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Download STATES OF MATTER - Denton   Preview •Matter •Physical Properties •Mass •Magnetism •Physical State –Solid –Liquid –Gas •Volume •Temperature

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  • I know matter has measurable physical properties and those properties determine how matter is classified, changed, and used.

    I can classify matter based on physical properties, including mass,

    magnetism, physical state (solid, liquid, and gas), relative density (sinking and floating), solubility in

    water, and the ability to conduct or insulate thermal energy or electric energy. (5.5A)

  • What is Matter? Everything in the universe that has MASS and takes

    up space (has volume) is classified as MATTER.

    5.5AB 4.5AB 3.5ABC

  • Vocabulary Preview Matter

    Physical Properties

    Mass

    Magnetism

    Physical State Solid

    Liquid

    Gas

    Volume

    Temperature

    Heating

    Cooling

    Boiling point

    Freezing point

    Density

    Sinking

    Floating

    Conduct

    Insulate

    Thermal energy

    Electric energy

    Mixtures

    Maintain

    Iron Filings

    Solution

    Solubility

    Dissolve

  • What is Matter?

    All matter is made up of small particles called

    molecules.

    These molecules are so small that they can be

    seen only with the strongest microscopes.

    The arrangement of molecules and the amount of

    energy in the molecules give matter properties

    (characteristics/qualities).

  • Physical Properties

    The physical properties of matter are

    measurable.

    Physical properties are features you can

    observe with your senses.

    Physical properties are characteristics you can

    measure with a tool.

    Physical properties are qualities that can be

    changed without changing the matter itself.

  • What are the physical properties of matter?

    1. Mass

    2. Volume

    3. Temperature

    4. Magnetism

    5. Physical State (solid, liquid, gas)

    6. Relative Density

    7. Solubility in Water

    8. Ability to Conduct thermal energy or electric energy

    9. Ability to Insulate thermal energy or electric energy

  • Mass

    Mass is the amount of matter something

    contains.

    Scientists measure the mass of matter instead

    of the weight of matter.

    Mass is measured in metric units.

    Mass is measured with a balance.

    Mass is not effected by gravity like weight is.

    The mass of a dog is the same on Earth as it is

    on the moon. The weight of a dog is greater on

    Earth than on the moon.

  • Volume

    All matter has volume.

    Volume is the amount of space something

    takes up.

    Volume is measured in two ways.

    1. use a ruler: length x width x height

    2. use a graduated cylinder (displacement)

  • Density

    Items that are not dense will float.

    Items that are very dense will sink.

    Relative Density is the physical property of matter

    that compares the amount of matter to the space

    taken up.

    When we talk about density, we are usually

    referring to how crowded the molecules are.

    Density can be measured in grams per milliliter (

    g/ml ).

    Solids are the densest phase of matter.

    Gases are the least dense.

  • Magnetism Magnetism is a type of force, an attraction, that pulls across a distance.

    Matter that contains Nickel, Iron, or Cobalt are magnetic.

    Steel is made of Iron, so a magnet attracts anything made of steel like paper

    clips, staples, and food cans.

    Not all metals are attracted to a magnet. The metal must contain iron to be

    magnetic.

    A magnet does NOT attract aluminum, most coins, glass, plastic, wood, or

    rubber.

    The center of the earth is iron which is why we have magnetic poles and

    why a compass works.

    A magnet is an object that attracts certain metals (mainly iron).

    One end of a magnet is called the south pole. The other end is called the

    north pole.

    One end of a magnet repels while the other attracts.

    Opposite poles attract.

    The same poles repel.

  • Temperature

    Temperature measures the physical property of how hot or how cold material is.

    Celsius is the common unit of measurement for temperature C

    Thermometers are the scientific tools used to measure temperature.

    http://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=thermometer&source=images&cd=&docid=tyRIm-vOCVEcIM&tbnid=nbg5BqxZs3K6lM:&ved=0CAUQjRw&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.biglearning.org%2Fthermometer.htm&ei=vggbUZvxAtSr2AXhmIDIBA&bvm=bv.42261806,d.b2I&psig=AFQjCNEDRkRBH8Q9SCXb-qCO6dKM5jLLFA&ust=1360812599585003

  • Boiling point is the temperature at

    which something becomes a gas.

    Water has a boiling point of 100 C.

    This means that at 100 C, water begins

    to change from a liquid to a gas.

  • Melting point is the temperature at

    which something becomes a liquid.

    Water has a melting point of 0 C.

    This means that at 0 C, water in the

    form of ice begins to change from a solid to a liquid.

  • Freezing point is the temperature at

    which something becomes a solid.

    Water has a freezing point of 0 C.

    This means that at 0 C, water begins

    to change from a liquid to a solid.

  • TEKS 5.7A

    Conductors of Heat Energy

    Materials that DO transfer heat energy from higher temperature to lower temperature areas.

    ****************************************************************************************************************************************************

    Examples materials made of metal and glass

    Conduction means allowing the transfer of heat from a higher temperature area to a lower temperature area.

    Heat energy flow

  • TEKS 5.7A

    Insulators of Heat Energy

    A material that does NOT transfer heat readily

    *************************************************************************************************************************************

    Examples materials made of rubber, wood, cloth

    materials that have air pockets

    Insulation means providing a barrier to the flow of energy, in this case, heat.

    Heat energy

    Ins

    ula

    tor

  • TEKS 5.7A

    Heat insulation is also called

    thermal insulation

    The house insulation in the walls and attic will slow

    down the transfer of heat. In cold weather, inside a

    warm house will be warmer than the outside

    temperature. In hot weather, inside a cool house will

    be cooler than the outside temperature.

    The blanket keeps body heat (heat energy) close to

    the boy. Heat energy is not transferred into the

    surrounding air.

    The styrofoam cup slows down heat transfer. A cold

    drink in the cup will stay colder than the surrounding air.

    A hot drink in the cup will stay hotter than the

    surrounding air.

  • TEKS 5.7A

    Practice your learning

    Conductors

    Describe conductors.

    Give an example of a conductor.

    Describe a practical use of a heat conductor.

    Insulators

    Describe insulators.

    Give an example of an insulator.

    Describe a practical use of a heat insulator.

  • The Physical States of Matter

  • Solids

    A solid is matter that has a definite

    shape and takes up a definite

    amount of space.

    The particles in a solid are close

    together like neat and even stacks

    of tiny balls.

    The particles are vibrating.

  • Liquids A liquid is matter that takes the shape of its container and

    takes up a definite amount of space.

    When matter is a liquid, its particles slip and slide around each other.

    They move from place to place, but they still stay close to each other.

    If you pour a liquid from one container than the other, the amount of matter in the liquid stays the same

  • Gases A gas is matter that has no definite

    shape and takes up no definite

    amount of space.

    Like liquid particles the particles in

    gases are not arranged in any

    pattern.

    Unlike liquids, particles in gases

    dont stay close together.

    This is because the particles in

    gases are moving much faster than

    the particles in liquids.

  • How does matter change?

  • Matter

    Can be changed from one state to another

    and back by heating or cooling

  • PHASE CHANGES Description of

    Phase Change

    Term for Phase

    Change

    Heat Movement During

    Phase Change

    Solid to

    liquid

    Melting

    Heat goes into

    the solid as it

    melts.

    Liquid to

    solid Freezing

    Heat leaves the

    liquid as it

    freezes.

  • PHASE CHANGES Description of

    Phase Change

    Term for Phase

    Change

    Heat Movement During

    Phase Change

    Liquid to

    gas

    Vaporization,

    which includes

    boiling and

    evaporation

    Heat goes into the

    liquid as it vaporizes.

    Gas to liquid Condensation Heat leaves the gas

    as it condenses.

    Solid to gas Sublimation Heat goes into the

    solid as it sublimates.

  • What is happening?

    STARTS CHANGES TO WHAT HAPPENED?

    Solid Liquid

    Liquid Gas

    Liquid Solid

    Gas Liquid

  • Mixture a combination of two or more

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