strength training for women, young athletes and senior athletes chapters 9-11

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Strength Training for Women, Young Athletes and Senior Athletes Chapters 9-11 Slide 2 Female Needs Upper body strength, size and power Upper body strength, size and power Less CSA than males and smaller diameter Less CSA than males and smaller diameter May use a bodybuilding program? May use a bodybuilding program? Benefits are the same as males Benefits are the same as males Slide 3 Myths? Page 176 Slide 4 Strength and Power Development Heavy resistance (80-95%) and low reps (3- 5RM) Heavy resistance (80-95%) and low reps (3- 5RM) P=(fxd)/t strength vs. speed training P=(fxd)/t strength vs. speed training High speed and acceleration training High speed and acceleration training Typically 30-45% of 1RM for power Typically 30-45% of 1RM for power Plyometrics and SAQ Plyometrics and SAQ Slide 5 Periodized program Page 179 Slide 6 0 Torque Min Max 1/3 Vmax Force Power Vmax Torque & Power Velocity Curves Slide 7 Physiological Gender Differences Fewer and smaller fibers Fewer and smaller fibers Quantity vs quality? Quantity vs quality? Upper body absolute strength 40% of males Upper body absolute strength 40% of males Lower body absolute strength 70% of males Lower body absolute strength 70% of males Power 65% of males Power 65% of males Lower body relative strength is SIMILAR Lower body relative strength is SIMILAR Women may have larger type I than II fibers Women may have larger type I than II fibers RFD and RVD less for women (neural bias) RFD and RVD less for women (neural bias) Slide 8 Figure 9.4 Slide 9 Slide 10 Slide 11 Slide 12 Hormonal Differences 10-20 times less T than males 10-20 times less T than males Women adapt faster with type II fibers? Women adapt faster with type II fibers? Program design for women Program design for women Free weights and machines and high intensity Free weights and machines and high intensity Upper body exercises Upper body exercises Olympic lifting Olympic lifting Functional strength Functional strength Free weights over machines Free weights over machines Slide 13 Figure 9.5 Slide 14 Injury and Menstrual Differences Greater ACL injury in women Greater ACL injury in women Less thickness and smaller notch Less thickness and smaller notch Neural bias? Neural bias? Problems with low calorie intake and intense lower body exercise (stress) Problems with low calorie intake and intense lower body exercise (stress) Olympic athletes bottom of page 186 Olympic athletes bottom of page 186 Pregnant women Page 186 Pregnant women Page 186 Performance appears the same across the cycle Performance appears the same across the cycle Female athlete triad Page 187 Female athlete triad Page 187 Slide 15 NSCA position stand on page 188 Slide 16 Youth Training Safety is paramount SUPERVISION Safety is paramount SUPERVISION Injury comes from improper technique Injury comes from improper technique Epiphysis damage, bone fracture and stress fracture RISK are greater in youth Epiphysis damage, bone fracture and stress fracture RISK are greater in youth Weight room vs. sports injuries Weight room vs. sports injuries Risk vs. benefit? Risk vs. benefit? Slide 17 When to Start? Psychological readiness (why?) Psychological readiness (why?) Physiological readiness (size) Physiological readiness (size) Neural adaptations pre-puberty (quick and dramatic gains) Neural adaptations pre-puberty (quick and dramatic gains) Testosterone secretion by sex Testosterone secretion by sex Benefits Page 203 Benefits Page 203 Slide 18 Figure 10.1 Slide 19 Mythology Stunt children's growth Stunt children's growth Girls will get BIG Girls will get BIG Guidelines for youth Guidelines for youth Ready? Ready? Program design Program design Technique Technique Spotting Spotting Equipment safety Equipment safety Equipment fit Equipment fit Balanced program Balanced program Growth plate damage Growth plate damage Slide 20 Youth Program Design Beginners Beginners Body weight first Body weight first Light weights Light weights Partner exercise Partner exercise Athletes Athletes Supervised Supervised 3 x week for 30-60 minutes 3 x week for 30-60 minutes NSCA POSITION STAND ON PAGE 208 NSCA POSITION STAND ON PAGE 208 Periodized program on page 211 Periodized program on page 211 Slide 21 Table 10.1 Slide 22 Age and Strength Genetic and cultural Genetic and cultural Magnitude of training with age? Magnitude of training with age? Decline in strength with age Decline in strength with age Andropause and menopause Andropause and menopause Sarcopenia of type II Sarcopenia of type II Great decline at 6 th decade and worse in women Great decline at 6 th decade and worse in women Loss of CSA Loss of CSA Power loss with age (correlated with function) Power loss with age (correlated with function) Physiological loss bottom of page 217 Physiological loss bottom of page 217 Slide 23 Figure 11.1 Slide 24 Figure 11.2 Slide 25 Training for Seniors Dramatic strength gains in seniors? Dramatic strength gains in seniors? Neural changes Neural changes Increase in CSA primarily type II (heavy resistance) Increase in CSA primarily type II (heavy resistance) Reduced testosterone Reduced testosterone Increase power with explosive exercise (F=ma) Page 222 Increase power with explosive exercise (F=ma) Page 222 Proper nutrition page 222 Proper nutrition page 222 Slide 26 Figure 11.3 Slide 27 Recovery and Guidelines Longer time for rest (frequency) Longer time for rest (frequency) Interset? Interset? Greater muscle damage Greater muscle damage Joint stress with compression Joint stress with compression Increased bone health Increased bone health Program design is the same at any age Program design is the same at any age Injury risk with weak bones and tissues Injury risk with weak bones and tissues Slide 28 Next Class Periodization 12-week chart Periodization 12-week chart