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  • Spatial Statistics ASC Workshop 2008 1

    Spatial Statistics

    Adrian Baddeleywww.maths.uwa.edu.au/adrian

    CSIRO and University of Western Australia

    ASC WorkshopComputing with R

    2008

    http://www.maths.uwa.edu.au/~adrian

  • Spatial Statistics ASC Workshop 2008 2

    Types of spatial data

  • Types of spatial data

    Spatial Statistics ASC Workshop 2008 3

    Three basic types of spatial data:

  • Types of spatial data

    Spatial Statistics ASC Workshop 2008 3

    Three basic types of spatial data:

    geostatistical

  • Types of spatial data

    Spatial Statistics ASC Workshop 2008 3

    Three basic types of spatial data:

    geostatistical

    regional

  • Types of spatial data

    Spatial Statistics ASC Workshop 2008 3

    Three basic types of spatial data:

    geostatistical

    regional

    point pattern

  • Geostatistical data

    Spatial Statistics ASC Workshop 2008 4

    GEOSTATISTICAL DATA:The quantity of interest has a value at any location, . . .

  • Geostatistical data

    Spatial Statistics ASC Workshop 2008 5

    . . . but we only measure the quantity at certain sites. These values are our data.

  • Regional data

    Spatial Statistics ASC Workshop 2008 6

    REGIONAL DATA:The quantity of interest is only defined for regions. It is measured/reported for certain fixed regions.

  • Point pattern data

    Spatial Statistics ASC Workshop 2008 7

    POINT PATTERN DATA:The main interest is in the locations of all occurrences of some event (e.g. tree deaths, meteoriteimpacts, robberies). Exact locations are recorded.

  • Points with marks

    Spatial Statistics ASC Workshop 2008 8

    Points may also carry data (e.g. tree heights, meteorite composition)

  • Point pattern or geostatistical data?

    Spatial Statistics ASC Workshop 2008 9

    POINT PATTERN OR GEOSTATISTICAL DATA?

  • Explanatory vs. response variables

    Spatial Statistics ASC Workshop 2008 10

    Response variable: the quantity that we want to predict orexplain

    Explanatory variable: quantity that can be used to predict orexplain the response.

  • Point pattern or geostatistical data?

    Spatial Statistics ASC Workshop 2008 11

    Geostatistics treats the spatial locations as explanatory variables and the valuesattached to them as response variables.Spatial point pattern statistics treats the spatial locations, and the valuesattached to them, as the response.

  • Point pattern or geostatistical data?

    Spatial Statistics ASC Workshop 2008 12

    Temperature is increasing as we move from South to North geostatisticsTrees become less abundant as we move from South to North point patternstatistics

  • Spatial Statistics ASC Workshop 2008 13

    Software Overview

  • Software overview

    Spatial Statistics ASC Workshop 2008 14

    For information on spatial statistics software:

  • Software overview

    Spatial Statistics ASC Workshop 2008 14

    For information on spatial statistics software:

    go to cran.r-project.org

  • Software overview

    Spatial Statistics ASC Workshop 2008 14

    For information on spatial statistics software:

    go to cran.r-project.org

    find Task Views

  • Software overview

    Spatial Statistics ASC Workshop 2008 14

    For information on spatial statistics software:

    go to cran.r-project.org

    find Task Views --- Spatial

  • GIS software

    Spatial Statistics ASC Workshop 2008 15

    GIS = Geographical Information System

  • GIS software

    Spatial Statistics ASC Workshop 2008 15

    GIS = Geographical Information System

    ArcInfo

  • GIS software

    Spatial Statistics ASC Workshop 2008 15

    GIS = Geographical Information System

    ArcInfo proprietary esri.com

  • GIS software

    Spatial Statistics ASC Workshop 2008 15

    GIS = Geographical Information System

    ArcInfo proprietary esri.com

    GRASS open source grass.osgeo.org

  • GRASS

    Spatial Statistics ASC Workshop 2008 16

  • GRASS: Image data

    Spatial Statistics ASC Workshop 2008 17

  • GRASS: Vector data

    Spatial Statistics ASC Workshop 2008 18

  • GRASS: Regional data

    Spatial Statistics ASC Workshop 2008 19

  • GRASS: Multiple data layers

    Spatial Statistics ASC Workshop 2008 20

  • GRASS: Multiple data layers

    Spatial Statistics ASC Workshop 2008 21

  • GRASS: Mixed layers

    Spatial Statistics ASC Workshop 2008 22

  • GRASS: visualisation

    Spatial Statistics ASC Workshop 2008 23

  • GRASS: Data integration

    Spatial Statistics ASC Workshop 2008 24

  • GRASS: I mean really integrated

    Spatial Statistics ASC Workshop 2008 25

  • GRASS: did I mention data integration

    Spatial Statistics ASC Workshop 2008 26

  • GRASS: unbelievably well integrated

    Spatial Statistics ASC Workshop 2008 27

  • GRASS

    Spatial Statistics ASC Workshop 2008 28

  • GRASS: runs on anything

    Spatial Statistics ASC Workshop 2008 29

  • Recommendations

    Spatial Statistics ASC Workshop 2008 30

    Recommendations:

  • Recommendations

    Spatial Statistics ASC Workshop 2008 30

    Recommendations:

    For visualisation of spatial data, especially for presentation

    graphics, use a GIS.

  • Recommendations

    Spatial Statistics ASC Workshop 2008 30

    Recommendations:

    For visualisation of spatial data, especially for presentation

    graphics, use a GIS.

    For statistical analysis of spatial data, use R.

  • Recommendations

    Spatial Statistics ASC Workshop 2008 30

    Recommendations:

    For visualisation of spatial data, especially for presentation

    graphics, use a GIS.

    For statistical analysis of spatial data, use R.

    Establish two-way communication between GIS and R,

    either through a direct software interface, or by

    reading/writing files in mutually acceptable format.

  • Putting the pieces together

    Spatial Statistics ASC Workshop 2008 31

    RGIS

  • Putting the pieces together

    Spatial Statistics ASC Workshop 2008 32

    RGIS

    Inte

    rfac

    e

    Interface between R and GIS (online or offline)

  • Interfaces

    Spatial Statistics ASC Workshop 2008 33

    Direct interfaces between R and GIS:spgrass6 interface to GRASS 6

    RArcInfo interface to ArcInfo

  • Interfaces

    Spatial Statistics ASC Workshop 2008 33

    Direct interfaces between R and GIS:spgrass6 interface to GRASS 6

    RArcInfo interface to ArcInfo

    Start R and GRASS independently; then start library(spgrass6) to establishcommunication

  • GIS data files

    Spatial Statistics ASC Workshop 2008 34

    Dominant formats for data files:ESRI shapefiles ArcInfo software esri.com

    NetCDF Unidata GIS standard unidata.ucar.edu

  • GIS data files

    Spatial Statistics ASC Workshop 2008 34

    Dominant formats for data files:ESRI shapefiles ArcInfo software esri.com

    NetCDF Unidata GIS standard unidata.ucar.edu

    Libraries for reading/writing formats, etc:

    GDAL geospatial data gdal.org

    PROJ.4 map projections remotesensing.org

  • GIS data files

    Spatial Statistics ASC Workshop 2008 34

    Dominant formats for data files:ESRI shapefiles ArcInfo software esri.com

    NetCDF Unidata GIS standard unidata.ucar.edu

    Libraries for reading/writing formats, etc:

    GDAL geospatial data gdal.org

    PROJ.4 map projections remotesensing.org

    R packages handling GIS data files:

    rgdal shapefiles, GDAL, PROJ.4

    maps + mapproj map databases

  • Putting the pieces together

    Spatial Statistics ASC Workshop 2008 35

    RGIS

    spatial

    data

    supportInte

    rfac

    e

    Support for spatial data: data structures, classes, methods

  • R packages supporting spatial data

    Spatial Statistics ASC Workshop 2008 36

    R packages supporting spatial data classes:

    sp genericmaps polygon mapsspatstat point patterns

  • Putting the pieces together

    Spatial Statistics ASC Workshop 2008 37

    RGIS

    analysis

    spatial

    data

    supportInte

    rfac

    e

    Capabilities for statistical analysis

  • Putting the pieces together

    Spatial Statistics ASC Workshop 2008 38

    RGIS

    analysis

    spatial

    data

    support

    analysis

    analysis

    Inte

    rfac

    e

    Multiple packages for different analyses

  • Statistical functionality

    Spatial Statistics ASC Workshop 2008 39

    R packages for geostatistical data

    gstat classical geostatisticsgeoR model-based geostatisticsRandomFields stochastic processesakima interpolation

  • Statistical functionality

    Spatial Statistics ASC Workshop 2008 39

    R packages for geostatistical data

    gstat classical geostatisticsgeoR model-based geostatisticsRandomFields stochastic processesakima interpolation

    R packages for regional data

    spdep spatial dependencespgwr geographically weighted regression

  • Statistical functionality

    Spatial Statistics ASC Workshop 2008 39

    R packages for geostatistical data

    gstat classical geostatisticsgeoR model-based geostatisticsRandomFields stochastic processesakima interpolation

    R packages for regional data

    spdep spa

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