somali piracy

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    AHSAN YOUYSAF CHAUDHARYLLM, I. UNIVERSITY LAW COLLEGE,

    PUNJAB UNIVERSITY LAHORE.

    PUNJAB UNIVERSITY SOCIETY OFINTERNATIONAL LAW(PUSIL)

    Somali Piracy and Law of

    Nations

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    Piracy defined

    y Piracy consists of any of the following acts:

    y (1) Any illegal acts of violence, detention or any act of depredation, committedfor private ends by the crew

    y or the passengers of a private ship or a private aircraft, and directed:

    (a) On the high seas, against another ship or aircraft, or against persons orproperty on board such ship

    or aircraft;

    (b) Against a ship, aircraft, persons or property in a place outside thejurisdiction of any State;

    y (2) Any act of voluntary participation in the operation of a ship or of an aircraft

    with knowledge of factsy making it a pirate ship or aircraft;

    y (3) Any act of inciting or of intentionally facilitating an act described insubparagraph 1 or subparagraph 2 of

    this article

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    Classification of Buccaneering

    Buccaneering

    By non-StateActors

    PiracyPrivateer-ing

    StateSponsored

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    Continued.

    y Privateering ?yA Tactic as part of

    Naval Warfare

    between 16th

    19th

    Centuryy Raiding Commercial

    Shipsy The crew could be

    treated as POWy UK,USA, Spain,

    France, Prussia,Dutch

    yPiracy ?yNon-state actors

    involvement.

    yDeclared anoffence for the firsttime in 1958

    yUniversalJurisdiction

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    Piracys theater

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    Somali PiracyA prologue

    ySomalian Revolution ( Ouster of Siad Barre 1989-1991

    yCounter Revolution, Somali(Un)Civil War- 1991, a triggeringpoint of unrest , chaos and anomie

    in Somalia.yHerald of Piratical Activities late

    2005.

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    Somali Piracy Raison d etre

    Civil War Internal chaos

    Unemployed Youth

    Illegal Toxic Waste dumpingIllegitimate Fishing*

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    Continued

    y Abdullahi, Najad (11October 2008). "Toxic

    waste' behind Somalipiracy'".

    English.aljazeera.net.http://english.aljazeera.net/news/africa/2008/10/2008109174223218644.ht

    ml. 2009-03-27.

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    Pirates area of Op/Gulf of Aden

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    Profiles of Pirates

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    Continued..

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    Continued.

    y Most Pirates are as young as aged between 25-35 from the Puntland, northeastern region inSomalia.

    y Pirates comprise of at-least 5 gangs with notles than 1000 armed buccaneers*.

    y Local Somali FishermenThe brains

    y Ex-militiamenthe muscles

    y Technical experts to use the Global PositioningSystem (GPS) like devices**

    *East African Seafarers Association (EASA) The Guardian

    **BBC Somali Pirates living the high life Sept.2008

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    Continued.

    y Garaad Mohammad led The national volunteerCoast Guard (NVCG) interceptor of fishingships or infinitesimal vessels.

    y

    Marka Group (Yousuf Mohammad siadIndaade) scattered and less organized groupsaround Marka

    y Puntland GroupTraditional SomaliFishermen

    y Somali Marines

    the most notorious ,lethal andsophisticated of all with military structure andhead of financial operations.*

    *www.Globalsecurity.org

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    GPS Constellation in motion

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    Weaponry

    y Most of the paraphernalia is secured fromYemen but significant amount reaches fromMogadishu

    y Pirates are equipped with AKMs, RPG-7sand semi-automatic pistols like TT-30*

    yAdditionally, they have Hand grenades such

    as RGD-5 or F1*BBC, Somali Pirate killed legally Dec.2008

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    Mechanism

    Ransom Moneydelivery

    Mechanism

    y Large denominations (USD$) Currency

    y Delivery in burlap(Hessian Cloth) sacks droppedfrom helicopters or cased in water-proof suitcases

    loaded onto tiny skiffsy Droppage ofCurrency laden-parachutes

    y Currency counting machines an authenticationtool for Currency notes.

    y Allegedly Funding is also tossed by the SomaliDiaspora in Canada to the pirates*

    *Somali Pirates get help from expats in Canada the star.comDec.11,2008

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    Continued

    yThe funding of piracy operations isnow structured in a stock exchange,

    with investors buying and sellingshares in upcoming attacks in a

    bourse in Harardhere.** David Gardner (2009-01-12). "Five Somali pirates drown as they squabble over their

    $3million ransom". Dailymail.co.uk.http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/worldnews/article-1110585/Pictured-The-moment-3million-ransom-parachuted-Somali-pirates.html. Retrieved 2009-03-27

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    Combined Task Force150

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    Anti-Piracy measures

    y CTF-150 is a multi-national Task force, est.2008 tocombat the menace of Piracy off the Coastline of

    Africa

    y Deployment of Indian INS Mysore in the gulf of Aden.

    y Somalian Cooperation with InternationalCommunity by permitting a group of countries toenter the territorial waters of Somalia.

    y European Union led-operation Atlanta to maintainthe writ of International Law.

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    Continued

    yUnited States African Command

    y International Maritime Bureaus Response

    y International Maritime Organization

    y Interpol

    y Somali Transitional Federal Government(TFG)

    yArab League Summit to bolster NATO anti-piracy efforts*

    *"Arab league anti-piracy meeting". English.aljazeera.net.http://english.aljazeera.net/programmes/insidestory/2008/11/20081120113657918575.html. 2009-03-27

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    Continued.

    y United Nations resolutions and practical steps incurbing Piracy

    y Trials

    Lack of evidence has caused the courts set freealleged Pirates

    In May 2010, a Yemeni court sentenced six Somalipirates to death and jailed six others for 10 yearseach for hijacking a Yemeni oil tanker and killingtwo cabin crew April this year.

    Another pirates fate hangs in the balance in US

    for seizing a US Ship and kidnapping its Captain

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    Self-protection measures

    yThe hitherto merchant vessels Non-armed principle stands revised

    through a USC

    ongressional legislationproviding Best Practice for vessels tocarry private security Guards.

    yEmergence of Private SECURITYAgencies

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    Countering-Piracy Options/bottlenecks

    y Effectively punitive role of United Nations

    y Extended role of United States

    y Deployment of more fleets in the gulf of Aden

    y Intensified Pressure on Transitional FederalGovernment (TFG) to clamp down the Piratesfunding and strenuous surveillance over theiractivities

    y Naval Blockade of Somalia (UN Dithering ) 3025kmlong coastline

    y Blockade of home ports of Somali Pirates

    y Invading ground Bases of Somali Pirates

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    THNAKS

    THE END