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  • Slide 1
  • Student-centered instructional Strategies Quality teachers are facilitators: Help learners build their own Knowledge
  • Slide 2
  • Today Cooperative learning chap. 10 Cooperative learning chap. 10 Planning for instruction Reflection/Reaction/Thinking/Meaning Other D.I. Lesson plan due today Theory & practice draft paper due 10/24 Please see both the grading rubric and syllabus p. 7Please see both the grading rubric and syllabus p. 7 A sample paper is uploadedA sample paper is uploaded Fall Break on 10/17class excused; Practicum on 10/19 10/24 Constructivism (Project) Cooperative Learning Chap. 10 Cooperative Learning Chap. 10
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  • Project Read chap. 11 (Problem-based learning) & chap 12 (discussion) and do the following: Read chap. 11 (Problem-based learning) & chap 12 (discussion) and do the following: Identify a teaching project/lesson plan/activity/topics based on what you know about constructivism (Civil war, Writing, Biomes, wind energy, food groups, story telling, addiction) As you prepare your project, use the knowledge gained from Chap. 11&12 to answer the following questions: Why did you choose this project? What is your (teachers) role? What are the students roles? What challenges do you think might arise? What is your solution to expected challenges How might this project influence your philosophy? What else (Aha? Confusion?, etc) would you like to discuss?
  • Slide 4
  • Student-centered Instructional Strategies Cooperative Learning, Group Learning, & Discussions Cooperative Learning, Group Learning, & Discussions Constructivist theory Constructivist theory Inquiry/ Problem-solving Discovery learning Experiments Approach: Approach: What is? Whats the focus? Whats the teachers role? Whats the learner's role? What are the benefits? How is it structured? How might it impact your philosophy/values?
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  • Cooperative Learning Alone we can do so little, together we can do so much. Helen Keller Alone we can do so little, together we can do so much. Helen Keller
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  • COOPERATIVE LEARNING (p. 360) Non-competitive, student-centered approach that promotes achievement Non-competitive, student-centered approach that promotes achievement Students work cooperatively in small teams (Not groups) to achieve a specific goal Students work cooperatively in small teams (Not groups) to achieve a specific goal Celebrates peer tutoring & rewards based on team performance Celebrates peer tutoring & rewards based on team performance Celebrates, recognizes & rewards individual performance Celebrates, recognizes & rewards individual performance A powerful, effective instructional method that is rarely used (Kindsvatter, at.el, 2004) A powerful, effective instructional method that is rarely used (Kindsvatter, at.el, 2004)
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  • Cooperative Learning Not a new phenomenon- humans always cooperated for survival Not a new phenomenon- humans always cooperated for survival As a formal instructional strategy- Rooted in Greek history As a formal instructional strategy- Rooted in Greek historyTheorists: Jean Piaget Cognitive Development (help of others) Jean Piaget Cognitive Development (help of others) Sensorimotor- 0-2, child learns about self and his/her environment through motor and reflex actions. Teaching should focus on sensorimotor system frown, a stern or soothing voice -- Preoperational:- 2-7, Applying new knowledge of language, using symbols to represent objects. Teaching should focus on fantasies Concrete- 6-early adolescence, Abstract thinking and rational judgment. Teaching should give opportunity to ask questions and to explain his/her thinking.
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  • Theorists Piaget Piaget Formal Operations, 15- 20, Stage of cognition. Learner is able to form hypothetical and deductive (general to specific) reasoning. Teaching should allow opportunities for many possibilities and different perspectives. Formal Operations, 15- 20, Stage of cognition. Learner is able to form hypothetical and deductive (general to specific) reasoning. Teaching should allow opportunities for many possibilities and different perspectives. Lev Vygotsky- Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD).. P. 401 (Social Development) Lev Vygotsky- Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD).. P. 401 (Social Development) John Dewey 1916 (Learning & Democracy) John Dewey 1916 (Learning & Democracy) David Johnson & Roger Johnson (Experiential Learning ) designed cooperative learning in the 1980s (Arends, R., 2012) David Johnson & Roger Johnson (Experiential Learning ) designed cooperative learning in the 1980s (Arends, R., 2012)
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  • JOHN DEWEY John Deweys (1916) book: Democracy & Education Classroom should mirror larger society Classrooms should be laboratories for real life Democratic procedures and scientific processes Engage students in inquiry Problem solving in groups, searching for answers John Deweys (1916) book: Democracy & Education Classroom should mirror larger society Classrooms should be laboratories for real life Democratic procedures and scientific processes Engage students in inquiry Problem solving in groups, searching for answers
  • Slide 10
  • Industrial Model:1940s COMPITITION IN SCHOOLS INDIVIDUAL ABOVE WHOLE Schools as a machine, an industrial process not unlike an assembly line. Its purpose is to mass produce factors of production, well trained, obedient inputs that can be used in the manufacture of wealth.
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  • Herbert Thelen John Deweys disciple Classrooms are miniature democracies Thus Learners should Learn social issues Develop solutions to social issues Group investigation increased learning His work on group learning become the foundation for CL (p.362).
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  • Johnson and Johnson Experiential Learning Three presumptions: People learn best when they are involved in learning process One has to discover knowledge One has to discover knowledge Commitment to learning is best when one is free to set their own goals and pursue them
  • Slide 13
  • Edwards Deming (Cody, Wyoming) Quality Theory. Cooperation leads to quality (TQM)Total Quality Management W. Edwards Deming Improves American Production During WWII High Expectations, Group Work, Quality Control American Industry Declines his Effort Takes theory to Japan
  • Slide 14
  • COOPERATIVE LEARNING Im not afraid of storms for Im learning to sail my ship. ~ Louisa May Alcott~ American Author)
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  • Setting for Cooperative learning P I. G/T S. Face Pigsface
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  • PIGsFace (p. 380.) Provide a specific plan to provide for: Provide a specific plan to provide for: P: Positive (Task) interdependence (Reasons to work as a team) I: Individual accountability G/T: Group (Team) Processing- Reflections S: Social skills Face: Face to face interaction
  • Slide 17
  • Distribution of work
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  • Teachers decisionsideal classroom Love and Logic? Love and Logic? Children think for themselves, are responsible, and function effectively--- decisions, and consequences Children think for themselves, are responsible, and function effectively--- decisions, and consequences Jim Fay, long-time teacher Foster W. Cline, M.D., psychologist Charles Fay, Ph.D., psychologist
  • Slide 19
  • Building Responsibility 1. Give a child a chance to act responsibly 1. Give a child a chance to act responsibly 2. Allow mistakes 2. Allow mistakes 3. Allow consequences, accompanied by empathy, 3. Allow consequences, accompanied by empathy,
  • Slide 20
  • Three Basic Rules Use enforceable limits Use enforceable limits only use practical consequences Provide choices within limits Provide choices within limits Select choices that YOU like Apply consequences with empathy Apply consequences with empathy When a child forgets to wear a coat, say, I'm so sorry that you're cold. How sad. ~ Bummer. ~ That stinks. I know. ~ I bet it feels that way.
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  • Enforceable Limits I'll listen when your voice is as calm as mine. I'll listen when your voice is as calm as mine. I grade papers that I can read. I grade papers that I can read. I respect you too much to argue. I respect you too much to argue. I'll accept all papers that have your name at the top. I'll accept all papers that have your name at the top. This is such a bummer. I cased me to talk a lot. Now I don't have energy to help you prepare class party. This is such a bummer. I cased me to talk a lot. Now I don't have energy to help you prepare class party.
  • Slide 22
  • Ideal Classroom- Glasser All human do is make Choices to meet their needs. Survival food, water and shelter food, water and shelter Love and Belonging Power Want a say & personal responsibility Want a say & personal responsibilityFreedom Want choices Want choicesFun Want to be involved Want to be involved
  • Slide 23
  • Teaching approaches (p. 368..) Teacher decides appropriate CL approach such as: Teacher decides appropriate CL approach such as: Student Teams Achievement Divisions Teacher presents, students teach each other in home teams, then tested individually. Team score is based on individual students improvement Think-Pair-Share Individual thinking, then pair up, then share with whole class Group Investigation From a broad topic, students deci