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(Source: www.iucn.org ). (Source: www.iucn.org ). (Source: www.tenbysailingclub.org.uk ). AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM. A group of interacting organisms dependent on one another and their water environment for nutrients and shelter. Familiar examples are ponds, lakes, rivers, oceans, wetlands, etc.. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • (Source: www.iucn.org )

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  • (Source: www.tenbysailingclub.org.uk )

  • AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM A group of interacting organisms dependent on one another and their water environment for nutrients and shelter. Familiar examples are ponds, lakes, rivers, oceans, wetlands, etc..

    Marine ecosystem 71% of earths surface 97% of planets water Presence of dissolved compounds, especially salts Two major zones: coastal zone and open ocean

    Freshwater ecosystem 0.8% of earths surface 0.009% of planets water


    Regulation of climate and rainfallAbsorption of Carbon dioxideTreasure house of biodiversityFlood control and groundwater rechargeNutrient recyclingProvide food, drinking water, irrigationHydropower, transportation, employmentTourism Industry


    Destruction of the marine resources by bottom trawlingThe mining of coralsWater pollution from industriesHydrological alterations: dams, barrages, channelisationAgricultural runoff can carry fertilizers, including traces of antibiotics and hormones, into waterways


  • CORAL REEFSFound in shallow coastal zones of tropical and sub-tropical oceans, where light can penetrateFormed by huge colonies of tiny organisms called polypsSource of foreign exchange

    Threats: Human contact Pollution Cyanide fishing Temperature variationsLocations of coral reefs( Source: www.mbgnet.net )

  • MangrovesMangrove forests thrive near the mouths of large rivers where river deltas provide lots of sediment (sand and mud). Mangroves provide a safe haven and a nursery for a variety of fish, birds, and shellfishIn India: Andaman&Nicobar Islands, Sunderbans(W.B.), Bhitarkanika (Orissa)

    Freshwater Wetlands Land surfaces covered or saturated with water Control flodding, water purification and recharging groundwater In danger: disappeared and fragmented by development

    ( Source: www.mbgnet.net )

  • CHILKA LAKE(Source: www.ramsar.org )

  • CHILKA LAKE The largest brackish lake in India 71 km long up to 32 km wide Unique ecosystem, that includes an impressive range of birds both native and migratory About 160 species of fish, other marine creatures, including the famous Chilka dolphin are found

  • (Source : www.ramsar.org)

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  • Bird hunting.

    For some years, many villagers from the adjoining villages had been poaching birds from the lake as their sole means of livelihood.

    The poachers kill almost 20,000 birds every year

    This activity was a serious threat to the populations of some species and severely disturbed many other species which roosted or fed in the lake.


    Fertilizer and pesticide residues from nearby agricultural fields pose a serious problem in the northern part of the lake.

    Similarly, sewage and the waste water from the peripheral small villages and towns, including Balugaon and Rambha, is posing a pollution

  • Siltation. Soil erosion is prevalent in the catchment of Chilka due to over-grazing, illicit felling, cultivation along hill slopes, and clearance of vegetation for rehabilitation and agriculture. About 365,000 tonnes of sediment is now added annually to the lake through streams of various sizes. This has resulted in siltation, reducing the area of the inlet and natural connection to the sea. Restriction of the hydraulic capacity of the inlet that connects the lake to the sea has reduced flushing of the lake and has led to a decrease in salinity and the loss of some marine and brackish water species from the ecosystem. Weed infestation.

    Increased siltation and decreased salinity has promoted the spread of major weed species more tolerant of fresh and brackish water. These include Eichhornia crassipes, Azolla pinnata, and Potamogeton pectinatus.

    Weed infestation increased from 20 km2 in 1973 to nearly 400 km2 in 1993.

    It has restricted the feeding and breeding grounds of many fish of economic importance, and has also restricted the free flow of sediment.


    The CDA was created by the Government of Orissa in 1992 with the objective of restoring the degraded lake ecosystem of Chilika Lake. The principal objectives of the CDA are:

    i) to protect the lake ecosystem and its genetic biodiversity;ii) to survey, plan and prepare a proposal for integrated resource management in and around the lake; iii) to undertake multi-dimensional and multi-disciplinary development activities; and iv) to cooperate and collaborate with other institutions for development of the lake

  • Positive changes observed An increase in salinity and A reduction in the rate of weed expansion, and it is anticipated that the area covered with the weed will reduce gradually. Fisheries (fish, prawn and crab) yields have increased dramatically. Since the opening of the lead channel to the sea and the new lake mouth, fish landings have increased from a previous average of 1600 metric tons to 4800 metric tons during 2000-2001. In 2001-2002 (up to December 2002), total landings have been 8000 metric tons and this may reach 11,000 metric tons for the full year.

    The ecological restoration of the Chilka Lake is one of the best examples of multi sectoral collaboration with Chilka Development Authority (CDA) playing the main role. Other Stakeholders : Fishermen, Fishing companies, NGOs

  • Making a DifferenceThe Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, signed in Ransar,Iran, in 1971, is an intergovernmental treaty which provides the framework for national action and international cooperation for conservation and wise use of wetlands and their resources. There are presently 153 contracting parties to the convention, with 1629 wetland sites, totaling 145.6 million hectares.Mother of the Ocean: Elisabeth Mann Borgese

    "Conditions differ from region to region. Some consist of small, unindustrialized countries, islands with vase ocean spaces between them; others are industrialized throughout, still others (like the Mediterranean) contain both industrialized and developing countries. The differences may lie in their resource base, hydrological and climatic conditions, or institutions infrastructures; each problem calling for solutions of its own.... But they all have one thing in common. The protection of the marine environment is a regional as much as a national responsibility, and co-operation in safeguarding the ecology of all is the basis for developing the economy of each." ( Source: www.worldfederalistscanada.org )

  • REFERENCESEnvironmental Studies Rajgopalanwww.downtoearth.org.inwww.wikipedia.orgwww.ec.gc.cawww.chilika.comwww.ramsar.orgwww.mbg.net