Stingless bee

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<p>Slide 1</p> <p>STINGLESS BEES.Chidananda RPALB-4098Dept.of Agril.entomologyUAS,GKVK BengaluruIntroduction Also called as dammer bees Bee keeping with stingless bees is known Meliponiculture 2 important genera: Trigona and Melipona Trigona genera consists 130 species and Melipona have 50 species Stingless bees colonies are perennial and usually consist of 100s or 1000s of workers They can be domesticated and used for production of honey and wax Stingless bees have mass provisional larval feedingDIVERSITY AND DISTRIBUTION Stingless bees inhabit and subtropical parts of the worldAccording to Michener (2000) there are about 36 genera and several hundred species Atsalek et al (2005) reported that 500 species are recorded mostly in tropical countries, most common genera were Trigona, Meliponula, Dectylurina, Lestrimelitta etc., Trigona is extensive genera in tribe meliponini in tropical regions of all continents</p> <p>Taxonomic classificationKingdomAnimaliaPhylumArthropodaClassInsectaOrderHymenopteraSub orderApocritaSuper familyApoideaFamilyApidaeSub familyApinaeTribeMeliponini</p> <p>Paratigona sp.Trigona sp.Melipona sp.Stingless bees True honey bees oldest known fossil: Trigona prisca(about 96 to 74 M years ago) true Apis type was first discovered in Lower Miocene ( 22 to 25 MYA) found in tropical and sub tropical regions found in almost all regions of the world they do not sting(highly reduced) but defend by biting if disturbed. sting is well developed, defend by stinging if disturbed Body size is smaller Bigger than stingless bees Honey yield is less Honey yield is more Trigona colony has 100,000 workers Apis has about 60,000 workers Swarming and absconding behavior is less because there are &gt;2 queens per colony Swarming and absconding are common phenomenon tolerant to pests and diseases: because of their smaller size and use of propolis which has germicidal and pest repellant susceptible to pests and diseases NEST BIOLOGY Common nesting sites of stingless bees are tree cavities, cracks and crevices in old walls or stone walls Trigona carbonaria - inside hollows in trees or wooden pillars of houses Trigona laevicepes - tree cavities Trigona gribodei - tree trunks and cavities T. oyuni and T. moorei ant nests T. Gribodei termite mound Nest consists: external tube, internal tunnel, resin dumps, waste dumps, food pots for storing pollen and honey, brood pots and nest envelops like involucrum and batumen. Entrance tube has made out of cerumen</p> <p> Nest of Melipona </p> <p>FOOD POTS: Present either above, below or at both sides of the brood area Built one above other or side by side when sealed Pollen pots were built closer to the entrance Honey pots in outer parts of the nest but often the cluster will contain both honey and pollen potsBROOD CELLS: Arrange in clusters and more crowded Distinct colour variation on their age Newly constructed: brownish Straw coloured with as age advances Brood cells are vertically elongated and oriented Brood cells of worker and drone are similar in size but queen cells are largerBEHAVIOUR: Stingless bees are active all round the year, less active in cooler weathers, even some species undergo diapause Blum et al (1984) reported the few genera (genus Oxytrigona tataria, Fire bee) produces a secretion from its extensively developed mandibular gland that produces lesions when come in contact with human skinBIOLOGY: Queen main ovipositioning function Workers regulate cell construction and discharge of larval food Workers of 9 to 13 days are more active in provisioning of brood cells 5-6 workers fill up the cell with larval food After mass provisioning, queen lays egg 4-5 secs after egg laying, one worker closes that cell with wax in about 2.5 to 3 minutes Domicile (Nest biology)Nests are notable points of bee activity, often spectacular examples of animal architecture, nesting biology is a highly visible aspect of stingless bee behavior(Michener, 1974). Colonies are active every day and therefore have sustained impact among the biota (Roubik, 1989; Hansell, 1993). The individual species are recognizable from nest entrances and often their particular site much obvious variety exists. Inside the nest, there are different shapes and arrangements of brood cells and food storage containers. Honey and pollen are stored in separate pots.Stored nectar or ripened honey are in nest cavity extremes (for storage during heavy flowering periods), while pollen and some honey surround the brood area.Storage pots of stingless bee</p> <p>Nest of stingless bee</p> <p>Nest structures</p> <p>Stages Trigona mooreiTrigona itamaEgg (days)5.54.20Larval(days)1010.4Pupa(days)3131.9Total (days)46.546.5LIFE STAGES OF STINGLESS BEESFORAGING BEHAVIOUR: Foraging will optimum early in morning i.e., in T. fulviventris at 0700 hr @20 departures/min which declined by 1000 hr @ 20 departures/min In early morning 50% of bees were returning with pollen Areas and amounts of pollen and nectar collected by honey bees is 10 times more than stingless bees Stages Tasks Days 1Emergence and rest12Incubation of brood, work the wax into the cells, then the entire nest2 to 113Construction, filling and capping of cells, feeding of young adults and queen, cleaning the nest, incubating12 to 214Feeding the queen and young adults and cleaning the nests, development cerumen22 to 265Work of cerumen, nest building and involucrum , recieving nectar, storing food27 to 356Transition to foraging 7Foraging and track marking (fragrant)36 to death[43 to 54 in Scaptotrigona postica]</p> <p>Communication:Mainly by 2 ways a) Signals b) Cues </p> <p> Signals have specific role in communication, they are nothing but pheromones. Cues are incidental features present in environment. They have not been moulded by natural selection to carry a specific meaning for intended receivers.Pheromones ReleaserInduces a change in behaviour PrimerInduces development processThe role of semio-chemicals in foraging ecology of stingless bees divides the main volatile compounds in the four categories:Food odours Food source marking volatiles Trail pheromonesThe chemicals used by robber bees and casual theives during nest plunderingFood odours: Flower volatiles or compounds emanating from carcasses are used by many bees to detect and orient towards the food sources. Plays important role in:Flower constancy of individual Recruitment of fellow workers within nest.Villa and Weiss (1990) trained bees Tetragonisca angustula were exposed to identically coloured feeders. The experiment results that previously foraged feeder significantly attracted as presumably chemical marks left on them.</p> <p>Jostling: Foragers bump into other bees crossing their paths when running around and changing the direction in an irregular way well known in Melipona sp. produces air borne sound even man can hearHrneir et al (2000)</p> <p>Nest plundering: plundering the food reserves from other species of stingless bees or sometimes true bees Lestrimelitta sp. is highly specialized this method of food acquisition, are highly cleptobiotic invades nests of Melipona, Paratrigona and Tetragonisca or hives of Apis melliferaJarau er al (2010) attacked nests emit strong and lemon like odour. This is due to secretion of stereisomers of citral i.e., geranial and neral in ratio of 2:1WHY SHOULD WE USE STINGLESS BEES FOR POLLINATION?Features: Better pollination Survival in tropics Eco friendly Conservation Limited foraging distance 1. Green house pollination 2. Owners benefit-maximum</p> <p>CROPS FOR WHICH STINGLESS BEES POLLINATION IS VALUABLECommon nameFamilyMango AnacardiaceaeStrawberryRosaceaeCoconutArecaceaeChow chowCucurbitaceaeCarambolaOxalidaceaeLab labPapilionaceaeGoose berryEuphorbiaceaeHeard et al (1999)Flower preference: Generalist flower visitors Small flowersDense inflorescence Shorter corolla tube Wider corolla tubeColony requirementFor most crops, 15 to 20 colonies per hectare are usually recommended for effective pollination. However, if natural pollinators are scarce, additional hives may be necessary.TreatmentsInitial fruit/ 20 paniclesFruit drop/ 20 paniclesFruits harvested/ 20 paniclesFruit weight (g)TSS (%)Trigona iridipennis67.536.2531.25580.125.04Apis florea52.4223.3229.1480.2324.02Apis cerana44.418.226.2390.1724.50Open pollination58.232.326.5475.2524.1Mean55.6327.5128.26481.4324.39EFFICIENCY OF DIFFERENT POLLINATION MODES ON FRUIT YIELD AND QUALITY OF MANGOPercentage of malformed Sweet pepper (Restricted pollination)TreatmentsFruits (no.)Malformed fruits (%)Hand cross pollination3213Pollination by Melipona subnitida5917Hand self pollination3345Self pollination5048TreatmentsFruits (no.)Fruit setNo.(%)Hand cross pollination504182Pollination by Melipona subnitida604270Hand self pollination664568Self pollination503774Percentage of fruit set in Sweet pepper (Restricted pollination)Cruz (2004)Effect of stingless bee pollination on Quantitative yield parameters of sunflower</p> <p>TreatmentsNo. Of filled seeds/headNo. Unfilled seeds/ headTotal no. Of seedsPercent seed set1000 seed wt.(g)Yield/ m2Oil contentCrops caged and enclosed with stingless bees 469.2269.6776.859.2261.5380.7438.06Crops caged for avoiding pollinators 29.4634.4666.84.9155.511.73NTOpen pollination638.445.20679.893.9361.0917.336.57Roopa (2002)</p> <p>Pollination in white clover in green house conditions</p> <p>TreatmentsAverage weight of flower head (g)Yield weight/ 0.75 m2 (g)Trigona carbonaria 4.74.0Scaptatrigona bipunctata7.17.9Bombus terrestria 16.619.4Apis mellifera14.217.0Two colonies of each left in 0.2 ha area of green house conditionsReasons for poor performance Since green house (0.2ha) was too spacious for stingless bees may not be actually habituated yet Most gathered around ceiling facing sun and causing wear and tearing of colonySTRENGTH OF STINGLESS BEES IN POLLINATION Floral consistency Domestication Perennial colonies Large foods reserves are stored in nests Polylecty and adoptibility Forager recruitmentHow to get best pollination by the stingless bees Suitable crops Pollination of non crop species Buzz pollination Important of natural vegetation Response to weather Flight activity of colonies Flight range PesticidesADVANTAGES OF STINGLESS BEES FOR CROP POLLINATIONHarmless Native speciesThrive in tropical climates Glass house pollinationPest and disease lessSwarms dont move far awayADVANTAGES TO FARMERS Safety Medicinal honeyRestricted foraging Easy managementEasy transportationLow cost technologyEconomicalNesting siteColony availabilityMeliponicultureSmall colony sizeSlow growth rateTerritoriality DISADVANTAGES TO FARMERS FUTURE THRUSTSpecies identityEffective pollinating species Documentation of crops benefited Multiplication technologyManagement for pollinationSummary:</p> <p> Stingless bees are generalist flower visitors Pollination by stingless bees in sunflower recorded a yield/m2 of 380.74g, in Niger 18.50g and in Chow chow fruit set was 62.66% Under foraging and pollination behaviour in onion crop pollinated by stingless bees recorded maximum fruits/umbel i.e., 202 When honey samples from Trigona iridipennis have been analyzed. Moringa oleifera was the crop which is maximum benefited i.e., 33% followed by Scaptatrigona emerginatus 27% Under the study of pollination efficiency of stingless bees Melipona subnitida on green house pepper, it recorded a fruit set of 70% Stingless bees can be used as pollinators in greenhouse conditions because of their adoptability and horizontal flight Flight range of stingless bees Melipona scutellaris is maximum i.e., 2800m followed by Melipona bicolor which indicates that these are effective pollinatorsConclusion: crop pollinators both as wild and managed pollinators suitable social life for pollination challenge to their widespread are a) lack of availability of large no. Of hives b) dearth of knowledge of about pollination and pollinators of stingless beesThank you</p>