struggles & movements

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Guided By:A.CHANDRABABU SIRP.G.T GEOSOCIAL PROJECT WORK

GROUP MEMBERS & TOPIC DISTRIBUTIONS.NO STUDENT NAME TOPICSLIDE NO 1M.RAMA KRISHNANEPAL STRUGGLE5 10 2G.VIJAY KUMARBOLIVIA STRUGGLE11 14 3 Y.SAI KIRANSIMILARITIES & DIFFERENCES OF NEPAL & BOLIVIA STRUGGLES15 19 4A.RAMESHMOBILISATIONS AND ORGANISATIONS20 23 5G.HARIPRASADPRESSURE AND MOVEMENT GROUPS24 28 6J.SAI KIRANINFLUENCE OF PRESSURE & MOVEMENT GROUPS ON POLITICS29 33

STRUGGLES AND MOVEMENTS

NEPAL WON DEMOCRACY IN 1990KING BIRENDRA REMAINED FORMALLY THE HEAD OF THE STATE, ALTHOUGH REAL POWER WAS EXERCISED BY ELECTED REPRESENTATIVES.

AFTER THE DEATH OF BIRENDRA, GYANENDRA BECAME THE KING AND DISMISSED THE P.M & DISSOLVED THE PARLIAMENT.

Movement for democracy in Nepal

STRUGGLE FOR DEMOCRACYAIM:TO RESTORE DEMOCRACY IN NEPAL

YEAR2006 (APRIL)NO. OF PROTESTORS3-5 LAHKS (APPROX)

ORGANISATIONSSPA,MAOISTS&OTHER ORGANISATONS

DEMANDS1.RESTORATION OF PARLIAMENT:

2.POWER TO ALL PARTY GOVERNMENT3.A NEW CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY

IMPORTANT DATES:2001:ASSASINATION OF KING BIRENDRA2005:DISMISSION OF PRIME MINISTER OF DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENT 2006:ON 21ST APRIL PROTESTORS SERVED AN ULTIMATUM TO THE KING. ON 24TH APRIL THE FINAL DAY OF ULTIMATUM & THE KING WAS FORCED TO CONCEDE ALL THE DEMANDS.

GIRIJA PRASAD KOIRALA CHOSEN AS THE P.M BY SPA

THE RESTORED PARLIAMENT MET & PASSED LAWS TAKING AWAY MOST OF THE POWERS OF THE KINGTHIS STRUGGLE CAME TO BE KNOWN AS NEPALS SECOND MOVEMENT FOR DEMOCRACY.

This is the story of people lived in CochabambaIn Bolivia. Peoples successful struggle against Privitasation of water in Bolivia reminds us that Popular struggles are integral to the working inDemocracy. BOLIVIAs WATER STRUGGLE:-

Reasons for the struggle:-Privatisation of water supply

The price of water increased drastically.

This led to a spontaneous popular protest.

On January 2000, a new alliance of labour, human rights &Community leaders organised four day strike in the city.

The Government agreed to negotiate & strike was called off. Yet nothing happened.The police resorted to brutal repression when the agitations was started in February.

The power of the people forced the officials of the mnc To flee the city & made the government concede to all the demands of the protestors

AS A RESULT THE CONTRACT WITH MNC WAS CANCELLED & WATER SUPPLY WAS RESTORED TO THE MUNICIPALITY AT THE OLD RATES.THIS CAME TO BE KNOWN AS BOLIVIAS WATER WAR.

DIFFERECNCES BETWEEN NEPAL & BOLIVIA STRUGGLESTHE MOVEMENT IN NEPAL WAS TO RESTORE DEMOCRACY.IN CLAIMS ON AN ELECTED DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENT. THE MOVEMENT IN BOLIVIA WAS INVOLVED IT WAS THE STRUGGLE TO LAY THE FOUNDATIONS OF COUNTRYS POLITICS.IT WAS THE STRUGGLE ABOUT ONE SPECIFIC POLICY.NEPALBOLIVIA

Similarities in Nepal & Bolivia StruggleIn both the cases the Political Conflicts led to Popular struggles.In both the cases Mass Mobilisation played vital role.

Role of Political OrganisationsIn both the cases there Is an involvement of politicalOrganisations like SPA, Nepal Maoist Party in Nepal & Socialist Party in Bolivia.

SPANMPSocialist Party

We can draw few conclusions from the struggles of Nepal & Bolivia1.Democracy evolves through popular struggles

2. Democratic Conflicts are resolved through Mass Mobilisation

3. Conflicts & mobilisations are based on Political OrganisationsThe spontaneous public participation becomes more effective withThe help of organised politics.These include Political Parties, Pressure Groups & Movement Groups

MOBILISATION & ORGANISATIONSIN NEPAL WE HAVE FEW ORGANISTIONS LIKE SPA,NMP,ORGANISATIONS OF LAWYERS, DOCTORS, HUMAN RIGHTS GROUP, LABOUR UNIONS etc

Bolivias Water War was mainly led by an organization called FEDECOR

This organisation comprised of local professionals, including Engineers & Environmentalists who were supported by federations of farmers,labour unions & middle class students of University of Cochabamba.

SOCIALIST PARTYBOLIVIASOCIALIST PARTY WAS PARTICIPATED ACTIVELY IN THE WATER STRUGGLE AND IT ALSO CAME TO THE POWER IN 2006

From both the struggles of Bolivia & Nepal we can say that diffeent organisations play a vital role in struggles. Role of organisations are in two ways: Direct way Indirect wayIt influences the decisions by direct participation in competitive politicsIt influences the decisions by indirect participation in competitive politics

This is done by creating parties, contesting elections & forming governments. This is done by forming an organisation and undertaking activities to promote their interest or their view point.Ex: Political partiesEx: Pressure or Interest groups

Pressure Groups & Movement GroupsPressure & Movement Groups are the organisations that attempt to influence government policies.

Differences between Sectional Interest Groups & Public Interest Groups Sectional Interest Groups Public Interest GroupsThey represent particular section of the society like workers, Industrialists, business persons etc.They represent all the section of the society in general.Their main concern is the betterment of their members.Their main concern is the social justice & equality for the entire society.They promote selective goodThey promote collective goodEx: Trade Unions , Business Associations, Teachers AssociationsEx: BAMCEF ( Backward and Minorities Community Employees Federation )

Differences between Generic Movement &Issue Specific Movement GENERIC MOVEMENTISSUE SPECIFIC MOVEMENTTHEY TRY TO ACHIEVE A BROAD GOAL IN THE VERY LONG TERM.THEY TRY TO ACHIEVE A SINGLE OBJECTIVE WITHIN IN A SHORT SPAN OF TIMETHERE IS NO CLEAR CUT LEADER SHIPIT HAS CLEAR CUT LEADER SHIPIT CAN TAKE PLACE ANY WHEREIT CAN TAKE PLACE AT SPECIFIC REGIONEX: WOMEN RIGHTS MOVEMENT, ENVIRONMENTAL MOVEMENT, ANTI LIQOUR MOVEMENTEX: TELENGANA MOVEMENT, NARMADA BACHAO ANDOLAN, NEPALESE MOVEMENT FOR DEMOCRACY.

Differences between Pressure Groups & Movement GroupsPRESSURE GROUPSMOVEMENT GROUPSDecision making is formal and not flexible.Decision making is informal and flexible.Doesnt depends much on spontaneous mass participation.Depend much more on spontaneous mass participation than a pressure group.Pressure Groups dont have loose organisations.Unlike pressure groups movements have loose organisations.

NATIONAL ALLIANCE FOR PEOPLES MOVEMENTThis is an organisation of organisations. Various Movement groups struggling on specific issues are Constituents of this loose organisation.This type of organisations are also called as UMBRELLA ORGANISATIONS

PRESSURE & MOVEMENT GROUPS INFLUENCE THE POLITCS IN FOLLOWING WAYSI. Gaining public support & sympathy2. Disruption of government programmes

3. Appointment of lobbyists

4. Pressure groups are extended arms of political parties

5. Emergence of Political Parties from movements

6. Emergence of Political Leaders from pressure or movement groups

Healthy influence of Pressure Groups on politics

Unhealthy influence of Pressure Groups on politics