stable and radioactive isotopes

Download Stable and Radioactive Isotopes

Post on 04-Jan-2017

218 views

Category:

Documents

2 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • Industry & Trade Summary

    Office of IndustriesPublication ITS-01

    June 2009

    Stable and

    Radioactive Isotopes

  • UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION

    Robert A. RogowskyDirector of Operations

    Karen Laney-CummingsDirector, Office of Industries

    This report was principally prepared by:

    Jack A. Greenblatt, Office of Industriesjack.greenblatt@usitc.gov

    With supporting assistance fromBrenda Carroll, Office of Industries

    Under the direction of:

    Dennis Rapkins, ChiefChemicals and Textiles Division

    Address all communications toSecretary to the Commission

    United States International Trade CommissionWashington, DC 20436

    www.usitc.gov

  • i

    PREFACEThe United States International Trade Commission has initiated its current Industry andTrade Summary series of reports to provide information on the rapidly evolving trade andcompetitive situation of the thousands of products imported into and exported from theUnited States. Over the past 20 years, U.S. international trade in goods and services has risenby almost 400 percent. International supply chains have become more global andcompetition has increased. Each Industry and Trade Summary addresses a differentcommodity/industry and contains information on trends in consumption, production, andtrade, and an analysis of factors affecting industry trends and competitiveness in domesticand foreign markets. This report on stable and radioactive isotopes primarily covers theperiod 2003 through 2007.

    Papers in this series reflect on-going research by USITC international trade analysts. The workdoes not represent the views of the United States International Trade Commission or any of itsindividual Commissioners. This paper should be cited as the work of the author only, and not as anofficial Commission document.

  • iii

    CONTENTSPage

    Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i

    Abstract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi

    Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1Industry coverage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2Importance of the isotope industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3Overview of industry trends and developments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

    U.S. industry and market . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4Industry structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

    U.S. Department of Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7Universities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8Private industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9Technology transfer and partnerships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

    Market trends for radiopharmaceuticals and brachytherapy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11Factors affecting supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

    Isotopes for healthcare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12Isotopes for industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13Regulatory challenges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13The potential for supply disruptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

    Factors affecting demand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16Shipments, consumption, and trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

    U.S. trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18U.S. exports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18U.S. imports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

    Radioisotopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22Stable isotopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

    U.S. and foreign trade measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24Tariff measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24U.S. nontariff measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25Foreign nontariff measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

  • iv

    CONTENTSContinuedPage

    Foreign industry profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26EU-27 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28Russia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28Other countries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

    Foreign markets profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

    Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bibl-1

    AppendicesA. Technical glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-1B. Technical background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-1C. Stable and Radioactive Isotopes: Harmonized Tariff Schedule Subheading, Description,

    U.S. Col. 1 Rate of Duty as of Jan. 1, 2008, U.S. Imports, 2007, and U.S. Exports,2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-1

    D. Trade data for certain products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-1

    Tables1. Stable and radioactive isotopes: U.S. shipments, U.S. exports of domestic merchandise,

    U.S. exports for consumption, apparent U.S. consumption, the ratio of imports to consumption, and the ratio of exports to shipments, 2003-07 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

    2. Stable and radioactive isotopes: U.S. exports of domestic merchandise, imports for consumption, and merchandise trade balance, by selected countries, 2003-07 . . . . . . . . 19

    3. Certain stable and radioactive isotopes: U.S. domestic exports, 2003-07 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204. Certain stable and radioactive isotopes: U.S. imports for consumption, 2003-07 . . . . . . . . . 215. Most favored nation tariff rates for selected countries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24B-1. Characteristics of selected radioisotopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-4C-1. Stable and radioactive isotopes: U.S. rates of duty by Harmonized Tariff Schedule

    of the United States (HTS) item, U.S. domestic exports, and U.S. imports for consumption, 2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-3

    D-1. Cobalt-60: U.S. domestic exports, 2003-07 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-3D-2. Radioisotopes other than cobalt-60: U.S. domestic exports, 2003-07 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-3D-3. Heavy water: U.S. domestic exports, 2003-07 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-4D-4. Stable isotopes other than heavy water: U.S. domestic exports, 2003-07 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-4D-5. Cobalt-60: U.S. imports for consumption, 2003-07 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-5D-6. Radioisotopes other than cobalt-60: U.S. imports for consumption, 2003-07 . . . . . . . . . . . . D-5

  • v

    CONTENTSContinuedPage

    TablesContinuedD-7. Heavy water: U.S. imports for consumption, 2003-07 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-6D-8. Stable isotopes, other than heavy water: U.S. imports for consumption, 2003-07 . . . . . . D-6

    Figures1. Flow of radioisotope production, manufacturing, applications, and

Recommended

View more >