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Fishes of Brazil

Fishes of BrazilAn aid to the study of J.B. Spix and L. Agassiz (1829-31) Selecta genera et species piscium Brasiliensium including an English translation of the text by V. L. Wirasinha and reproduction of all illustrations

Edited by Rohan Pethiyagoda & Maurice Kottelat

WHT Colombo

Fishes of Brazil: An aide to the study of J.B. Spix and L. Agassiz (1829-31) Selecta genera et species piscium Brasiliensium including an English translation of the text by V. L. Wirasinha and reproduction of all illustrations

Edited by Rohan Pethiyagoda & Maurice Kottelat

Translation and reproduction 1998 WHT Publications (Private) Limited, 95 Cotta Road, Colombo 8, Sri Lanka. Extract from Spixiana vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 69-93 1988 Zoologische Staatssammlung Miinchen, Munich, Germany. Extract from /. Soc. Biblphy. nat. Hist. 5(6): 478-497 1971 Society for the History of Natural History, London, Great Britain. All rights reserved. No part of this book may.be reproduced in any form or by any electronic or mechanical means including information storage and retrieval systems without permission in writing from the copyright owners, except by a reviewer, who may quote brief passages in review.

ISBN 955-9114-03-4

Published by WHT Publications (Private) Limited 95 Cotta Road, Colombo 8, Sri Lanka Typeset and Reprography by Iris Colour Graphics Limited, Colombo. Printed by Gunaratne Offset Limited, Colombo.

N.b. The page numbers of this edition appear centred at the foot of each page. All other pagination is as appears in the original works reproduced.

Preface Rohan Pethiyagoda and Maurice Kottelat7

Authorship, dates of publication, status and types of Spix & Agassiz's Brazilian fishes by M. KottelatReproduced with permission from Spixiana, 11(1): 69-93; 1988 Zoologische Staatssammlung Miinchen.

Problems of nomenclature and dating of Spix and Agassiz's Brazilian Fishes (1829-1831) by P.J.P. Whitehead and G. S. MyersReproduced with permission from /. Sac. Biblphy. nat. Hist. 5(6): 478-497 1971 Society for the History of Natural History.

35

English translation of J.B. Spix and L. Agassiz (1829-31) Selecta genera et species piscium'Brasiliensium by V. L. Wirasinha.55

Original text and plates225

Index to the translation and plates417

PrefaceSpix & Agassiz's pioneering ichthyological treatment of Brazil, Selecta genera et species piscium Brasiliensium has hitherto been available only in the original Latin. Because only very few copies of the original work survive/ mostly in museum libraries, in 1993 we were instrumental in bringing out a facsimile edition, which is also now out of print. The rapid disappearance of Latin from international usage suggested to us that an English translation might be useful not only to ichthyologists, but also to aquarium fish enthusiasts and those interested in the early exploration of Brazil and the Amazon. The translation here presented represents largely the labour of the Sri Lankan scholar V. L. Wirasinha. Some parts omitted from translation by Mr. Wirasinha were translated by Roger Fliickiger. Some phrases in the original Latin however, presented difficulty in translation because their meaning was not clear, or because they were ambiguous. Here, we have used our own judgement in deciding the likely intention of the author. Occasionally, we encountered words for which we could find no obvious English equivalent: these remain in Latin. We emphasize that this is intended to be simply a working translation and not a 'definitive' or scholarly one. Our intention has been merely to give modern readers without a knowledge of Latin access to this important contribution to the ichthyological literature. An equally important objective of the book was economy, in order to make it accessible as widely as possible. Although we did not deliberately 'cut corners' towards this end, the translation as it now appears has not been subjected to scrupulous review by other Latin scholars; no doubt some errors and inaccuracies may have been introduced in the translation and editing process. The following points will simplify use of the translation \ Although syntax demands that the word order within sentences differs between the original text and the translation, sentences, paragraphs and pages remain intact, enabling comparison with the original when necessary. 2. The original text uses italics in different contexts, in a manner quite different to present-day usage. We have tried to restrict the use of italics to the names of species and genera in keeping with current usage, and also in order to differentiate between the occurrence in the text of the same name in both a vernacular and scientific context. In this case, the vernacular is not italicized (occasionally, it was not possible to interpret the intention of the authors in this respect). Names appearing entirely in upper case in headings are not italicized. 3. The translation appears in a page size that represents a reduction of about 35 per cent of the original. Our desire to maintain the integrity of pages and paragraphs has resulted therefore in some pages being crowded with fine print, while others are partly empty: to some extent this reflects the format of the original work, as does the use of a variety of point sizes for the text.7

4. In the original text, inches are represented by double quotes thus", whereas tenths of an inch are represented by triple quotes thus'". In keeping with modern usage, we have replaced this abbreviation with the word 'inches' where necessary, representing the tenths by a fraction. 5. Because of the small size of the printed page in this edition, material on each plate had in most cases to be reorganised; nothing, however, was deleted. Each plate has been reduced according to the size of the original figure, so as to optimise use of the page area, although no figure appears larger than in the original. In some cases, elements within a single plate may have been displaced in order to accommodate re-sizing. The type of some of the lettering on the plates has been re-set. 6. The index includes only the taxa that appear on the text headings and plates.

Acknowledgements We are grateful to V. L. Wirasinha for translating the Latin text into English, and Roger Fluckiger for translating some of the pages and clarifying the translation of some details. The original works used for this reproduction belong to the Zoologische Staatssammlung Munchen (plates), and the Archives de 1'Etat, Fonds Louis Agassiz, Neuchatel (text), with the permission of those institutions. We are grateful to Marianne Muller for photographing the original plates. We thank the editors of Archives of Natural History and Spixiana for permission to reproduce the papers by P.J.P. Whitehead and G.S. Myers, and M. Kottelat.

A SELECTION OF THE GENERA AND SPECIES OF

FISHESOF BRAZIL

A SELECTION OF GENERA AND SPECIES OF

FISHESFROM TRAVELS IN BRAZIL IN THE YEARS 1817-1820

BY THE ORDER AND UNDER THE AUSPICIES OF

MAXIMILIAN JOSEPH I.THE MOST AUGUST KING OF BAVARIA

Dr. J. B. von SPIX,Formerly Knight of the Royal Order of the Civilian Crown of Bavaria, Ordinary Member of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences, Curator of the Royal Museum of Zoology, Zootomy and Ethnography, etc.WITH AN ACCOUNT, DESCRIPTIONS AND ANATOMICAL ILLUSTRATIONS BY

Dr. L. AGASSIZ,PREFACED AND EDITED BY TRAVELLING COMPANION

Dr. E C. Ph. de MARTIUS. MUNICH,PRINTED BY C WOLF. 1829

TO THE MOST ILLUSTRIOUS

THE EMINENT ZOOLOGISTWHO THANKS TO HIS BRILLIANT INTELLIGENCE EMBRACING ALL NATURE AS IT IS AND HAS BEEN PENETRATING THE PROFUNDITY OF THE EARTH AND THE SEA COMPILED AND CONSOLIDATED

THE COMPREHENSIVE

HISTORY OF ANIMALS

THIS WORK BEGUN BY OUR DECEASED FRIEND IS DEDICATED BY

L. AGASSIZ AND C. E PH. DE MARTIUS.

Names of those -who have subscribed to this work: . Ludovicus I, King of Bavaria Carolina Friderica Gulielma, The Queen-mother of Bavaria Gulielmus, Duke of Bavaria Maria Amalia, Duchess of Zweibrucken, Palatine Countess Augusta Amalia, Duchess of Leuchtenberg, Princess of Eichstadt number of copies

1 1 1 3

Alexius Fridericus Christianas., Duke of Anhalt-Bernburg Fridericus Ferdinandus, Duke of Anhalt-Gotha Franciscus I/ Emperor of Austria Carolina Augusta, Empress of Austria ." Franciscus Carolus, Archduke of Austria Maria Ludovica, Archduchess of Austria, Duchess of Parma, Guastalla and Placentia Leopoldus II, Archduke of Austria, Grand Duke of Etruria Ludovicus, Great Duke of Bade Gulielmus I, King of Belgium Fridericus Gulielmus III, King of Prussia Fridericus Gulielmus, Royal Prince of Prussia Friderica Carolina Sophia Alexandrina, Duchess of Cumberland, Princess of Mecklenburg .-. Petrus I, Emperor of Brazil , Ludovicus, Grand Duke of Hesse-Darmstadt Paulus Alexander Leopoldus/ Prince of Lippe-Detmold Franciscus I, King of the Two Sicilies Maria Isabella^ Queen of the Two Sicilies ., Henricus LXXII, Prince of Reuss-Ebersdbrf-Gera Nicolaus I, Emperor of Russia Felix Carolus Josephus, King of Sardinia Carolus Emanuel Albertus, Prince of Carignan Gulielmus I, King of Wurtemberg :

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Prosper Ludovicus, Duke of Aremberg Maria Theresia, Princess Esterhazy of Galantha Carolus Egon, Prince of Fiirstenberg Prince of Lieven, Minister of the August Emperor of Russia for religion and public education 61

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number of copies Josephus, Prince of Salm-Reiferscheid-Dyke Carolus Philippus de Wrede, Prince of Ellingenx- * *

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Royal Library of Berlin Royal Library of the University of Bonn Royal Library of Dresden Royal Library of the University of Erlangen Royal Li