Split of early Christianity and Judaism - of...Split of early Christianity and Judaism From Wikipedia, ... Jewish tax in 70, the postulated Council of Jamnia c. 90, or the Bar Kokhba revolt of 132–135.

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<ul><li><p>1 </p><p>Split of early Christianity and Judaism </p><p>From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia </p><p>This article is about events that marked the split between Early Christianity and Second Temple </p><p>Judaism. For a general Christian timeline, see Timeline of Christianity. For Jewish Schisms, see </p><p>Schisms among the Jews. For a comparison of the religions as they exist today, see Christianity </p><p>and Judaism. </p><p> Christ Driving the Traders from the Temple by El Greco, 1600 </p><p>The split of early Christianity from Judaism was a slowly growing chasm between early </p><p>Christianity and mainstream Judaism in the first centuries of the Christian Era. It is commonly </p><p>attributed to a number of events said to be pivotal: the antithesis of the law and rejection of Jesus </p><p>c. 30, the Council of Jerusalem c. 50, the destruction of the Second Temple and institution of the </p><p>Jewish tax in 70, the postulated Council of Jamnia c. 90, or the Bar Kokhba revolt of 132135. </p><p>On the one hand, while it is commonly thought that Paul established a Gentile church within his </p><p>lifetime, it took centuries for a complete break to manifest, and the relationship of Paul of Tarsus </p><p>and Judaism is still disputed, as are many events of the nascent common era; on the other, this is </p><p>one of best documented and fertile epochs of history, archaeology and the formative years of </p><p>Western thought. </p><p>The traditional view has been that Judaism existed before Christianity and that Christianity </p><p>separated from Judaism some time after the destruction of the Second Temple. Recently, some </p><p>scholars have argued that there were many competing Jewish sects in Judea during Second </p><p>Temple period and that what became Rabbinic Judaism and Proto-orthodox Christianity were but </p><p>two of these. Some of these scholars have proposed a model which envisions a twin birth of </p><p>Proto-Orthodox Christianity and Rabbinic Judaism rather than a separation of the former from </p><p>the latter. For example, Robert Goldenberg asserts that it is increasingly accepted among </p><p>scholars that "at the end of the 1st century CE there were not yet two separate religions called </p><p>'Judaism' and 'Christianity'".[1]</p><p>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Early_Christianityhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Temple_Judaismhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Temple_Judaismhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_Christianityhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schisms_among_the_Jewshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christianity_and_Judaismhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christianity_and_Judaismhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cleansing_of_the_Templehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/El_Grecohttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Early_Christianityhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Early_Christianityhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Judaismhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christian_Erahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antithesis_of_the_lawhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rejection_of_Jesushttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Council_of_Jerusalemhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Destruction_of_the_Second_Templehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fiscus_Judaicushttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Council_of_Jamniahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bar_Kokhba_revolthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pauline_Christianityhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pauline_Christianityhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_of_Tarsus_and_Judaismhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_of_Tarsus_and_Judaismhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Templehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Judeahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Temple_periodhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Temple_periodhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rabbinic_Judaismhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proto-orthodox_Christianityhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Split_of_early_Christianity_and_Judaism#cite_note-1http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:El_Greco_016.jpg</p></li><li><p>2 </p><p>Daniel Boyarin proposes a revised understanding of the interactions between nascent Christianity </p><p>and Judaism in late antiquity which views the two "new" religions as intensely and complexly </p><p>intertwined throughout this period. Boyarin writes: "for at least the first three centuries of their </p><p>common lives, Judaism in all of its forms and Christianity in all of its forms were part of one </p><p>complex religious family, twins in a womb, contending with each other for identity and </p><p>precedence, but sharing with each other the same spiritual food, as well". </p><p> Without the power of the orthodox Church and the Rabbis to declare people heretics </p><p>and outside the system it remained impossible to declare phenomenologically who </p><p>was a Jew and who was a Christian. At least as interesting and significant, it seems </p><p>more and more clear that it is frequently impossible to tell a Jewish text from a </p><p>Christian text. The borders are fuzzy, and this has consequences. Religious ideas and </p><p>innovations can cross borders in both directions.[2]</p><p>Framing the debate </p><p>Philip S. Alexander characterizes the question of when Christianity and Judaism parted company </p><p>and went their separate ways as "one of those deceptively simple questions which should be </p><p>approached with great care."[3]</p><p>Robert M. Price asserts that "classic," "Orthodox" type of Christianity does not look much like </p><p>Javneh-Rabbinic Judaism. </p><p>Thus Christianity as we know it and Judaism as we know it never in fact separated from one </p><p>another in the manner of, say, Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic Christianity in the eleventh </p><p>century. Rather, each is a finally dominant form at the end of its own branch of the tree of </p><p>religious evolution.[4]</p><p>Robert and Mary Coote write: </p><p>"Despite the ostensible merging of Judean and Jew even in certain New Testament passages and </p><p>by the rabbis who became rulers of Palestine in the third century and continued to use Hebrew </p><p>and Aramaic more than Greek, the roots of Christianity were not Jewish. Christianity did not </p><p>derive from the Judaism of the pharisees, but emerged like Judaism from the wider Judean milieu </p><p>of the first century. Both Christians and Jews stemmed from pre-70 Judean-ism as heirs of </p><p>groups that were to take on the role of primary guardians or interpreters of scripture as they </p><p>developed on parallel tracks in relation to each other."[5]</p><p>Compatibility of Christianity with Second Temple Judaism </p><p>Jewish messianism </p><p>Alan Segal has written that "one can speak of a 'twin birth' of two new Judaisms, both markedly </p><p>different from the religious systems that preceded them. Not only were rabbinic Judaism and </p><p>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daniel_Boyarinhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proto-orthodox_Christianityhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rabbishttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hereticshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Split_of_early_Christianity_and_Judaism#cite_note-Daniel_Boyarin_1999_p._15-2http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Split_of_early_Christianity_and_Judaism#cite_note-3http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Council_of_Jamniahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East%E2%80%93West_Schismhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East%E2%80%93West_Schismhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Split_of_early_Christianity_and_Judaism#cite_note-4http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Split_of_early_Christianity_and_Judaism#cite_note-5</p></li><li><p>3 </p><p>Christianity religious twins, but, like Jacob and Esau, the twin sons of Isaac and Rebecca, they </p><p>fought in the womb, setting the stage for life after the womb."[6]</p><p>For Martin Buber, Judaism and Christianity were variations on the same theme of messianism. </p><p>Buber made this theme the basis of a famous definition of the tension between Judaism and </p><p>Christianity: </p><p>Pre-messianically, our destinies are divided. Now to the Christian, the Jew is the </p><p>incomprehensibly obdurate man who declines to see what has happened; and to the Jew, the </p><p>Christian is the incomprehensibly daring man who affirms in an unredeemed world that its </p><p>redemption has been accomplished. This is a gulf which no human power can bridge.[7]</p><p>Jewish messianism has its root in the apocalyptic literature of the 2nd century BC to 1st century </p><p>BC, promising a future "anointed" leader or Messiah to resurrect the Israelite "Kingdom of God", </p><p>in place of the foreign rulers of the time. This corresponded with the Maccabean Revolt directed </p><p>against the Seleucids. Following the fall of the Hasmonean kingdom, it was directed against the </p><p>Roman administration of Iudaea Province, which, according to Josephus, began with the </p><p>formation of the Zealots during the Census of Quirinius of 6 AD, though full scale open revolt </p><p>did not occur till the First JewishRoman War in 66 AD. Historian H. H. Ben-Sasson has </p><p>proposed that the "Crisis under Caligula" (37-41) was the "first open break between Rome and </p><p>the Jews", even though problems were already evident during the Census of Quirinius in 6 and </p><p>under Sejanus (before 31).[8]</p><p>Judaism at this time was divided into antagonistic factions. The main camps were the Pharisees, </p><p>Saducees, and Zealots, but also included many other less influential sects (including the Essenes), </p><p>see Second Temple Judaism for details. This led to further unrest, and the 1st century BC and 1st </p><p>century AD saw a number of charismatic religious leaders, contributing to what would become </p><p>the Mishnah of Rabbinic Judaism, including Yochanan ben Zakai and Hanina Ben Dosa. The </p><p>ministry of Jesus, according to the account of the Gospels, falls into this pattern of sectarian </p><p>preachers with devoted disciples. </p><p>Christian understanding of Jesus as messiah </p><p>Paula Fredriksen, in From Jesus to Christ, has suggested that Jesus' impact on his followers was </p><p>so great that they could not accept the failure implicit in his death. According to the New </p><p>Testament, Jesus's followers reported that they encountered Jesus after his crucifixion; they </p><p>argued that he had been resurrected (the belief in the resurrection of the dead in the messianic </p><p>age was a core Pharisaic doctrine), and would soon return to usher in the Kingdom of God and </p><p>fulfill the rest of Messianic prophecy such as the Resurrection of the dead and the Last Judgment. </p><p>Others adapted Gnosticism as a way to maintain the vitality and validity of Jesus' teachings (see </p><p>Elaine Pagels, The Gnostic Gospels). Since early Christians believed that Jesus had already </p><p>replaced the Temple as the expression of a new covenant, they were relatively unconcerned with </p><p>the destruction of the Temple, though it came to be viewed as symbolic to the doctrine of </p><p>Supersessionism. </p><p>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Split_of_early_Christianity_and_Judaism#cite_note-6http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Martin_Buberhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Split_of_early_Christianity_and_Judaism#cite_note-7http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jewish_messianismhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apocalyptic_literaturehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messiahhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_of_Godhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maccabean_Revolthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seleucidshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hasmoneanhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Empirehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iudaea_Provincehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Josephushttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zealotshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Census_of_Quiriniushttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Jewish%E2%80%93Roman_Warhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caligulahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sejanushttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Split_of_early_Christianity_and_Judaism#cite_note-8http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phariseeshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saduceeshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zealotshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Esseneshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Temple_Judaismhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mishnahhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yochanan_ben_Zakaihttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hanina_Ben_Dosahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ministry_of_Jesushttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gospelhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paula_Fredriksenhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Testamenthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Testamenthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Resurrection_appearances_of_Jesushttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Resurrection_of_the_dead#Judaismhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Cominghttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_of_Godhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messianic_prophecyhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Resurrection_of_the_dead#Christianityhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Last_Judgmenthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gnosticismhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elaine_Pagelshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Covenant_%28theology%29http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supersessionism</p></li><li><p>4 </p><p>According to many historians, most of Jesus' teachings were intelligible and acceptable in terms </p><p>of Second Temple Judaism; what set Christians apart from Jews was their faith in Christ as the </p><p>resurrected messiah.[9]</p><p> The belief in a resurrected Messiah is unacceptable to Jews today and to </p><p>Rabbinic Judaism, and Jewish authorities have long used this fact to explain the break between </p><p>Judaism and Christianity. </p><p>Recent work by historians paints a more complex portrait of late Second Temple Judaism and </p><p>early Christianity. Some historians have suggested that, before his death, Jesus created amongst </p><p>his believers such certainty that the Kingdom of God and the resurrection of the dead was at </p><p>hand, that with few exceptions (John 20: 24-29) when they saw him shortly after his execution, </p><p>they had no doubt that he had been resurrected, and that the restoration of the Kingdom and </p><p>resurrecton of the dead was at hand. These specific beliefs were compatible with Second Temple </p><p>Judaism.[10]</p><p> In the following years the restoration of the Kingdom, as Jews expected it, failed to </p><p>occur. Some Christians believed instead that Christ, rather than being the Jewish messiah, was </p><p>God made flesh, who died for the sins of humanity, and that faith in Jesus Christ offered </p><p>everlasting life (see Christology).[11]</p><p>The foundation for this new interpretation of Jesus' crucifixion and resurrection are found in the </p><p>epistles of Paul and in the book of Acts (and Christians would argue, in the gospels themselves). </p><p>In contrast to most Christians, most Jews view Paul as the founder of Christianity, who is </p><p>responsible for the break with Judaism; see Paul of Tarsus and Judaism for details. </p><p>Jewish rejection of Jesus as messiah </p><p>The first Christians (the disciples or students of Jesus) were essentially all ethnically Jewish or </p><p>Jewish proselytes. In other words, Jesus was Jewish, preached to the Jewish people and called </p><p>from them his first disciples. However, the Great Commission, issued after the Resurrection is </p><p>specifically directed at "all nations." Jewish Christians, as faithful religious Jews, regarded </p><p>"Christianity" as an affirmation of every aspect of contemporary Judaism, with the addition of </p><p>one extra belief that Jesus was the Messiah.[12]</p><p>The doctrines of the apostles of Jesus brought the Early Church into conflict with some Jewish </p><p>religious authorities (Acts records dispute over resurrection of the dead which was rejected by </p><p>the Sadducees, see also Persecution of Christians in the New Testament), and possibly later led </p><p>to Christians' expulsion from synagogues (see Council of Jamnia for other theories). While </p><p>Marcionism rejected all Jewish influence on Christianity, Proto-orthodox Christianity instead </p><p>retained some of the doctrines and p...</p></li></ul>

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