subject –verb agreement
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- 1. SUBJECT VERB AGREEMENT Abhinay Irala Training Officer Madanapalle Institute of Technology and Science Angallu, Madanapalle, Andhra Pradesh.
- 2. The Subject and Verbs must agree in number and person.
- 3. Rule 1: A singular subject takes a singular verb and plural subject takes a plural verb.
- 4. NOUNS SINGULAR Flower Car book PLURAL Flowers Cars books Rule 1: a) s or es ending nouns are usually Plural; b) but verbs ending in s or es are singular. VERBS SINGULAR PLURAL He Says A girl dances A boy plays They Say Girls dance Boys Plays
- 5. Rule1: b) If auxiliary verbs are used with the subject, then no change will occur the verb: both singular and plural remain the same. Eg. 1.A girl can dance.(Singular) Girls can dance. (Plural) 2. A child should play.( Singular)- Children should play (Plural) 3. He will write.(Singular)- They will write (Plural)
- 6. Rule 2: If singular subjects are joined by and then they become plural subjects and then Plural verbs are used. Eg: 1.Vimala and Usha are friends. 2.They Play chess often.
- 7. Rule 3: If two subjects are joined by Or, eitheror, neither nor, the verb will follow the second subject (noun) which is close to it. Eg: 1. Either your brothers or sister has done this. 2. Either your brother or sisters have done this. 3. Neither the manager nor the employees agree the point. 4. Neither the employees nor the manager agrees the point.
- 8. Rule 4: When two or more singular nouns joined by and , express one idea , the verb must be singular. Eg: 1. Bread and butter is enough for Breakfast. 2. Honour and glory is his wealth. 3. The rise and fall of the tide is felt. 4. Knowledge and wisdom brings happiness.
- 9. Rule 5: If two or more singular nouns refer to the same person or thing the verb must be singular. Eg: 1. Ramesh, my friend and neighbor helps me a lot. 2. The correspondent and manager has gone out. 3. My father and doctor is busy. 4. Our Principal and English teacher teaches well. 5. The Director and producer of this film is Vinod Khanna.
- 10. Rule 5: If two or more singular nouns refer to the same person or thing the verb must be singular. Remember: If we repeat the article the we get the idea of two members and then the verb will be plural. Eg: 1. Ramesh, my friend and the neighbour help (not helps) me a lot. 2. The correspondent and the manager have (not has) gone out. 3. My father and the doctor are (not is) busy.
- 11. Rule 6: If we keep EVERY, NOBODY, NEITHER OF, NONE, EITHEROF, before a noun and join by AND , the verb will be SINGULAR. Eg: 1. Each man and each woman has a right in democracy. 2. Every man, woman and child faces death. 3. None of the players is ready. 4. Everyone knows about it. 5. Either of the children is smart. 6. Neither of the girls has been selected. 7. Every shop was closed yesterday. 8. Each boy and each girl is wearing a uniform.
- 12. Rule 7: If the subject is ONE OF , it must follow a plural noun but the verb must be singular. Eg: 1. One of my brothers is studying in London. 2. One of the children does not play.
- 13. Rule 8: A collective noun takes a singular verb because it gives one idea as a whole. But sometimes plural verbs are possible if members of collection are considered to be individuals. But to avoid confusion, It is better to use a singular verb with collective nouns. Eg: 1. Our Team is leading. ( team- as one unit) 2. Our Team are leading. ( individuals are thought of) 3. The audience is listening.( whole people- together as one) 4. The audience are listening. (Individuals) 5. His family is wonderful. 6. The committee is disagreeing.
- 14. Rule 9: Uncountable nouns abstract nouns and material nouns have no plural forms. They take singular verbs. Eg: 1. Obedience is a virtue. 2. Love brings joy. 3. Bread is sweet. 4. Iron is hard metal. 5. Water flows down. 6. His advice has some effect. 7. It is a good news. 8. This information is helpful.
- 15. Rule 10: Some nouns are plural in form, i.e, they look like plural and they take a singular verb. Eg: 1. All the news is correct. 2. Physics is an interesting subject. 3. Electronics has many aspects. 4. Politics is not good for students. 5. Measles is an infections disease.
- 16. Rule 11: These words police, cattle and people are plural in English . They take a Plural verb. Eg: 1. The police are searching for the thief. 2. People are queuing up for the ticket. 3. The cattle are grazing in the field.
- 17. Rule 12: If a sentence begins with it, then singular verb is used. Eg: 1. It is a wonderful idea. 2. It has many aspects. 3. It is useless to argue.
- 18. Rule 13: If a sentence begins with here or there, the verb agrees with the following noun which is the real subject. Eg: 1. There are many reasons to question them. 2. There is something missing. 3. Here wins our Team. 4. Here comes my friend. 5. Here come my friends.
- 19. Rule 14: Plural numbers that indicates distance, weight , height , money, etc will be considered as one unit as a whole and singular verbs are used with them.. Eg: 1. Five lakh rupees is stolen. 2. Two kilometers is not a long way to walk. 3. Ten kilos of silk costs so much. 4. Four kilos of rice is brought by him. 5. Two hours is enough to finish this exam. 6. Two acres of land is sold out. 7. Twelve inches makes a foot.
- 20. Rule 15: A dozen denotes a plural number. So it takes a plural verb. Eg: 1. A dozen mangoes are brought. 2. A dozen eggs are broken.
- 21. Rule 15: Remember : We can use a dozen, ten dozen, many dozen etc, but we shouldnt use: two dozens , two dozens , many dozens, several dozens. If a number is used before dozens, s is not added. But without a number , we can use dozens. Eg: 1. Five dozens of mangoes are spoiled .(WRONG) 2. Five dozen of mangoes are spoiled .(RIGHT) 3. Dozens of mangoes are spoiled .(RIGHT ) 4. Two dozens of people died .(WRONG) 5. Dozens of people died in the train accident.(RIGHT)
- 22. Rule 16: The expressions some of and half of take a plural verb if they refer to a number and if the reference is made to quantity or amount, they take singular verbs. Eg: 1. Some of the houses were collapsed.( NUMBER) 2. Half of the books are sold out .( NUMBER) 3. Some of the oil is wasted. (QUANTITY) 4. Half of the money was stolen.(AMOUNT)
- 23. Rule 17: A number of expression taken a plural verb. Eg: 1. A number of vehicles are moving. 2. A large number people go to Sabirimala.
- 24. Rule 18: A pair of expression taken a singular verb. Eg: 1. There is a pair of shoes near the door. 2. A pair of trousers / pants is required. Careful attention is required for the following words. Scissors spectacles (glasses) jeans shorts binoculars pants/trousers tights pliers pyjamas
- 25. Rule 18: These nouns are known as pair-noun or divided Nouns. they are a set of two. Eg: 1. I want to buy one pant. (WRONG) I want to buy a pair of pants.(RIGHT) 2. Your Jean is too tight. (WRONG) Your jeans are two tight .(RIGHT) 3. This spectacle is quite expensive. (WRONG) These spectacles are quite expensive. (RIGHT) 4. His jean needs washing. (WRONG) His jeans need washing .(RIGHT)
- 26. Rule 18: These nouns are known as pair-noun or divided Nouns. they are a set of two. Eg: 5. He needs a new pant for the party. (WRONG) He needs a pair of pants for the party.(RIGHT) 6. Your Jean is too tight. (WRONG) Your jeans are two tight .(RIGHT) 7. Where is my spectacle? (WRONG) Where are my spectacles ? (RIGHT) 8. This trouser is old. (WRONG) These trousers are old.(RIGHT) ( though it is one set, we can't use this trouser but these trousers.)
- 27. Rule 19: The expression more than one looks like plural but not so. More than one will follow a singular noun and the verb also must be singular. Eg: 1. More than one persons are coming here.(WRONG) More than one person is coming here.(RIGHT) 2. More than one books are required for me. (WRONG) More than one book is required for me.(RIGHT) 3. More than one journalists are killed .(WRONG) More than one journalist is killed. (RIGHT)
- 28. Rule 20: If different subjects are joined by with, together with, as well as, in addition to, the verb agrees with the first subject(NOUN) and not the second noun. Eg: 1. All students, with their teacher have gone to a tour. 2. The head master, together with two teachers has resigned. 3. My Father as well as my brothers is blaming me. 4. Usha, with her two friends is coming here. 5. The passengers as well as the driver are killed. 6. Gopal in addition t his friends has won the prize.
- 29. Rule 21: The expressions a lot of, plenty of take a plural verb when they refer to number, And they take a singular verb if they refer to quantity. Eg: 1. A lot of people are present for the meeting.(NUMBER) 2. A lot of flowers are brought .(NUMBER). 3. Plenty of chances are there for you .(NUMBER) 4. Plenty of films are produced in A.P .(NUMBER) 5. Plenty of time is wasted.(QUANTITY) 6. A lot of money is spent for this week .(QUANTITY) 7. A lot of milk is kept in the fridge .(QUANTITY) 8. Plenty of food is required .(QUANTITY)
- 30. Rule 22: These words furniture, poetry, scenery and news are never used in the plural form. We cant say furnitures, poetries, sceneries and newses etc. These words are always used with a singular verb. Eg: 1. All our furniture is new.(WRONG) All our furnitures are new.(WRONG) 2. There are ten furnitures in this room.(WRONG) There are ten furniture in this room.(RIGHT) 3. He wrote so many poetries.(WRONG) He wrote so many poems.(RIGHT) 4. Poetries give us joy .(WRONG) Poetry give us joy .(RIGHT) 5. The sceneries in the Himalayas are wonderful .(WRONG) The scenery in the Himalayas are wonderful .(RIGHT)
- 31. Rule 22: Th
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