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Stem Cell Concept. Pg. 721. Signal Transduction Pathways and Cell Differentiation. Stem Cell. Specialized cell type (neuron, skin cell, red blood cell, etc.). Blood Cell Formation. Erythropoietin (Epo). (Epo). Red Blood Cell Development. EPO. Synthesis of proteins that - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Stem Cell ConceptPg. 721

  • Signal Transduction Pathways and Cell DifferentiationSpecialized cell type(neuron, skin cell, red blood cell, etc.)

    Stem Cell

  • Blood Cell Formation

  • Erythropoietin (Epo)

  • (Epo)

  • Red Blood Cell Development

  • EPOSynthesis of proteins that stimulate Red Blood Cell development andprevent apoptosis

  • Negative Regulation of JAK/STAT Pathway

  • Mutant EPO ReceptorSignal toActivate

  • Seven-Pass ReceptorsAdrenalineGlucogonTSH, LHContractionGlycogen breakdownHormone secretionWater retentionIon transportPg. 546

  • Activation of Galpha Subunit

  • Synthesis of cyclic AMPATPcyclic AMPAdenylyl CyclasePg. 550Protein Kinase A (PKA)CFTROther Proteins

  • TargetsTranscription FactorsEnzymes

  • ActinMicrotubulesIntermediatefilamentsCytoskeletal StructuresChapter 17

  • MicrotubulesVesicle TransportChromosome segregation(mitotic spindle)Cilia/Flagella

  • Tubulin DimerGTP

  • GFP-Tagged Centrosomes

  • Centrosome Structure

  • TaxolColchicinePacific YewAutumn crocusMicrotubule Poisons

  • Tau Protein Stabilizes Microtubules in Neurons

  • Tau Protein

  • Tau tanglesRegulation of Microtubule Stability by Tau

  • Alzheimers Brain

  • Alzheimers Brain

  • Tau Protein

  • Microtubule Motor Proteins

  • Microtubule Motor Proteins

  • GFP-Tagged Centrosomes

  • Centrosome Duplication Cycle

  • Ciliated Cells

  • Actin Filaments

  • Actin Monomer

  • Arp2/3 (Actin Related Proteins)Arp2Arp3

  • Gelsolin ProteinNew minus endNew plus end

  • Acton Poisons

  • Myosin-II

  • Muscle Cell

  • Sarcomere

  • Contraction of a Sarcomere

  • Resting MuscleRigor position

  • Contraction of a Sarcomere

  • Tropomyosin blocksaccess to actin filament

  • Ca2+Binds Troponin C

  • Muscle Cell

  • Muscle RelaxantsPancuroniumBaclofenLigand for Seven-pass receptorInhibits Ligand-gated ion channels

  • Muscle Cell

  • Muscle Cell

    PancuroniumMuscle cell membrane can not be de-polarized

  • Baclofin Muscle CellMembraneMuscle CellMembraneMuscle cell membrane can not be de-polarized

  • Muscular Dystrophy Dystrophin gene (2.4 million bp, 78 exons)X-linked RecessiveProgressive muscle weakness/loss of skeletal muscle

  • Pg. 574

  • Pg. 576

  • Pg. 577

  • Pg. 575Keratin Filaments

  • DesmosomePg. 715

  • Pg. 577

  • Epidermolysis Bullosa(Keratin mutations)Pg. 577

  • Epidermolysis Bullosa(Keratin mutations)

  • Mitotic Cell CycleDNAReplication

  • G1SG2G1M-Phase

  • (G1 Phase)(G2 Phase)Semi-Conservative DNA Replication

  • Binding site forOrigin Recognition Complex (ORC)(ORC)

  • Completing Synthesis of the Lagging Strand(5 to 3 exonuclease)**

  • Thymine Tautomers

    Pairs with Adenine

    Pairs with Guanine

    (common form)(rare form)

  • DNA Polymerase proof reading

  • End Replication ProblemFinal RNA primers removedSecond round ofDNA replicationFirst round ofDNA replication****A

  • Telomere Synthesis

  • Telomerase RNA156 nucleotides

  • Telomere Synthesis

  • Normal Cell TelomeresShort TelomeresApoptosisChromosome Instabilty/DNA Damage

  • Telomerase InhibitorApoptosisTelomostatin~ 90 of all cancers haveRe-activated telomerase

  • Mitotic Cell CycleDNAReplication

  • G1SG2G1M-Phase

  • Cohesion of Sister ChromatidsCohesin ring

  • Nuclear Lamina

  • Fig. 19-18 (replacement)

  • Interphase and M-Phase Chromosomes

  • Condensation of Chromatids

  • Microtubules

  • Centrosome Duplication Cycle

  • Mitotic Spindle

  • Pg. 641MetaphaseAnaphase

  • Pg. 257Ubiquitin-dependent Protein DegradationAPC (Ubiquitin Ligase)

  • Start of Anaphase

  • Anaphase A and B

  • Cytokinesis

  • Myosin II - GFPInterphaseTelophaseCytokinesisCytokinesisCytokinesisG1

  • Contractile Unit in CytokinesisFig. 17-41Plasma MembraneCytosolSeptinring