sport psychology: theory into applied practice. the sport psychology network gobinder gill

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Sport Psychology: Theory Sport Psychology: Theory into Applied Practice into Applied Practice

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Sport Psychology: Theory Sport Psychology: Theory into Applied Practiceinto Applied Practice

The Sport Psychology The Sport Psychology NetworkNetwork

Gobinder GillGobinder Gill

Goal SettingGoal Setting

Goal setting is most effective when applied Goal setting is most effective when applied with the SMARTER/SMART principlewith the SMARTER/SMART principle

Practising goal setting continuously will lead Practising goal setting continuously will lead to effective performanceto effective performance

Goal setting should lead to effective focus Goal setting should lead to effective focus and concentrationand concentration

In addition, goal setting should lead to higher In addition, goal setting should lead to higher self-confidenceself-confidence

Key PrincipleKey Principle

SSpecific – e.g. win 100m race in athletics that is in 45 dayspecific – e.g. win 100m race in athletics that is in 45 days

MMeasurable – e.g. win race in under 10 secondseasurable – e.g. win race in under 10 seconds

AAchievable – e.g. yes – previous times have averaged 10 chievable – e.g. yes – previous times have averaged 10 secondsseconds

RRealistic – e.g. yes – within capabilities of performerealistic – e.g. yes – within capabilities of performer

TTimed – e.g. 1.5 monthsimed – e.g. 1.5 months

Application to Application to PracticePractice

SportSport

Goal: Run MarathonGoal: Run Marathon

Effective Goal: Finish Effective Goal: Finish with a time of 2.30with a time of 2.30

Ineffective Goal: Take Ineffective Goal: Take part and complete part and complete marathonmarathon

EducationEducation

Goal: Achieve a grade Goal: Achieve a grade C for exam C for exam

Effective Goal: Effective Goal: Complete 5 mock Complete 5 mock papers and review papers and review grade each timegrade each time

Ineffective Goal: Ineffective Goal: Revise topics for examRevise topics for exam

Tip: All goals must meet the SMART principleTip: All goals must meet the SMART principle

Self-ConfidenceSelf-Confidence

Self-confidence is a state performers Self-confidence is a state performers exhibit before, during and after exhibit before, during and after performanceperformance

Performers can suffer from positive and Performers can suffer from positive and negative self-confidencenegative self-confidence

Positive self-confidence should lead to Positive self-confidence should lead to higher self-motivation, greater higher self-motivation, greater confidence and enhanced focusconfidence and enhanced focus

Negative self-confidence will lead to Negative self-confidence will lead to increased anxiety, negative emotions increased anxiety, negative emotions and limited directionand limited direction

Key PrincipleKey Principle

Self-confidence and self-efficacy are two Self-confidence and self-efficacy are two key principles that can correlatekey principles that can correlate

Theory dictates that higher self-efficacy Theory dictates that higher self-efficacy leads to enhanced self-confidenceleads to enhanced self-confidence

Performers with high levels of self-efficacy Performers with high levels of self-efficacy are likely to develop strategies that can are likely to develop strategies that can help control their emotions when help control their emotions when participating in sportparticipating in sport

Self-confidence relates to being successfulSelf-confidence relates to being successfulEven elite performers can suffer from low Even elite performers can suffer from low

self-confidence during their careersself-confidence during their careers

Application to Application to PractPracticeice

To build self-To build self-confidence ask confidence ask performers to performers to identify their best identify their best and worse and worse performanceperformance

In addition, ask In addition, ask performers to list performers to list their emotions their emotions when going through when going through best and worse best and worse performanceperformance

Performers Performers describe/explain describe/explain their strengths and their strengths and areas to develop for areas to develop for best and worse best and worse performanceperformance

Performers then list Performers then list how they can control how they can control their own emotionstheir own emotions

Performers should Performers should then set goals based then set goals based on the SMART on the SMART principleprinciple

Psychological SkillsPsychological Skills

Is a form of mental practice that arguably can Is a form of mental practice that arguably can enhance performanceenhance performance

There are a range of psychological skills that There are a range of psychological skills that performers could useperformers could use

Performers need to practice over time to get Performers need to practice over time to get used to psychological skillsused to psychological skills

Psychological skills should be integral and be Psychological skills should be integral and be used as a continuous routineused as a continuous routine

Key PrincipleKey Principle

Mental practice can train the mind to Mental practice can train the mind to enhance it during both training and in enhance it during both training and in competitioncompetition

Practising with a range of mental skills is Practising with a range of mental skills is most effective than one in isolation (use goal most effective than one in isolation (use goal setting with imagery and self-talk)setting with imagery and self-talk)

Performers should be allowed to reflect on Performers should be allowed to reflect on the benefits of psychological skillsthe benefits of psychological skills

Application to Application to PracticePractice

Profile performers in Profile performers in their their use/knowledge/appliuse/knowledge/application of mental cation of mental skillsskills

Identify most users Identify most users against least usersagainst least users

Educate users how Educate users how mental skills workmental skills work

Highlight Highlight effectiveness of effectiveness of mental skillsmental skills

Utilise mental skills Utilise mental skills that are practised in that are practised in training and then training and then put these into put these into competitioncompetition

Review how these Review how these mental skills worked mental skills worked in training and in training and competitioncompetition

Set out an action Set out an action plan to show how plan to show how improvements can improvements can occuroccur

Emotional IntelligenceEmotional Intelligence

Relates to the ability of understanding own and Relates to the ability of understanding own and others emotionsothers emotions

Research suggests that people high in emotional Research suggests that people high in emotional intelligence are more likely to succeed in tasks intelligence are more likely to succeed in tasks that they attemptthat they attempt

In addition, people who can regulate their own In addition, people who can regulate their own and others emotions are more likely to be high in and others emotions are more likely to be high in emotional intelligenceemotional intelligence

Key PrincipleKey Principle

The ability to regulate emotion of oneself and The ability to regulate emotion of oneself and that of othersthat of others

To become self-aware and recognise how to To become self-aware and recognise how to support peoplesupport people

To develop intervention programmes that To develop intervention programmes that utilise emotional awarenessutilise emotional awareness

To enhance empathy with work colleaguesTo enhance empathy with work colleagues

Application to Application to PracticePractice

Assess the emotional Assess the emotional intelligence of intelligence of performersperformers

Examine group profile Examine group profile of performers (teams of performers (teams and individuals)and individuals)

Develop self-Develop self-awareness through a awareness through a range of activitiesrange of activities

Objectively assess Objectively assess how emotional how emotional intelligence is intelligence is raised or enhanced raised or enhanced in periodsin periods

Provide Provide opportunities to opportunities to regulate emotion regulate emotion amongst team and amongst team and individualsindividuals

ReflectionReflection

Reflection can be utilised in all specific actionsReflection can be utilised in all specific actions

Reflection can lead to focus and determinationReflection can lead to focus and determination

Reflection is a form of communication about own Reflection is a form of communication about own and others performanceand others performance

Reflection can lead to better time management Reflection can lead to better time management and setting of specific goalsand setting of specific goals

Key PrincipleKey Principle

To develop awareness of how reflection To develop awareness of how reflection can support performancecan support performance

To reflect on both positive and negative To reflect on both positive and negative outcomes in a robust manneroutcomes in a robust manner

To allow practitioners to build intervention To allow practitioners to build intervention programmes for performersprogrammes for performers

Application to Application to PracticePractice

Use training sessions Use training sessions to utilise reflective to utilise reflective practicepractice

Performers could Performers could complete logbooks to complete logbooks to make accounts of make accounts of their reflectiontheir reflection

Make reflection an Make reflection an integral part of team integral part of team sessionssessions

Use reflection to Use reflection to provide opportunities provide opportunities for team bondingfor team bonding

Reflection can be Reflection can be utilised by support utilised by support staff to help improve staff to help improve their own their own performanceperformance

Provide performers Provide performers opportunities to opportunities to reflect and provide reflect and provide constructive feedbackconstructive feedback

StressStress

Humans have to cope with stressHumans have to cope with stress

Stress can be either positive or negativeStress can be either positive or negative

Stress is important because it keeps Stress is important because it keeps humans alerthumans alert

Positive stress enables humans to copePositive stress enables humans to cope

Negative stress can lead to apprehension Negative stress can lead to apprehension and feelings of unhappiness and feelings of unhappiness

Stress needs to be controlled and managedStress needs to be controlled and managed

Key PrincipleKey Principle

• To understand the process of stressTo understand the process of stress

• To appreciate affects of stress during To appreciate affects of stress during performanceperformance

• To utilise practices that help and guide To utilise practices that help and guide performers in overcoming stressful performers in overcoming stressful situationssituations

Application to Application to PracticePractice

Use methods to Use methods to identify stressful identify stressful factors (e.g. factors (e.g. observation)observation)

Interview Interview performers to performers to assess their assess their thoughtsthoughts

Develop a plan of Develop a plan of action to support action to support performer(s)performer(s)

Develop positive Develop positive self-talk with self-talk with performersperformers

Go through Go through techniques (e.g. techniques (e.g. breathing control) breathing control) on a consistent on a consistent basisbasis

Assess all stressful Assess all stressful situations situations

Stress ManagementStress Management

Managing stress is important to prevent negative Managing stress is important to prevent negative symptoms symptoms

Stress can be controlled through appropriate interventionStress can be controlled through appropriate intervention

Planning and preparation is key to avoiding negative Planning and preparation is key to avoiding negative stressstress

Setting specific goals can also help control stressSetting specific goals can also help control stress

Reflect on your actions and assess ways to develop Reflect on your actions and assess ways to develop better practicebetter practice

Self-talk is useful because it directs thinking into positive Self-talk is useful because it directs thinking into positive thoughtsthoughts

Accepting pressure can also lead to a channelled mind Accepting pressure can also lead to a channelled mind

Key PrincipleKey Principle

• To appreciate the process of To appreciate the process of managing stressmanaging stress

• To develop an awareness and To develop an awareness and knowledge base of different stress knowledge base of different stress management techniques/strategiesmanagement techniques/strategies

• To utilise techniques/strategies To utilise techniques/strategies amongst performers (individual amongst performers (individual and team settings)and team settings)

Application to Application to PracticePractice

Appreciate Appreciate individual individual differences differences

Use a range of Use a range of stress management stress management techniquestechniques

Develop a Develop a systematic systematic approach approach

Develop an action Develop an action plan that can be plan that can be reviewedreviewed

Conduct analysis Conduct analysis through one to one through one to one interviewsinterviews

Provide direct goals Provide direct goals that relate to that relate to specific focusspecific focus

Arousal RegulationArousal Regulation

Regulating your arousal levels are key for Regulating your arousal levels are key for successful performance outcomessuccessful performance outcomes

Through effective arousal regulation Through effective arousal regulation performers can remain focused on the performers can remain focused on the task in handtask in hand

Performers must be aware of their own Performers must be aware of their own psychological state(s)psychological state(s)

Arousal regulation must relate to both Arousal regulation must relate to both somatic and cognitive symptomssomatic and cognitive symptoms

A range of strategies can help performers A range of strategies can help performers to regulate their own arousal levelsto regulate their own arousal levels

Key PrincipleKey Principle

Develop strategies to maintain optimal levels Develop strategies to maintain optimal levels of arousalof arousal

Be in tune with own arousal levels prior to Be in tune with own arousal levels prior to competingcompeting

Accept pressure as a challenge not a treatAccept pressure as a challenge not a treat

Differentiate between cognitive and somatic Differentiate between cognitive and somatic symptomssymptoms

Application to Application to PracticePractice

Learn to relax Learn to relax muscles to reduce muscles to reduce tensiontension

Use breathing Use breathing exercises to exercises to stimulate a stimulate a rhythmic feel to rhythmic feel to enhance controlenhance control

Set regular specific Set regular specific goalsgoals

Use positive self-Use positive self-talk to engineer talk to engineer responses that align responses that align with successwith success

Practice imagery Practice imagery consistentlyconsistently

Attend Yoga, Attend Yoga, Meditation, or Meditation, or Pilates classes Pilates classes

Working with PerformersWorking with Performers

Coaches, educators, psychologists all have a Coaches, educators, psychologists all have a responsibility when working with performersresponsibility when working with performers

Mutual trust and rapport are key ingredients to Mutual trust and rapport are key ingredients to develop an effective relationshipdevelop an effective relationship

The working relationship must be professional The working relationship must be professional and cover all ethical proceduresand cover all ethical procedures

Performers must be able to have the Performers must be able to have the confidence to approach people who are confidence to approach people who are responsible for their personal safeguardingresponsible for their personal safeguarding

Key PrincipleKey Principle

Working with others should be seen as a Working with others should be seen as a positive challengepositive challenge

Performers like to be supported, especially if Performers like to be supported, especially if they feel it will enhance performancethey feel it will enhance performance

A key skill is being a good listener that A key skill is being a good listener that enables performer engagementenables performer engagement

Feedback should be instant and specific Feedback should be instant and specific

Application to Application to PracticePractice

Working with others Working with others can relates to a can relates to a multitude of factorsmultitude of factors

A common factor A common factor relates to match relates to match performance – e.g. performance – e.g. getting performers getting performers to identify strengths to identify strengths and areas to and areas to improveimprove

For those not For those not making match making match squads should be squads should be used as an used as an opportunity to opportunity to develop self-develop self-confidence and confidence and raise awareness of raise awareness of performers own performers own qualities qualities

ConsultationConsultation

Performers should accept the following from Performers should accept the following from consultants:consultants:

Be easily accessibleBe easily accessible

Provide enough time for clientsProvide enough time for clients

Be interested in their needsBe interested in their needs

Provide support and guidanceProvide support and guidance

Highlight ways forwardHighlight ways forward

Have sufficient knowledgeHave sufficient knowledge

Identify with good interpersonal skillsIdentify with good interpersonal skills

Key PrincipleKey Principle

Consultation should be relative to supporting Consultation should be relative to supporting performersperformers

In principle, the consultation should be short and In principle, the consultation should be short and sharp to meet desired aims of the performersharp to meet desired aims of the performer

During the consultation it is advisable to set During the consultation it is advisable to set future targetsfuture targets

A follow consultation with set targets should A follow consultation with set targets should always take placealways take place

Application to Application to PracticePractice

During consultation During consultation the performer must the performer must be engaged and be engaged and fully aware of its fully aware of its purpose – e.g. purpose – e.g. provide constructive provide constructive feedback and listen feedback and listen with intent to with intent to performer needsperformer needs

During a follow up During a follow up consultation it is consultation it is necessary to necessary to provide ownership provide ownership to the performer to the performer and assess their and assess their needs and needs and understanding of understanding of any set goals/own any set goals/own performance/future performance/future requirementsrequirements

MotivationMotivation

Motivation is a desire to meet with Motivation is a desire to meet with challengeschallenges

Motivation is either intrinsic or extrinsicMotivation is either intrinsic or extrinsic

Characteristics of motivation can be Characteristics of motivation can be identified through direction, effort and identified through direction, effort and intensityintensity

Theory dictates that motivation relates Theory dictates that motivation relates to self-needs that are promoted to self-needs that are promoted through situational factorsthrough situational factors

Key PrincipleKey Principle

Motivation is a requirement that Motivation is a requirement that enables performers to achieveenables performers to achieve

Inner self-belief is core in enabling key Inner self-belief is core in enabling key specific goals to be reachedspecific goals to be reached

Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation should be combined with should be combined with performance/process goalsperformance/process goals

Application to Application to PracticePractice

Assess motivation Assess motivation levels (both intrinsic levels (both intrinsic and extrinsic)and extrinsic)

Motivation and goal Motivation and goal setting should be setting should be linked – e.g. desire linked – e.g. desire to achieve should to achieve should be linked to SMART be linked to SMART goalsgoals

Motivation should be Motivation should be maintained maintained throughout the throughout the seasonseason

Maintenance should Maintenance should be related to be related to SPECIFIC outcomes SPECIFIC outcomes of each individual of each individual which need to be which need to be continuously continuously reviewedreviewed

Group CohesionGroup Cohesion

Cohesion is vital when working in groups Cohesion is vital when working in groups

Two common types of cohesion are: task Two common types of cohesion are: task and socialand social

Task cohesion relates to meeting set Task cohesion relates to meeting set goalsgoals

Social cohesion relates to attraction of Social cohesion relates to attraction of group membersgroup members

Enhanced cohesion can lead performers Enhanced cohesion can lead performers to reach goals and develop togetherness to reach goals and develop togetherness

Key PrincipleKey Principle

Cohesion is important to meet task Cohesion is important to meet task related targetsrelated targets

Task cohesion and social cohesion Task cohesion and social cohesion should be combinedshould be combined

Enhanced cohesion can lead to better Enhanced cohesion can lead to better working relationshipsworking relationships

Team building exercises can also help Team building exercises can also help develop effective cohesiondevelop effective cohesion

Application to Application to PracticePractice

Task cohesion can Task cohesion can be defined through be defined through setting goals e.g. – setting goals e.g. – SMART goals that SMART goals that are related to are related to process targets can process targets can raise cohesion raise cohesion because awareness because awareness of each challenge is of each challenge is raisedraised

Social cohesion is Social cohesion is important to important to maintain throughout maintain throughout the season e.g. – the season e.g. – groups need to work groups need to work together as they are together as they are bound for a season bound for a season and will spend time and will spend time with each otherwith each other

ImageryImagery

Imagery involves all our vital sensesImagery involves all our vital senses

Imagery is the practice of creating images or Imagery is the practice of creating images or pictures in your mind prior to executing a pictures in your mind prior to executing a tasktask

Information stored in your brain can be used Information stored in your brain can be used to support performers to create these images to support performers to create these images or picturesor pictures

Continued practice of imagery can enable Continued practice of imagery can enable enhanced focus and controlenhanced focus and control

Key PrincipleKey Principle

Imagery needs to be a continuously practised Imagery needs to be a continuously practised mechanismmechanism

The purpose of imagery is to enhance The purpose of imagery is to enhance performanceperformance

The process of imagery can enable The process of imagery can enable performers to focus on task(s) in handperformers to focus on task(s) in hand

Imagery is useful in both team and individual Imagery is useful in both team and individual sportssports

Application to Application to PracticePractice

Performers should Performers should be taught how to be taught how to practice imagerypractice imagery

The process of The process of imagery should imagery should be related to both be related to both physical (action) physical (action) mental (thought) mental (thought) processesprocesses

Practice leads to Practice leads to effectivenesseffectiveness

Use isolated Use isolated situations to situations to support support performers e.g. performers e.g. shooting in shooting in basketball is basketball is performed one performed one on oneon one

PersonalityPersonality

Personality is determined by trait Personality is determined by trait characteristics of an individualcharacteristics of an individual

There are a number of different There are a number of different approaches to personalityapproaches to personality

Our personality can dictate how we act Our personality can dictate how we act in different situationsin different situations

Behaviour is dependent on the Behaviour is dependent on the different type of personality we exhibit different type of personality we exhibit

Key PrincipleKey Principle

Personality is stable and resistant to Personality is stable and resistant to changechange

Personality is an individual Personality is an individual characteristic characteristic

The further a move from the inner core The further a move from the inner core leads to behaviour changeleads to behaviour change

External factors must be considered External factors must be considered during fluctuation of emotionsduring fluctuation of emotions

Application to Application to PracticePractice

A common way A common way to measure to measure personality is personality is through through questionnairesquestionnaires

Personality types Personality types should not be should not be used for team used for team selectionselection

Groups will have Groups will have a range of a range of personality types personality types and therefore and therefore consideration to consideration to individual individual differences differences should be givenshould be given

LeadershipLeadership

Effective leaders influence performersEffective leaders influence performers

Leaders either emerge or are appointedLeaders either emerge or are appointed

All leaders should understand their own All leaders should understand their own groupsgroups

Trust and rapport must be built with Trust and rapport must be built with performersperformers

Leaders should exhibit a range of leadership Leaders should exhibit a range of leadership styles with their performersstyles with their performers

Styles of leadership should vary and are Styles of leadership should vary and are dependent on the situation and groupdependent on the situation and group

Key PrincipleKey Principle

Effective leaders will exhibit a degree of Effective leaders will exhibit a degree of control and powercontrol and power

Leaders who have effective qualities will show Leaders who have effective qualities will show empathy to performersempathy to performers

Talented leaders will respond well to criticism Talented leaders will respond well to criticism

Successful leaders are able to strategically Successful leaders are able to strategically manage both performers and performancemanage both performers and performance

Application to Application to PracticePractice

During During performance, performance, leadership can be leadership can be directed through directed through tactical awareness, tactical awareness, enhancing enhancing motivation, support motivation, support and guidance and and guidance and staying in control staying in control

Following performance, Following performance, leadership can be leadership can be enhanced by working enhanced by working on strengths and areas on strengths and areas to improve, showing to improve, showing empathy to performers empathy to performers not selected and not selected and managing situationsmanaging situations

FocusFocus

Maintaining focus is critical within Maintaining focus is critical within sports performancesports performance

Positive self-belief will help performers Positive self-belief will help performers maintain their focusmaintain their focus

Strategies to enhance focus include Strategies to enhance focus include positive self-talk and goal settingpositive self-talk and goal setting

Performers should also individualise Performers should also individualise set tasks when maintaining focusset tasks when maintaining focus

Key PrincipleKey Principle

A key determinant of success relates to A key determinant of success relates to optimal focusoptimal focus

Specific goals can also lead to increased Specific goals can also lead to increased focusfocus

Focus should be continuous and therefore Focus should be continuous and therefore practiced routinely practiced routinely

Focus can also help reduce anxiety and fearFocus can also help reduce anxiety and fear

Application to Application to PracticePractice

Maintaining Maintaining focus is focus is supported supported through setting through setting specific goals specific goals that are short-that are short-term in nature term in nature with long-term with long-term aims being aims being achievedachieved

Focus can also be Focus can also be beneficial to beneficial to increase self-increase self-confidence and confidence and self-belief – e.g. self-belief – e.g. make performers make performers go through go through previous best/good previous best/good performances to performances to reinforce positive reinforce positive messagesmessages