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<ul><li><p>Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton </p></li><li><p>WHAT BONES MAKE UP THE SHOULDER GIRDLE? </p><p>1 </p></li><li><p>What bones make up the shoulder girdle? </p><p> The clavicle, scapula, and the manubrium of the sternum </p></li><li><p>WHERE DOES THE SHOULDER GIRDLE ARTICULATE WITH THE AXIAL SKELETON? </p><p>a) </p></li><li><p>Where does the shoulder girdle articulate with the axial skeleton? </p><p> At the sternoclavicular joint </p><p> Where the sternum connects with the clavicle </p></li><li><p>EXPLAIN HOW YOU CAN TELL THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE VERTEBRAL, AXILLARY, AND SUPERIOR BORDERS OF THE SCAPULA? </p><p>2 </p></li><li><p>Explain how you can tell the difference between the vertebral, axillary, and </p><p>superior borders of the scapula? </p><p> Vertebral border: </p><p> Located along the side of the scapula that runs alongside the spine </p><p> Axillary border: </p><p> Located along the side of the scapula that is nearest to the armpit </p><p> Superior border: </p><p> The top border of the scapula </p></li><li><p>TRUE OR FALSE: THE AC JOINT IS MADE UP OF THE ACROMION PROCESS AND THE CLAVICLE </p><p>3 </p></li><li><p>True or false: the ac joint is made up of the acromion process and the clavicle </p><p> True </p><p> AcromioClavicular joint </p></li><li><p>IS THE SCAPULAR SPINE LOCATED ON THE ANTERIOR OR POSTERIOR SIDE OF THE SCAPULA? </p><p>4 </p></li><li><p>Is the scapular spine located on the anterior or posterior side of the </p><p>scapula? Posterior side </p></li><li><p>WHERE DOES THE HUMERUS ARTICULATE WITH THE SCAPULA? </p><p>5 </p></li><li><p>Where does the humerus articulate with the scapula? </p><p> The glenoid fossa </p></li><li><p>WHY IS THE AREA OF THE HUMERUS JUST BELOW THE TUBERCLES REFERRED TO AS THE SURGICAL NECK? </p><p>6 </p></li><li><p>Why is the area of the humerus just below the tubercles referred to as the </p><p>surgical neck? </p><p> This area is the most common location for fractures in the humerus. </p></li><li><p>DESCRIBE HOW YOU COULD LOCATE THE INTERTUBERCULAR GROOVE ON THE HUMERUS. </p><p>7 </p></li><li><p>Describe how you could locate the intertubercular groove on the </p><p>humerus. </p><p> First find the greater and lesser tubercles on the proximal portion of the epiphysis. </p><p> The groove is the divot between these two tubercles. </p></li><li><p>WHERE IS THE DELTOID TUBEROSITY LOCATED ON THE HUMERUS? </p><p>8 </p></li><li><p>Where is the deltoid tuberosity located on the humerus? </p><p> Along the outside portion of the diaphysis of the humerus. </p><p> Basically a small notch </p></li><li><p>HOW COULD YOU TELL IF YOU ARE LOOKING AT THE THE LEFT HUMERUS OR THE RIGHT HUMERUS? </p><p>9 </p></li><li><p>How could you tell if you are looking at the the left humerus or the right </p><p>humerus? </p><p> Identify the head of the humerus, the olecranon fossa (posterior side), and the medial epicondyle (largest of the two epicondyle) </p></li><li><p>EXPLAIN HOW THE HUMERUS IS INVOLVED WITH KEEPING YOU FROM HYPEREXTENDING YOUR ELBOW. </p><p>10 </p></li><li><p>Explain how the humerus is involved with keeping you from hyperextending </p><p>your elbow. </p><p> The olecranon fossa acts as a catch for the olecranon process of the ulna. It stops the arm from over extending. </p></li><li><p>IF SOMEONE HAD A GUN TO YOUR HEAD, HOW COULD YOU QUICKLY IDENTIFY THE TROCHLEA OF THE HUMERUS? </p><p>11 </p></li><li><p>If someone had a gun to your head, how could you quickly identify the </p><p>trochlea of the humerus? </p><p> It is a deep groove that looks similar to a pulley on the distal epiphysis of the humerus. </p></li><li><p>EXPLAIN HOW THE OLECRANON FOSSA, SEMILUNAR NOTCH, CAPITULUM, TROCHLEA, AND OLECRANON PROCESS ARE INVOLVED WITH THE ELBOW. </p><p>12 </p></li><li><p>Explain how the olecranon fossa, semilunar notch, capitulum, trochlea, and olecranon process are involved </p><p>with the elbow #essaywarning </p><p>Describe the location of each area </p><p> Explain how each articulates with the other </p></li><li><p>THE GUY WITH THE GUN IS BACK..HOW CAN YOU FIND THE ULNA BEFORE ITS TOO LATE? </p><p>13 </p></li><li><p>The guy with the gun is back..how can you find the ulna before its too </p><p>late? The ulna is always located on the pinky side of </p><p>the arm. </p></li><li><p>LIST THE DISTAL ROW OF CARPAL BONES, STARTING FROM THE THUMB AND MOVING TOWARD THE PINKY. </p><p>14 </p></li><li><p>List the distal row of carpal bones, starting from the thumb and moving </p><p>toward the pinky. </p><p> Trapezium </p><p> Trapezoid </p><p> Capitate </p><p> Hamate ***Be sure to review the bones around each bone as it </p><p>could be a description on a question </p></li><li><p>LIST THE PROXIMAL ROW OF THE CARPAL BONES, STARTING FROM THE THUMB AND MOVING TOWARD THE PINKY. </p><p>15 </p></li><li><p>List the proximal row of the carpal bones, starting from the thumb and </p><p>moving toward the pinky. </p><p> Scaphoid </p><p> Lunate </p><p> Triquetrum </p><p> Pisiform </p></li><li><p>WHAT IS MISLEADING ABOUT THE BONES OF THE HAND IF YOU JUST LOOK STRICTLY AT THE SKELETON? </p><p>16 </p></li><li><p>What is misleading about the bones of the hand if you just look strictly at the </p><p>skeleton? Looking at the skeleton it appears as though </p><p>the carpal bones make up the palm of the hand. This is not the case as the metacarpals make up the majority of the palm of the hand. </p></li><li><p>HOW MANY MIDDLE PHALANGES ARE ON THE HAND? </p><p>17 </p></li><li><p>How many middle phalanges are on the hand? </p><p> 4 </p></li><li><p>WHY? a) </p></li><li><p>Why? </p><p> The thumb is only made up of a proximal and distal phalanx. </p></li><li><p>WHAT BONES MAKE UP THE PELVIC GIRDLE? </p><p>18 </p></li><li><p>What bones make up the pelvic girdle? </p><p> The coxal bones, sacrum, and the coccyx </p></li><li><p>WHAT BONES ARE FUSED TOGETHER AS A PART OF THIS? </p><p>a) </p></li><li><p>What bones are fused together as a part of this? </p><p> Ilium </p><p> Ischium </p><p> Pubis </p></li><li><p>WHAT PORTIONS OF THE COXAL BONES CAN BE EASILY PALPATED? </p><p>19 </p></li><li><p>What portions of the coxal bones can be easily palpated? </p><p> Iliac crest </p></li><li><p>EXPLAIN THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE TRUE AND FALSE PELVIS. </p><p>20 </p></li><li><p>Explain the relationship between the true and false pelvis #essaywarning </p><p> Be able to describe the invisible border where the false pelvis ends and the true begins. </p><p> Why are the two shaped differently in males and females. </p><p> Explain what organs are located in each area. </p></li><li><p>WHAT IS IMPORTANT ABOUT THE PUBIC SYMPHYSIS FOR FEMALES? </p><p>21 </p></li><li><p>What is important about the pubic symphysis for females? </p><p> Since it is made of cartilage, it allows for the pelvis to expand, allowing the birth canal to widen enough for a baby to fit through. </p></li><li><p>WHAT ARE THE MAJOR MARKINGS OF THE PROXIMAL PORTION OF THE FEMUR? </p><p>22 </p></li><li><p>What are the major markings of the proximal portion of the femur? </p><p> Head </p><p> Neck </p><p> Greater trochanter </p><p> Lesser trochanter </p></li><li><p>DESCRIBE THE DIAPHYSIS OF THE FEMUR. </p><p>23 </p></li><li><p>Describe the diaphysis of the femur. </p><p> On the posterior side, the linea aspera begins proximally and eventually divides into the supracondylar lines </p></li><li><p>HOW CAN YOU TELL THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE CONDYLES AND EPICONDYLES ON THE FEMUR? </p><p>24 </p></li><li><p>How can you tell the difference between the condyles and epicondyles </p><p>on the femur? The epicondyles will be located superficially </p><p>on the bone. They will be bony protuberances on the distal portion of the femur. Conversely, the condyles are covered with cartilage and articulate with the lower leg bones. </p></li><li><p>WHAT IS THE LARGEST SESAMOID BONE IN THE HUMAN BODY? </p><p>25 </p></li><li><p>What is the largest sesamoid bone in the human body? </p><p> Patella </p></li><li><p>WHAT ARE THE SPINES ON THE TIBIA WHERE THE ACL AND PCL ATTACH CALLED? </p><p>26 </p></li><li><p>What are the spines on the tibia where the acl and pcl attach called? </p><p> Intercondylar emminance </p></li><li><p>WHAT SPECIAL MARKINGS CAN YOU FEEL ON YOUR SHIN? </p><p>27 </p></li><li><p>What special markings can you feel on your shin? </p><p> Crest of the tibia </p></li><li><p>WHAT SPECIAL MARKING MAKES UP YOUR INNER ANKLE? </p><p>28 </p></li><li><p>What special marking makes up your inner ankle? </p><p> Medial malleolus </p></li><li><p>YOU JUST CANT GET RID OF THIS WILD GUNMAN.HOW CAN YOU QUICKLY TELL THE TIBIA AND FIBULA APART? </p><p>29 </p></li><li><p>You just cant get rid of this wild gunman.how can you quickly tell the </p><p>tibia and fibula apart? </p><p> The fibula is smaller than the tibia, lateral to the tibia, and located deeper in the lower leg. </p></li><li><p>WHY IS THE FOOT CONSTRUCTED OF TWO ARCHES? </p><p>30 </p></li><li><p>Why is the foot constructed of two arches? </p><p> Arches are the most stable and sturdy architectural shape to support large amounts of weight. </p></li><li><p>WHAT ARE THE TWO ARCHES CALLED? </p><p>a) </p></li><li><p>What are the two arches called? </p><p> Longitudinal arch </p><p> Made up of medial and lateral longitudinal arches </p><p> Transverse arch </p></li><li><p>WHAT HAPPENS TO INDIVIDUALS SUFFERING FROM FLAT FEET? </p><p>31 </p></li><li><p>What happens to individuals suffering from flat Feet? </p><p> The ligaments holding the tarsal bones together weaken and the natural arches fall </p><p> Pain in the foot and heel </p><p> Pain radiating to the knee and eventually to the spine </p></li><li><p>WHAT ABOUT HIGH ARCHES, OR CLAW FOOT? </p><p>a) </p></li><li><p>What about high arches, or claw foot? </p><p> Charcot Marie Tooth disorder (CMT) </p><p> The arches are over arched causing instability in the ankle </p><p> Common for individuals suffering from muscular dystrophy </p></li><li><p>WHAT IS ACTUALLY HAPPENING TO MOST PEOPLE THAT BELIEVE THEY HAVE FLAT FEET? </p><p>32 </p></li><li><p>What is actually happening to most people that believe they have flat </p><p>feet? </p><p> They are overweight, and are over pronating their feet as they walk. This movement causes undue stress on the ligaments supporting the arches and causing pain. </p></li><li><p>WHAT ANKLE BONE ARTICULATES WITH THE TIBIA? </p><p>33 </p></li><li><p>What ankle bone articulates with the tibia? </p><p> Talus </p></li><li><p>WHAT BONE MAKES UP THE HEEL OF THE FOOT? </p><p>34 </p></li><li><p>What bone makes up the heel of the foot? </p><p> Calcaneus </p></li><li><p>LIST THE PROXIMAL TARSAL BONES FROM THE GREAT TOE TO THE PINKY TOE. </p><p>35 </p></li><li><p>List the proximal tarsal bones from the great toe to the pinky toe. </p><p> Navicular </p><p> Talus </p><p> Calcaneus </p></li><li><p>LIST THE DISTAL TARSAL BONES FROM THE GREAT TOE TO THE PINKY TOE. </p><p>36 </p></li><li><p>List the distal tarsal bones from the great toe to the pinky toe. </p><p> 1-3 cuneiform bones </p><p> Cuboid </p></li><li><p>DISCUSS POTENTIAL TREATMENTS FOR A BROKEN CLAVICLE. </p><p>37 </p></li><li><p>Discuss potential treatments for a broken clavicle #essaywarning </p><p> Describe the injury </p><p> Describe potential ways to set the fracture </p><p> Describe the recovery period </p></li><li><p>HOW CAN SOMEONE WHO IS PSYCHOLOGICALLY HINDERED BY THEIR HEIGHT PERMANENTLY MAKE THEMSELVES TALLER? </p><p>38 </p></li><li><p>How can someone who is psychologically hindered by their </p><p>height permanently make themselves taller #essaywarning </p><p> Describe the limb lengthening process </p><p> What bones are broken </p><p> How are they lengthened </p><p> Is it an easy process? Why? </p></li></ul>

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