = 3 1/2 - 4 C.- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -</p><p>Brown, dark 1 C. (packed) 1 C. granulated sugar + 1/4 C. molasses- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -</p><p>Brown, light 1 C. 1/2 C. dark brown sugar + 1/2 C. granulated- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -</p><p>Corn Syrup, dark 1 C. 1 C. brown sugar + 1/4 C. liquid</p><p>OR 3/4 C. light corn syrup + 1/4 C. lightmolasses</p><p>- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -</p><p>Corn Syrup, light 1 C. 1 C. granulated sugar + 1/4 C. liquid</p></li><li><p>8/14/2019 Substitutes, Equivalents &amp; Measurements</p><p> 7/8</p><p>7</p><p>- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -</p><p>Granulated, white 1 C. 1 C. corn syrup (decrease liquid by 1/4 C.)OR 1 C. molasses (decrease liquid by 1/4 C.)</p><p>OR 1 C. brown sugar, firmly packed</p><p>OR 2 C. sifted powdered sugar</p><p>OR 3/4 C. honey (decrease liquid inrecipe by 1/4 C.); for each cup of honey</p><p>in baked goods, add 1/2 tsp. soda)- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -</p><p>Honey, liquid 1 C. 1 1/2 C. granulated sugar plus 1/4 C.</p><p>- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -</p><p>Powdered Sugar 1 C. 3/4 C. granulated (substitution will not workon frostings and uncooked recipes)</p><p>- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -</p><p>M I S C E L L A NE OUS:Chocolate, baking 1 oz. square 3 T. cocoa powder + 1 T. butter</p><p>- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -</p><p>Chocolate, 1 oz. 1/2 oz. baking chocolate + 1 T. sugarSemi-Sweet chocolate</p><p>- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -</p><p>Cocoa powder 1/4 C. 1 oz. (square) unsweetened chocolatedecrease fat in recipe by 1/2 T.</p><p>- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -</p><p>Catsup 1 C. 1 C. tomato sauce + 1/2 C. sugar + 2 T.vinegar</p><p>- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -Gelatin, flavored 3 oz. 1 T. plain gelatin and 2 C. fruit juice</p><p>- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -</p><p>A L C O HO L SUBS T I T UT I ONS:</p><p>In Soups and Entrees --Dry (unsweet) red wine: Water, beef broth, bouillon, tomato juice, diluted cider</p><p>vinegar, liquid drained from canned mushrooms.- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -</p><p>Dry (unsweet) white wine: Water, chicken broth, bouillon, ginger ale, white</p><p>grape juice, diluted cider vinegar, liquid drainedfrom canned mushrooms.</p><p>- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -</p><p>In Cheese Dishes -- Beer or Ale: Chicken broth, white grape juice, ginger ale.</p></li><li><p>8/14/2019 Substitutes, Equivalents &amp; Measurements</p><p> 8/8</p><p>8</p><p>- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --</p><p>In Desserts --Brandy: Apple Cider, peach or apricot syrup</p><p>Burgundy (Red): Grape Juice</p><p>Burgundy (White): White grape juice</p><p>Champagne: Ginger aleClaret: Grape or currant juice or syrup or cherry cider</p><p>Cognac: Juice from peaches, apricots or pearsCreme de menthe: Spearmint extract or oil of spearmint diluted with a little</p><p>water or grapefruit juice</p><p>Kirsch: Syrup or juice from black cherries, raspberries,</p><p>boysenberries, currants or grapes or cherry ciderRum: Pineapple juice or syrup flavored with almond extract</p><p>Sherry: Orange or pineapple juice</p><p>NOTE: To cut the sweetness of the syrups, dilute with water. Also, there are manyflavor extracts, such as almond or pineapple, that can be added for interesting flavors.</p><p>Flambes or Flaming Desserts -- The only substitute that might be used is a sugarcube soaked in lemon extract, then set atop a dessert and burned.</p><p>- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -R E F E R E N C E S:Alice Cheney Johnson (my mom)</p><p>Relief Society lessons</p><p>Better Homes and Gardens CookbookJane Brody's Good Food Cookbook</p><p>Georgia C. Lauritzen, Ph.D. Food/Nutrition Specialist (Extension Office)</p></li></ul>