St. Stephen's Cathedral in Vienna

Download St. Stephen's Cathedral in Vienna

Post on 30-Oct-2014

46 views

Category:

Documents

1 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

ST. STEPHEN'S CATHEDRAL IN VIENNAFaculty of Architecture University of Belgrade Course: English for Architects 2 Professor: Dr Gordana Vukovi-Nikoli Student: Nevena ivanovi M-2011/170

ST. STEPHEN'S CATHEDRAL IN VIENNA

INTRODUCTIONThis text will provide information about the famous Cathedral of St. Stephen, which is located in the capital city of Austria, Vienna. It is the mother

church of the Archdiocese of Vienna and the seat of the Archbishop ofVienna, Christoph Cardinal Schnborn, OP. Its current Romanesque and Gothic form seen today, situated at the heart of Vienna in the Stephansplatz, was largely initiated by Rudolf IV and stands on the ruins of two earlier churches, the first being a parish church consecrated in 1147. As the most important religious building in Austria's capital, the cathedral has borne witness to many important events in that nation's history and has, with its multi-coloured tile roof, become one of the city's most recognizable symbols. St. Stephen's Cathedral defines the city center and has been the

heart of Vienna for centuries. It is one of the most famous Viennese sights.For a long time it was uncontested as the highest building in Europe measuring almost 137 m.

Faculty of Architecture, University of Belgrade / Course: English for Architects 2 / Professor: Dr Gordana Vukovi-Nikoli / Student: Nevena ivanovi M-2011/170

ST. STEPHEN'S CATHEDRAL IN VIENNA

HISTORY

By the middle of the 12th century, Vienna had become an important centre of German civilization in eastern Europe, and the four existing churches, including only one parish church, no longer met the town's religious needs. Although previously believed to have been built in an open field outside the city walls, the new parish church (which would eventually become St. Stephen's Cathedral) was in actuality likely built on an ancient cemetery dating back to Ancient Roman times.

Faculty of Architecture, University of Belgrade / Course: English for Architects 2 / Professor: Dr Gordana Vukovi-Nikoli / Student: Nevena ivanovi M-2011/170

ST. STEPHEN'S CATHEDRAL IN VIENNA

HISTORYThe first church to occupy the site of St. Stephen's Cathedral was a Romanesque church, which was replaced by a larger Romanesque basilica in 1147. A major fire in 1258 destroyed much of the original building, and a larger replacement structure, also Romanesque in style and reusing the two towers, was constructed over the ruins of the old church and consecrated in 1263. The cathedral suffered damage during the Turkish seige of 1683 and again in the closing days of World War II, when fire from street fighting leapt to the rooftop. The cathedral was reopened in 1948. The roof was repaired and decorated with ceramic tiles donated by Viennese citizens in 1950. Among the important events that have occurred at St. Stephen's are Mozart's wedding in 1782 and his funeral in December 1791.

Faculty of Architecture, University of Belgrade / Course: English for Architects 2 / Professor: Dr Gordana Vukovi-Nikoli / Student: Nevena ivanovi M-2011/170

ST. STEPHEN'S CATHEDRAL IN VIENNA

GROWTH OF ST. STEPHEN'S CATHEDRAL

The Roman towers and Giant's Door from the burned-out first church were used as part of the Romanesque second church built to replace it. Forty years later, construction began on the Gothic Albertine Choir; 55 years after that, Duke Rudolf IV's additions enlarging the structure began, around the second church that was later dismantled, leaving the third church as the Stephansdom seen today.

Faculty of Architecture, University of Belgrade / Course: English for Architects 2 / Professor: Dr Gordana Vukovi-Nikoli / Student: Nevena ivanovi M-2011/170

ST. STEPHEN'S CATHEDRAL IN VIENNA

EXTERIOR

The church was dedicated to St. Stephen, who was also the patron of the bishop's cathedral in Passau. The cathedral was built of limestone. Over the centuries, soot and other forms of air pollution accumulating on the church have given it a black color, but recent restoration projects have again returned the building to its original white. Characteristic are the stand-alone traverse position of the towers, the integration of the Romanesque west facade, the high Gothic choir and the striking steep roof with ornate patterns of coloured tiles.

Faculty of Architecture, University of Belgrade / Course: English for Architects 2 / Professor: Dr Gordana Vukovi-Nikoli / Student: Nevena ivanovi M-2011/170

ST. STEPHEN'S CATHEDRAL IN VIENNA

EXTERIORDuke Rudolf IV of Habsburg ordered the complete restructuring of the church in Gothic style. In 1359, he laid the cornerstone of the nave with its two aisles. The South Tower was completed in 1433 (the Viennese have given it

the nickname "Steffl," representative of the whole cathedral). The cathedral has got two very impressivefeatures: The gigantic roof, and the tall, lean tower (136.7 meters of hight). One can find only few gothic towers of such height that were finished in the Middle Ages.

Total length: outside 107.2 m; inside 91.8 m Width of the nave: 38.9 m Height of the south tower: (highest tower) 136.7 m Height of the north tower: 60.6 m Height of the Towers of the Heathens (Heidentrme): 65.6 m

Faculty of Architecture, University of Belgrade / Course: English for Architects 2 / Professor: Dr Gordana Vukovi-Nikoli / Student: Nevena ivanovi M-2011/170

ST. STEPHEN'S CATHEDRAL IN VIENNA

TOWERSStanding at 136 meters tall St. Stephen's Cathedral's massive south tower is its

highest point and a dominant feature of the Vienna skyline. Its constructionlasted 65 years, from 1368 to 1433. During the Siege of Vienna in 1529 and again during the Battle of Vienna in 1683, it served as the main observation and command post for the defence of the walled city. At the tip of the tower stands the double-eagle imperial emblem. The north tower was originally intended to mirror the south tower, but the design proved too ambitious, considering the era of Gothic cathedrals was nearing its end, and construction was halted in 1511. In 1578 the tower-stump was augmented with a renaissance cap. The tower now stands at 68 meters tall, roughly half the

height of the south tower.The main entrance to the church is named the Giant's Door, or Riesentor, while on the left and right are the two Roman Towers, or Heidentrme, that each stand at approximately 65 meters tall. They originally housed bells; those in the south tower were lost during World War II, but the north tower remains an operational bell tower. The Roman Towers, together with the Giant's Door, are the oldest parts of the church.

Faculty of Architecture, University of Belgrade / Course: English for Architects 2 / Professor: Dr Gordana Vukovi-Nikoli / Student: Nevena ivanovi M-2011/170

ST. STEPHEN'S CATHEDRAL IN VIENNA

ROOFThe glory of St. Stephen's Cathedral is its ornately patterned, richly coloured roof, 111 meters long, and covered by 230,000 glazed tiles. Above the choir on the south side of the building the tiles form a mosaic of the double-headed eagle that is symbolic of the empire ruled from Vienna by the Habsburg dynasty. In 1945, fire caused by World War II damage to nearby buildings leapt to the north tower of the cathedral and went on to destroy the wooden framework of the roof.

BELLSSt. Stephen's Cathedral has 23 bells in total. The largest is officially named for St. Mary, but usually called Pummerin ("Boomer") and hangs in the north tower. It is the largest in Austria and the second largest swinging bell in Europe. It sounds on

only a few special occasions each year. A peal of eleven electrically operated bells,hangs in the soaring south tower. The north Roman Tower contains six bells, that ring for evening prayers and toll for funerals. The 1945 fire destroyed the bells that hung in the south Roman Tower.Faculty of Architecture, University of Belgrade / Course: English for Architects 2 / Professor: Dr Gordana Vukovi-Nikoli / Student: Nevena ivanovi M-2011/170

ST. STEPHEN'S CATHEDRAL IN VIENNA

INTERIORInside the cathedral there are many art treasures like the tomb of Prince Eugene of Savoy (1754), the Altarpiece of Wiener Neustadt, the pulpit by Anton Pilgram (1514-15), the sepulcher of Emperor Frederik III by Niclas Gerhaert (1467-1513), the watchman's lookout, a self portrait of the sculptor, and the Gothic winged altar.

Faculty of Architecture, University of Belgrade / Course: English for Architects 2 / Professor: Dr Gordana Vukovi-Nikoli / Student: Nevena ivanovi M-2011/170

ST. STEPHEN'S CATHEDRAL IN VIENNA

ALTARSThere are 18 altars in the main part of the church, and more in the various chapels. The High Altar and the Wiener Neustadt Altar are the most famous. The first focal point of any visitor is the distant High Altar, built over seven years from 1641 to 1647. The High Altar represents the stoning of the church's patron St. Stephen. It is framed by figures of patron saints from the surrounding areas.

The Wiener Neustadt Altar at the head of the north nave wasordered in 1447 by Emperor Frederick III, whose tomb is located in the opposite direction. It is composed of two triptychs, the upper being four times taller than the lower one. On weekdays, the four panels are closed and display a drab painted scene involving 72 saints. On Sundays, the panels are opened showing gilded wooden figures depicting events in the life of the Virgin Mary.

Faculty of Architecture, University of Belgrade / Course: English for Architects 2 / Professor: Dr Gordana Vukovi-Nikoli / Student: Nevena ivanovi M-2011/170

ST. STEPHEN'S CATHEDRAL IN VIENNA

MARIA PTSCH ICONThe Maria Ptsch Icon is a Byzantine style icon of St. Mary with the child Jesus. The picture shows the Virgin Ma