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  • 1. Special Diets1. Coeliac2. Diabetes3. Coronary Heart Disease4. Hi-Fibre5. Vegetarian6. Obesity

2. Coeliac Disease - Cause Gluten is a proteinfound mainly inwheat and wheatproducts. People with coeliaccondition are unableto digest thisprotein. If gluten is eaten itdamages theintestine. 3. People with coeliac condition must eat a gluten-free diet.All foods containing gluten must beexcluded from the diet i.e. wheatproducts bread, cakes, pasta, biscuitsand some breakfast cereals.Also exclude any foods containing flour or breadcrumbs,e.g. fish fingers,packet soups, sauces and hamburgers. 4. Special gluten-free bread and flourcan be used. Cereals such as maize (corn) andrice and their products e.g.cornflour, can be used. Gluten free symbol 5. Medical TreatmentCoeliac condition can usually becontrolled by diet and no medicaltreatment is necessary 6. Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes Mellitus is characterised byraised glucose levels in the blood due toinsulin deficiency or inability of insulin tofunction. Insulin is a hormone in the pancreas,which controls the amount of glucose inthe blood. 7. If insulin is deficient or ineffective largeamounts of glucose remain in the bloodstream instead of being converted intoenergy. The results of these reactions, toxins areproduced which cause kidney damageand blindness. They may also cause heartfailure. 8. Diabetes: Type 1 Insulin Dependentdiabetes It is a condition where the pancreas does not make enough of the hormone insulin. Insulin is necessary to control the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood. 9. Glucose is excreted by the kidneys, leaving little in the body for energy production. If the blood sugar level rises or if it falls the patient may become weak and may lapse into a coma. 10. Pancreas 11. Type 2 non insulin dependent This type occurs in older people who are likely to be overweight. The pancreas makes insulin but the insulin does not work. This form of diabetes may be helped by losing weight and/or following a diabetic diet. 12. SymptomsExcessive thirstIncrease in the amount of urine excretedWeight lossTiredness 13. Treatment Follow low-sugar diet Eat high-fibre/starchy foods Eat regularly never go long without food Artificial sweeteners may be used to replacesugar Special diabetic foods,e.g. jam,chocolate,can beincluded in the diet Lose weight if necessary. 14. Medical Treatment In mild cases,diabetes can betreated by dietalone. However, manydiabetics need dailyinjections of insulin. 15. Coronary Heart Disease It occurs when the mainarteries of the heart becomehard and blocked with a fat-like substance calledcholesterol this narrows thediameter of the vessels andprevents blood from flowingfreely so that blood pressurerises. Eventually an artery maybecome totally blocked,causinga heart attack. In a similarway, blockage of an artery inthe brain causes a stroke. 16. Factors that increase risk of heart disease Heredity Overweight/diethigh in saturated fat Smoking Stress Lack of exercise Abuse of alcohol 17. To reduce risk Have a low fat / lowcalorie diet Avoid becomingoverweight Avoid smoking Avoid stress Take lots ofexercise Drink alcohol only inmoderation 18. Guidelines for reducing fat Avoid fried food boil,grill,bake or microwaveinstead Choose low fat proteinssuch as white fish,chicken,turkey and pulse vegetables Trim visible fat from meat,cut down on red meat Use fat sparingly spreadthinly on bread, add less incooking 19. Guidelines Choose low fat products low fatmilk,yogurt,cheese, mayonnaise Switch to unsaturated margarine and oile.g. olive oil Avoid fatty snack foods such ascrisps,biscuits, pastries and chocolate Cut down on high cholesterol foods 20. High Cholesterol foods Butter / Hard margarine Suet, lard, dripping Fat meats bacon, sausage, pate Cheese, cream Egg particularly egg yolk. 21. Choose instead Unsaturated spreads,oils White and oily fish Chicken, turkey andpulse vegetables Cottage cheese, low fatyogurts Fruit, vegetables, highfibre cereals. 22. 150g potatoes Boiled 120 kcal Roasted 230 kcal Chipped 390 kcal Crisps 800 kcal 23. High Fibre diet Dietary fibre is found only in plant foods. It consists mainly of cellulose, which formsthe structural framework of the plant. It is most plentiful in the outer skin ofvegetables and fruit and the husk of cereals. Fibre is not digested but helps to move thefood along by creating bulk in the intestine. 24. Benefits of a high fibre diet Fibre prevents constipation Prevents poisonous chemicals frombuilding up in the body Fibre does not contain calories but it givesa feeling of fullness. Therefore it is usefulin weight-reducing diets. 25. Health problems with low-fibrediet Constipation Bowel disease Piles 26. Foods with a high-fibre content Wholegrain flour Whole wheat pasta Wholegrain cereals Vegetables, fruit withskins on Nuts and seeds 27. Refined food In the past, because fibre was consideredto be rough on the intestines,manufacturers began to refine orprocess the food. Processing removesthe outer layers from cereals etc. so thatthere is little fibre left. Processing alsoremoves valuable minerals and vitamins,particularly vitamin B. For these reasonsunprocessed foods are nowrecommended 28. Guidelines to increase fibre intake Choose whole cereals Eat high fibre breakfast cereals e.g.all-bran Leave skin on fruit and vegetables Eat whole fruit instead of fruit juices Include pulse vegetables in the diet Drink plenty of water 29. Vegetarian Types1. Lactovegetarian they do not eat meat,fish or poultry. They eat animal products such as eggs,milk and cheese.2. Vegans They do not eat meat,fish, poultry,eggs,milk or dairy products.They live on fruit,vegetables,cereals and nuts. 30. Reasons for choosingVegetarianism Cultural- may be the traditional diet of aparticular area or country. Religious- Hindus, Muslims and Jewsplace restrictions on consumption of meatand animal products e.g. pork for Jews. Health- vegan and vegetarian diets arebecoming increasingly popular among thehealth conscious i.e. high in fibre and lowin cholestrol. 31. Moral: People may dislike the thought ofkilling animals for food. Some peopledisapprove the practices involved inrearing animals. Financial- vegetarian dishes are cheaperto produce, ingredients tend to be lessexpensive and cooking time is shorter. Tradition: may be the traditional diet of thefamily. 32. Guidelines for a healthy lactovegetarian diet Eat a wide variety of foods to get enoughprotein. Include pulses, nuts and meatsubstitutes for example Textured VegetableProtein (TVP). Choose whole cereals to get enough iron andvitamin B group. Lactovegetarians should include milk and dairyproducts to provide calcium. Vegans can getcalcium from fortified soya milk and leafy greenvegetables. 33. Vegetarian dishesSavoury main courses may include: Veggie burgers Vegetarian curry Vegetable risotto Vegetarian pasta dishes for e.g.vegetarian lasagne Quiche Pizza 34. ObesityObesity means being 20% or more over the recommended weight for height.Causes:1. Too many calories2. Lack of exercise3. Hereditary 35. Health problems associatedwith obesityObese people are at risk of developing the following: Diabetes Heart disease Varicose veins Heart disease High Blood pressure Stroke Gall stones Poor self image 36. Guidelines to reduce the risk ofobesity1. Reduce calorie intake by: Grilling, steaming or boiling food instead of frying. Avoid sugar sweetened drinks. Do not add sugar to tea or to coffee.Remove visible fat from meat.Choose low fat dairy products.Not eating between meals. 37. Guidelines to reduce the risk ofobesity continued2. Increase high fibre foods by choosing fresh fruit, vegetables and whole cereals instead of high sugar and high fat foods.2. Avoid crash or fad diets. Gradual weigh loss is healthier and more likely to last.2. Take more exercise to use up extra energy from food. 38. Osteoporosis Osteoporosis is a condition characterizedby a decrease in the density of bone,decreasing its strength and resulting infragile bones. Osteoporosis literally leads to abnormallyporous bone that is compressible, like asponge. This disorder of the skeletonweakens the bone and results in frequentfractures (breaks) in the bones 39. http://www.medicinenet.com/osteoporosis/page3.htm