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Stress , Health, and Human Flourishing Stress: Some Basic Concepts Stress Effects and Health Coping With Stress Managing Stress Effects Happiness. Stress: Some Basic Concepts. Stressors—Things that push our buttons Stress reactions—From alarm to exhaustion. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY (7th Edition in Modules) David Myers

Geri Lavrov / Photographer's Choice / Getty ImagesStress, Health, and Human FlourishingStress: Some Basic ConceptsStress Effects and HealthCoping With StressManaging Stress EffectsHappinessStress: Some Basic ConceptsStressorsThings that push our buttonsStress reactionsFrom alarm to exhaustionStress: Some Basic ConceptsStressProcess of appraising an event as threatening or challenging and responding toStressors appraised as threatsCan lead to strong negative reactionsExtreme or prolonged stressCan cause harm

410-1 How does our appraisal of an event affect our stress reaction, and what are the three main types of stressors?

StressProcess by which we perceive and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challengingStress: Some Basic ConceptsStressorsThings that push our buttonsCatastrophes: Unpleasant, large-scale events

Significant life changes: Personal events

Daily hassles: Day-to-day challengesCatastrophes: Unpleasant, large-scale eventsSignificant damage to emotional and physical healthSignificant life changes: Personal eventsReported by one-half of people in twenties and one-fifth of those over 65Raises risk of disease and death; cluster crisis is worseDaily hassles: Day-to-day challengesCan negatively affect physical and mental well-being

6Stress AppraisalThe events of our lives flow through a psychological filter. How we appraise an event influences how much stress we experience and how effectively we respond.

Fuse/Getty ImagesStress: Some Basic ConceptsStress reactionsFrom alarm to exhaustionCannonSympathetic nervous systemFlight-or-fight responseSelyeGeneral adaptation syndrome (GAS)TaylorTend-and-befriend10-2 How does the body respond to stress?

8Fight-or-flight response Emergency response, including activity of sympathetic nervous system, that mobilizes energy and activity for attacking or escaping a threatGeneral adaptation syndrome (GAS)Selyes concept of the bodys adaptive response to stress in three stagesalarm, resistance, exhaustion Tend-and-befriend responseUnder stress, people (especially women) often provide support to others (tend) and bond with and seek support from others (befriend)Selyes General Adaptation Syndrome

AP Photo/ Luis HidalgoAP Photo/ Chile's PresidencyWhen a gold and copper mine in Chile collapsed in 2010, family and friends rushed to the scene, fearing the worst. Many of those holding vigil outside the mine were nearly exhausted with the stress of waiting and worrying. Thengood news! After waiting and worrying for 18 days, they heard that all 33 men inside the mine were alive and well.

10Stress response system: When alerted to a negative, uncontrollable event, our ________ nervous system arouses us.Heart rate and respiration ________ (increase/decrease). Blood is diverted from digestion to the skeletal ________ .The body releases sugar and fat. All this prepares the body for the ________ response.ANSWERS: sympathetic; increase; muscles; flight-or-fight11Stress Effects and Health10-3 How does stress influence our immune system?

12Stress Effects and HealthImmune system is affected by age, nutrition, genetics, body temperature, and stress.

When the immune system does not function properly: Responds too stronglyUnderreactsLymphocytesTwo types of white blood cells that are part of the bodys immune system: B lymphocytes release antibodies that fight bacterial infections; T lymphocytes attack cancer cells, viruses, and foreign substances.Coronary heart diseaseCogging of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle; the leading cause of death in North America and many other countries.A Simplified View Of Immune Responses

Fuse/ ThinkstockCNRI / Science SourceNIBSC / Science SourceLennart Nilsson/ Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbHEye of Science / Science SourceStress Effects and Health: Immune System MalfunctionsStress Effects and HealthStress hormones suppress immune systemAnimal studies: Stress of adjustment in monkeys caused weakened immune systemsHuman studies: Stress related to surgical wound healing and development of colds. Low stress may increase effectiveness of vaccinations.

And sostress does not make people sick but it reduces immune systems ability to function optimally. Stress And ColdsPeople with the highest life-stress scores were also most likely to develop colds when exposed to an experimentally delivered virus (Cohen et al., 1999).

Laurent / Yakou / Science Source________ focuses on mind-body interactions, including the effects of psychological, neural, and endocrine functioning on the immune system and overall health.

What general effect does stress have on our overall health?ANSWER: Psychoneuroimmunology

ANSWER: Stress tends to reduce our immune systems ability to function properly, so that those who regularly experience higher stress also have a higher risk of physical illness19Stress Effects and HealthStress and AIDSStress and cancerStress and heart diseaseStress Effects and HealthStress and AIDSStress cannot give people AIDS, but may speed transition from HIV infection to AIDS and the decline in those with AIDS.

Stress and cancerStress does not create cancer cells, but may affect growth by weakening natural defenses.Stress-cancer research results mixed.

Stress Can Have A Variety Of Health - Related Consequences

Stress Effects and HealthStress and heart disease600, 000 North American coronary heart disease-related deaths yearlyStress related to generation of inflammation which is associated with heart and other health problems.Meyer and colleaguesStress predicted heart attack risk for tax accountants.Type A men more likely to have heart attack.Conley and colleaguesStress related to everyday academic stressors in students.

10-4 How does stress increase coronary heart disease risk?Risk also related to family history of high blood pressure, smoking, obesity, high fat diet, physical inactivity, and high cholesterol level. 23Type A Friedman and Rosenmans term for competitive, hard - driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger - prone peopleType BFriedman and Rosenmans term for easy going, relaxed peopleType DTerm for people who suppress negative emotion to avoid social disapproval (Grande et al., 2012)Coping With StressPersonal control, health, and well-beingWho controls your life?Is the glass half full or half empty?Social supportCLOSE-UP: Pets are friends, tooFinding meaningCoping With StressPeople deal with stress in a variety of ways.CopingProblem-focused copingEmotion-focused copingCoping: Reducing stress using emotional, cognitive, or behavioral methodsProblem-focused coping: Attempting to educe stress directlyby changing the stressor or the way we interact with that stressorEmotion-focused coping: Attempting to reduce stress by avoiding or ignoring a stressor and attending to emotional needs related to our stress reaction

10-5 What are two basic ways that people cope with stress?

26EXTREME STRESSBen Carpenter experienced the wildest of rides after his wheelchair got stuck in a trucks grille.

AP Photo /Michigan State PoliceTo cope with stress, we tend to use ________ focused (emotion/problem) strategies when we feel in control of our world. When we believe we cannot change a situation, we may try to relieve stress with ________-focused (emotion/problem) strategies.ANSWERS: problem; emotion28Personal Control, Health, and Well-BeingSuccess in coping depends on several factorsPersonal controlOptimistic outlookSocial supportFinding meaning Lets look at each of these.10-6 How does our sense of control influence stress and health?

29Personal Control, Health, and Well-BeingPersonal controlInvolves to degree we perceive having control over our environmentStudying personal controlCorrelation of feelings of control with behaviors and achievementsExperiments involving raising and lowering peoples sense of control and noting the effects10-6 How does our sense of control influence stress and health?

30Personal Control, Health, and Well-BeingLearned helplessnessInvolves dramatic form of loss of controlMay result in negative health consequencesFox and colleaguesRoberts and colleaguesFleming and colleaguesFox and colleagues: Nurses who reported little control over their environment had higher cortisol levels and blood pressureRoberts and colleagues: Animals in capacity were more disease-prone than wild counterparts.Fleming and colleagues: Similar effects reported when humans were crowded together. Feelings of loss of control related to higher stress hormone levels and blood pressure.

31When animals and people experience no control over repeated bad events, they often learn helplessness.LEARNED HELPLESSNESS

Personal Control, Health, and Well-BeingPeople thrive when they live in conditions of personal freedom and empowerment.

Proposal to improve health and morale by control (Humphrey and others)Allowing prisoners to have more control over physical spaceHaving worker participate in decision-makingOffering nursing home patients more choices about their environments

Personal Control, Health, and Well-BeingWho controls your life?Those who have an external locus of control believe that chance or outside forces control their fateThey achieve more in school and work, act more independently, enjoy better health, and feel less depressed.Those who have an internal locus of control believe they control their own destiny:

Personal Control, Health, and Well-BeingHalf Full of Half Empty?PessimistsExpect things to go badly, blame othersOptimists/OptimismExpect to have control, work well under stress, and enjoy good healthRun in families; genetic marker/oxytocinDanner and colleagues: Optimism-long life correlation study

10-7 How do optimists and pessimists differ, and why does our outlook on lifematter?

35

Personal Control, Health, and Well-Being

Which of these factors has the strongest association with poor health: smoking 15 cigarettes daily, being obese, being inactive, or lacking strong social connections?Social support: Promotes both happiness and health

10 -8 How do social support and finding meaning in life influence health?

36Personal Control, Health, and Well-BeingSocial support helps fight illness in two ways.It calms cardiovascular system, which lowers blood pressure and stress hormone levels.It fights illness by fostering stronger immune functioning.Can pets help people handle stress?Women experienced lower blood pressure spikes in presence of their dog during challenging test.Pets increase the odds of survival after a heart attack.They relieve depression among AIDS patients. Pets lower the level of fatty acids in the blood that increase the risk of heart disease.Social SupportResearch findingsUchino: People supported by close relationships are less likely to die early.Kaplan and colleagues: People in low-conflict marriages live longer, healthier lives than unmarried.Valliant: Healthy aging is better predicted by a good marriage than by a low cholesterol levelSome research finds that people with companionable pets are less likely than those without pets to visit their doctors after stressful events (Siegel, 1990). How can the health benefits from social support shed light on this finding?ANSWER: Feeling social supporteven from a petmight calm people and lead to lower levels of stress hormones and blood pressure.40Managing Stress EffectsAerobic exerciseRelaxation and meditationFaith communities and healthManaging Stress EffectsAerobic exercise, relaxation, meditation, and active spiritual engagement may help us gather inner strength and lessen stress effects.

Based on what we have learned so far, can you guess why?

42Managing Stress EffectsAerobic exerciseInvolves sustained activity that increases heart and lung fitness; reduces stress, depression, and anxietyCan weaken the influence of of genetic risk for obesityIncreases the quality and quantity of life (~two years)

10-9 How well does aerobic exercise help manage stress and improve well-being?

43

Does aerobic exercise produce a change in stress, depression, anxiety, or other health outcomes?AEROBIC EXERCISE REDUCED DEPRESSION (From McCann & Holmes, 1984.)10 weeks into a experimental exercise program, the women in the aerobic exercise program reported the greatest decrease in depression.

Aerobic exercise counteracts depression: it increases arousal; it does naturally what some prescription drugs do chemically:

OLJ Studio /ShutterstockAerobic exercise counteracts depression in two ways. First, it increases arousal. Second, it does naturally what some prescription drugs do chemically: It increases the brains serotonin activity.44Managing Stress EffectsRelaxation and mediationRelaxation: More than 60 studies found that relaxation procedures can provide relief from headaches, high blood pressure, anxiety, and insomniaRelaxation training: Training has been used to help Type A heart attack survivors reduce risk of future heart attacks.10 -10 In what ways might relaxation and meditation influence stress and health?

45

Recurrent Heart Attacks And Life-Style ModificationThe San Francisco Recurrent Coronary Prevention Project offered counseling from a cardiologist to survivors of heart attacks. Those who were also guided in modifying their Type A lifestyle suffered fewer repeat heart attacks. (From Friedman & Ulmer, 1984.)

David Madison/ JupiterimagesManaging Stress EffectsLearning to reflect and acceptMindfulness meditationInvolves attending to current experiences in a nonjudgmental and accepting mannerImproves many health measuresManaging Stress EffectsLearning to reflect and acceptHow mindfulness contributes to positive changesConnections among regions are strengthened.Brain regions associated with more reflective awareness are activated.Brain activation in emotional situations are calmed.Managing Stress EffectsFaith communities and health: Faith FactorReligious involvement predicts health and longevity.

Possible explanations for the correlation between religious involvement and health/longevity.

10 -11 Does religious involvement relate to health?

49What are some of the tactics that help people manage the stress they cannot avoid?ANSWERS: Aerobic exercise, relaxation procedures, mindfulness, meditation, and religious engagement.50HappinessThe short life of emotional ups and downsWealth and well-beingWhy cant money buy more happiness?CLOSE-UP: Want to be happier?HappinessResilienceInvolves process of bouncing back in the face of adversity or significant sources of stress HUMAN RESILIENCE

Courtesy of Anna PuttSeven weeks after her 1994 wedding, Anna Putt of South Midlands, England, shown here with her husband, Des, suffered a brain stem stroke that left her locked - in.For months afterward, she recalled, I was paralyzed from the neck down and was unable to communicate. These were VERY frightening times. But with encouragement from family, friends, faith, and medical staff, I tried to keep positive. In the three years that followed, she learned to talk (by nodding at letters), to steer an electric wheelchair with her head, and to use a computer (by nodding while wearing spectacles that guide a cursor). Despite her paralysis, she has reported, I enjoy going out in the fresh air. My motto is Dont look back, move forward. God would not want me to stop trying and I have no intention of doing so. Life is what you make of it!

52HappinessFeel-good, do-good phenomenonSuggests that when people feel happy, they become more helpful and doing good promotes feeling good Subjective well-beingIncludes feelings of happiness and sense of satisfaction with life10-12 What are the causes and consequences of happiness?

53USING WEB SCIENCE TO TRACK HAPPYDAYSThe days with the most positive moods are Friday and Saturday (Facebook)

A similar analysis of emotion-related words in 59 million Twitter messages found Friday to Sunday the weeks happiest days.

Adam Kramer (personal correspondence, 2010) tracked positive and negative emotion words in many exact number is proprietary information) of status updates of U.S. users of Facebook between September 7, 2007, and November 17, 2010.

THE CHANGING MATERIALISM OF ENTERING COLLEGE STUDENTSYearly surveys of more than 200,000 entering U.S. college students have, since 1970, revealed an increasing desire for wealth.(From The American Freshman surveys, UCLA, 1966 to 2012.)

HappinessThe short life of emotional ups and downsOver time, emotional ups and downs tend to balance out.Positive emotions rise over early to middle part of day and then drop off.Duration of emotions is overestimated; resilience is underestimated.

Does money buy happiness?Money surely helps us to avoid certain types of pain. Yet, though buying power has almost tripled since the 1950s, the average Americans reported happiness has remained almost unchanged. (Happiness data from National Opinion Research Center surveys; income data from Historical Statistics of the United States and Economic Indicators.)Economic growth inwealthy countries has provided no apparentboost to morale or social well - being.

Why Cant Money Buy Happiness?Happiness is relativeRelative to personal experienceRelative deprivation: Sense that people feel that they are worse off than others with whom they compare themselvesRelative to success of othersAs people climb the ladder of success they mostly compare themselves with local peers who are at or above their current level.

HappinessPredictors of happinessGenes: Heredity accounts for about 50 percent of happiness ratings differences.Personal history: Emotions balance around level defined by experiences.Culture: Groups vary in the traits valued. Is there a happiness set-point?Happiness Is . . .

Want to be happier?Realize that enduring happiness does not come from financial success.Take control of your time.Act happy.Seek work and leisure that engage your skills.Join the movement movement.Give your body the sleep it wants.Give priority to close relationships.Focus beyond self.Count your blessings and record your gratitude.Nurture your spiritual self.

Photodisc / JupiterimagesWhich of the following factors do NOT predict self-reported happiness? Which factors are better predictors?a. Aged. Genderb. Personality traitse. Engaging work andleisurec. Close relationshipsf. Active religious faithANSWERS: Age and gender (a. and d.) do NOT effectively predict happiness levels.Better predictors are personality traits, close relationships, flow in work and leisure, and religious faith (b., c., e., and f.).62