Sow Housing

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Sow Housing, Don Levis, Harold Gonyou, and Ron Bates, from the National Pork Board Pork Academy at the 2013 World Pork Expo, Des Moines, Iowa, USA.

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  • 1. SOW HOUSING SEMINAR2013 PORK ACADEMY1Donald G Levis, Ph.D Harold Gonyou, Ph.D. Ronald O. Bates, Ph.D.Levis Worldwide SwineConsultancyPrairie Swine Centre(retired)Michigan State Univ.Lincoln, NE 68526-9486 Saskatoon, SK, Canada E. Lansing, MIEmail:donlevis@Hotmail.comEmail: harold.gonyou@usask.caEmail:batesr@msu.edu

2. Outline for Sow Housing Seminar Objectives of the seminarBrief description of the main types of group-housingsystemsGeneral factors involved with deciding which group-housing system to useOverview of retrofitting projectRetrofitting an existing individual stall gestationfacility into: Electronic sow feeding facility Short-stall feeding facilityComparison between ESF and short-stall system2 3. Sow-group housing systems Noncompetitive feeding system Electronic sow feeder Free-access stalls (self or caretaker locked) Cafeteria feeding with lockable feeding stall Competitive feeding systems Short feeding stalls (Trickle feeding; Traditional dropbox) Full-body length stalls (non-lockable) Floor feeding3 4. Electronic sow feeder (ESF) system4Photo: Jeff Schoening / APResting baySows enterSortsowsWaterSortalleyProtectedfeederFeeddeliveryThis specific system:Feeds up to 80 sows per stationFeed two different diets & top dressTo establish a day for the sows, feeder isclosed 4 to 6 hours per 24-hour period 5. Electronic sow feeder (ESF) system5Photo: Jeff Schoening / APIndividual stalls for weaning, breeding and early gestation 6. Electronic sow feeder (ESF) system6Multiple feeders can be used to fit the number of sows in the pen.Photo: Nedap Livestock Management Systems 7. Free-access stall (locked rear gate)7I Configuration with front alleyPhoto: Prairie Swine Centre (Canada) 8. Free-access stall (locked rear gate)8L Configuration with front alleyPhoto: Dr. Niels-Peder Nielsen (Denmark)Minimum = 910 9. Free-access stall (locked rear gate)9T Configuration (ease of cleaning floor)Photo: Egebjerg International / Axel Sogaard (Denmark) 10. Trickle feeding (non-gated feeding method)10Top auger fills feed drop boxBottom auger slowly turn to dispense 0.17 to 0.44 poundsof feed per minute (eating time: 15 to 30 minutes)Partition length Head Shoulder Half-body Full-body withno rear gateFeeding spacewidthIf shoulder:18 to 22 inches 11. Floor feeding11Photo: Prairie Swine Centre (Canada)Feed drops in bays.SlattedfloorFeeddrop 2Feeddrop 1 12. Cafeteria feeding High amount of staff time is needed for feeding sows Potential for injuryof sows and staff Requires patient staff Can top-dress feed Feeder managementneeded; unequalnumber sows per pen;different sow bodycondition betweenpens12Lee Whittington, Prairie Swine Centre (Canada) 13. Choosing a group-housing system involves: Investment costs Ability of housing system and management to maintain ahigh level of the sows health and welfare Ease of performing daily management practices Labor requirement and availability of skilled labor Feeding system (major factor to consider) Competitive while eating Non-competitive while eating Method of housing (static vs dynamic) Reproductive performance Overall simplicity of the system Not one system fits all situations13 14. Overview of remodel project 2,500-sow unit Goal is to produce 1,000 weaned pigs per week Farrowing ~108 sows per week Breeding 120 per week Breeding-gestation facility 79 ft wide x 492 ft long (interior dimensions) 4 cross-over alleys 720 breeding-gestation stalls (2 ft x 7 ft) 1192 gestation stalls (2 ft x 7 ft) 239 stalls per row; 8 rows of stalls Partially slatted floor14 15. 36" feed alley36" feed alley36"alley36" feed alley36" feed alley36" feed alley7277777732227333339.539.515 16. BEFOREAFTERCourtesy of APTypical floor plan for a partially slattedbreeding-gestation stall building. Howcan this facility be modified for use witha group-housing system that uses ESF orshort-length feeding stalls? Is the raisedfeeding alley a problem?Overview of remodel project16 17. Factors to consider when remodeling Feeding/Housing System Stay within the present building shell or expand Work with the present feeding system Floor space allocation per sow Number of sows per pen #Boar pens Size and configuration of relief space Number of relief spaces17 18. Nutritional Care of Group-Housed Sows Electronic Sow Feeding Specify amount of feed offered to each sow eachday Can modify diet fed Can change daily feed intake based on bodycondition, body size and stage of gestation Provides a daily report that indicates which sows didnot completely eat their previous days allotment offeed or did not eat any feed. Potential feed savings18Feeding method with most control of dailyfeed intake and diet 19. Nutritional Care of Group-Housed Sows Short-length, non-gated feeding stalls Allocate feed volume to average body weight ofsows in the pen? Use of multiple pens for the same breeding groupcan improve feed allocation requirements per pen(body weight; body condition score)GiltsSmall & thin sowsBig Sows19Feeding method with partial control ofdaily feed intake and diet 20. Nutritional Care of Group-Housed SowsIn any competitive feeding system, dominant sow(s)have opportunity to steal feed from other sows. Short-length feeding stall Non-gated, full-body length free accessfeeding/resting stall Floor feeding Trickle feeding20 21. Sow Flow - GeneralWeekday Day Preg Spaces AreaWeaning Th 0 120 BreedingBreeding Tu 5 0 120 BreedingPreg check W 34 29 120 BreedingTo gestation M 39 34 108 (90%) Gestation4 RecoveryTo farrowing F 113 108 108 FarrowingWeaning Th 140 120 Breeding21 22. Sow Flow - GeneralDay Weeks Spaces/wk SpacesWeaning 0 Breeding6 120 720To gestation 39 Gestation11 108 1192Recovery11 4 44To farrowing 113 Farrowing4 108 432Weaning 14021 238422 23. Sow Flow Gestation StallsDay Weeks Spaces/wk SpacesWeaning 0 Breeding6 120 stalls 720To gestation 39 Gestation11 108 stalls 1192Recovery11 4 pens 44To farrowing 113 Farrowing4 108 crates 432Weaning 14023 24. Sow Flow Short StallsDay Weeks Spaces/wk SpacesWeaning 0 Breeding6 120 stalls 720To gestation 39 Gestation11 11 pens 121Recovery11 1 pens 11To farrowing 113 Farrowing4 108 crates 432Weaning 14024 25. Sow Flow Electronic Sow FeedersDay Weeks Spaces/wk SpacesWeaning 0 Breeding6 120 stalls 720To gestation 39 Gestation11 1 g&p1 pen 111 sow pen 11Recovery11 4 pens 44To farrowing 113 Farrowing4 108 crates 432Weaning 14025 26. Sow Care Controlling aggression Maintain feeding level Sow off feed Sow underfed Sow injured Sorting26 27. Sow Care Reducing AggressionShort Stalls Re-grouping Maximize familiarity Extra feeding Feeding Associated Sorting Group sizeESF Re-grouping Maximize familiarity Extra feeding Feeding Associated Sorting Group size27 28. Sow Care Maintain Feeding LevelShort Stalls Check and adjust individualfeed dropsESF Program sows into ESF Check and adjust water andfeed drops for each station28 29. Sow Care Sow Off FeedShort Stalls Detection Watch feeding Causation Unwell/lame Action Move to reliefESF Detection Daily attention list Causation Unwell/lame Intimidated Action Move to relief or single-pass29 30. Sow Care Sow UnderfedShort Stalls Detection Body condition Action Top up feed by hand Cannot change pen Move to reliefESF Detection Body condition Action Reprogram feed allowance30 31. Sow Care Sow InjuredShort Stalls Detection Walk through and observe Action Move to reliefESF Detection Daily attention list Walk through and observe Action Move to relief31 32. Sow Care - SortingShort Stalls 1 in group of 10 hand sortingESF 1 in group of 60 Hand held ID Auto-paint Auto-sort hand sorting32 33. Labor - SkillsShort stalls Animal oriented Schedule conscious Observe feeding One personESF Both technical and animaloriented One plus assistant Can you attract a technicalperson Importance is decreasing dueto better systems and moretech-savvy youth33 34. ESF Conversion - Sow FlowDay Weeks Spaces/wk SpacesWeaning 0 Breeding6 120 720To gestation 39 Gestation11 108 1188Recovery11 4 44To farrowing 113 Farrowing4 108 432Weaning 14021 238434 35. ESF Conversion - Considerations Retain flooring Solid and slatted floors in 8 rows Use solid for lying and slatted for movement as much aspossible Provide extra space due to restricted design Gilts must be trained Modified one-pass system so non-feeding gilts are easilymanaged Gilt pen needed each week for training Sows limited to 60 per station Excess (parity 1) sows housed with gilts35 36. ESF Conversion - Sow FlowDay Weeks Spaces/wk SpacesWeaning 0 Breeding6 120 stalls 720To gestation 39 Gestation11 1 g&p1 pen 111 sow pen 11Recovery11 4 pens 44To farrowing 113 Farrowing4 108 crates 432Weaning 14036 37. ESF Conversion Floor cross sectionSolid alleySolid - stallSlat - stall3 4 8 4 3 4 8 4 3 4 8 4 3 4 8 4 336.5 ft37 38. ESF Conversion Gilt and P1 pen48 animals x 20 sqft/animal = 960 sqft960 sqft / 36.5 ft width = 26 ft lengthSlats Slats36.5 ft26 ft38 39. ESF Conversion Gilt and P1 penStationCentral divisionRest areasDrinkers 39 40. ESF Conversion Gilt TrainingFirst day Grouping, Aggression,Eating, Sleeping40 41. ESF Conversion Gilt and P1 penOne Pass System41 42. ESF Conversion Gilt and P1 pen42 43. ESF Conversion Gilt and P1 pen43 44. ESF Conversion Gilt and P1 pen44 45. ESF Conversion Gilt and P1 pen45 46. ESF Conversion Sow pen60 animals x 22 sqft/animal = 1320 sqft1320 sqft / 36.5 ft width = 36 ft length36.5 ft36 ft46 47. ESF Conversion Sow pen47 48. ESF Conversion Relief PenCombine 2 gestation stalls.4 ft x 7 ftAllows standing and lyingwith ease.Difficult to turn around.Use for lameness.Return to same pen or newgilt and p1 pen. 48 49. ESF Conversion Putting it TogetherGilt and Sow pens have beenadjusted to allow cross-alleys.Only 36 relief pens.Short 4 Sow pens.Need addition with 4800 sqft ofpens (4x1, 2x2, 1x4?)12.5% 49 50. ESF Conversion Static or DynamicStatic4 x 1 groupADynamic2 x 2 groupsDynamic