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  • Solid waste management 10CV757

    SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

    Sub code : 10CV757 IA Marks : 25 No. of Lecture Hrs/Week : 04 Exam Hrs : 03 Total no. of Lecture hrs : 52 Exam Marks : 100

    PART - A UNIT – 1 INTRODUCTION: Definition, Land pollution – scope and importance of solid waste management, functional elements of solid waste management

    SOURCES: Classification and characteristics – municipal, commercial & industrial. Methods of quantification.

    08 Hours UNIT -2COLLECTION AND TRANSPORTATION: Systems of collection,collection equipment, garbage chutes, transfer stations – bailing andcompacting, route optimization techniques and problems.

    06 Hours UNIT -3TREATMENT / PROCESSING TECHNIQUES: Components separation,volume reduction, size reduction, chemical reduction and biologicalprocessing problems.

    6 Hours UNIT -4INCINERATION: Process – 3 T‟s, factors affecting incineration process,incinerators – types, prevention of air pollution, pyrolsis, design criteria forincineration.

    7 Hours PART -B

    UNIT -5 COMPOSTING: Aerobic and anaerobic composting, factors affecting composting, Indore and Bangalore processes, mechanical and semi mechanical composting processes. Vermicomposting.

    6 Hours UNIT -6 SANITARY LAND FILLING: Different types, trench area, Ramp and pit method, site selection, basic steps involved, cell design, prevention of site pollution, leachate & gas collection and control methods, geosynthetic fabrics in sanitary land fills.

    8 Hours UNIT -7DISPOSAL METHODS: Open dumping – selection of site, ocean disposal,feeding to hogs, incineration, pyrolsis, composting, sanitary land filling,merits and demerits, biomedical wastes and disposal.

    6 Hours UNIT -8 RECYCLE AND REUSE: Material and energy recovery operations, reuse in other industries, plastic wastes, environmental significance and reuse.

    5 Hours

    Department of Civil Engineering, ACE Page 1

  • Solid waste management 10CV757

    TABLE OF CONTENT

    Unit No. Topic Page No.

    I Introduction 3

    II Collection and 12

    Transportation

    III Treatment / Processing 24

    Techniques

    IV Incineration 35

    V Composting 51

    VI Sanitary Land Filling 58

    VII Disposal Methods 63

    VIII Recycle and Reuse 73

    Department of Civil Engineering, ACE Page 2

  • Solid waste management 10CV757

    UNIT – I INTRODUCTION Solid waste

    Solid wastes are the wastes arising from human activities and are normally solid as opposed to liquid or gaseous and are discarded as useless or unwanted. Focused on urban waste (MSW) as opposed to agricultural, mining and industrial wastes.

    Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM) is the term applied to all the activities associated with the management of society's wastes. In medieval times, wastes discarded in the streets led to the breeding of rats and the associated fleas which carried the bubonic plague. The lack of management of solid wastes thus led to the Black Plague which killed half of 14th century Europe. USPHS has traced 22 human diseases to improper solid waste management.

    Solid wastes also have a great potential to pollute the air and water. Mining tailings from Colorado gold and silver mines will probably being spilling arsenic into the water supply forever. Just finished toxic metal treatment facility in Park City, Utah. Materials Flow - The best way to reduce solid wastes is not to create them in the first place. Others methods include: decrease consumption of raw material and increase the rate of recovery of waste materials. Technological advances - Increased use of plastics and fast, pre-prepared foods.

    Solid Waste Management Solid waste management is the control of :

    - generation, materials are identified as being no longer value - storage, management of wastes until they are put into a container - Collection, gathering of solid wastes and recyclable materials and the transport of these

    materials where the collection vehicle is emptied. 50% or higher of the total cost. - Processing, source separated (at the home) vs. commingled (everything together) is a

    big issue. Includes: physical processes such as shredding and screening, removal of bulky material, and chemical and biological processes such as incineration and composting.

    - transfer and transport, small trucks to the biggest trucks allowable - Disposal of solid waste, landfilling with or without attempting to recover resources. In a manner that is in accord with: - public health - economics - engineering - conservation - aesthetics - public attitudes

    Final disposal at the turn of the century included: - dumping on land in - dumping water - plowing into soil - feeding to hogs - incineration

    Department of Civil Engineering, ACE Page 3

  • Solid waste management 10CV757

    Waste Generation

    Waste handling, separation, storage and processing at the source

    Collection

    Transfer and Separation and processing and transformation of

    Transport

    solid waste

    Disposal

    Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM)

    ISWM - defines as the selection and application of suitable techniques, technologies and management programs to achieve specific waste management objectives and goals. AB939 in California: 25% reduction by 1995, 50% reduction by 2000. Hierarchy - adopted by EPA to rank actions:

    - source reduction, most useful, may involve design of packaging with minimum toxic

    content, minimum volume or a longer useful life. - recycling - waste combustion (transformation), physical, chemical and biological alteration of the

    waste for the purposes of: - improving efficiency

    - recover reusable material, glass - recover conversion products, compost

    - landfilling, material that: - cannot be recycles - has no further use - residual matter attendant to another process, ash left over after combustion

    Legislative Trends and Impacts

    Rivers and Harbors Act, 1899, regulated the dumping of debris in navigable waters and adjacent land. The idea was to protect navigation. Solid Waste Disposal Act, 1965, PL89-272,

    - The intent was: - Promote solid waste management and resource recovery.

    Department of Civil Engineering, ACE Page 4

  • Solid waste management 10CV757

    - Promote technical and financial aid - Promote national research. - Provide for guidelines. - Provide for training grants.

    - Enforcement was by USPHS.

    National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), 1969, Required Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Resource Recovery Act, 1970, PL95-512, amended the SW Disposal Act of 1965. Directed that the emphasis should be shifted from disposal as its primary objective to recycling and reuse. Management activities were transferred the US EPA which was formed by presidential order under Reorganizational Plan No. 3 of 1970. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), 1976, PL94-580. Legal basis for implementation of guidelines and standards for solid waste storage, treatment and disposal. RCRA was amended in 1978, 1980, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1986 and 1988. The 1980 and 1984 versions emphasized concern with hazardous waste. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), 1980, (Superfund), PL96-510. Response to uncontrolled hazardous waste disposal sites.

    - Ancillary laws:

    Public Utility Regulation and Policy Act (PURPA), 1981. Directs public and private utilities to purchase power from waste-to-energy facilities. Noise Pollution and Abatement Act, 1970. Limits noise.

    Clean Air Act, 1970, PL91-604, (reauthorized in 1990), pertains where dust, smoke and gases discharged from solid waste operations are involved. AB939, 25% reduction by 1995, 50% reduction by 2000. Local agency in LA is the LA County Sanitation Districts.

    Sources, Composition, and Properties of Solid Waste

    1. Sources of Solid Waste

    MSW, Municipal Solid Waste, is the primary focus of this course, which excludes industrial, mining and agricultural wastes.

    A. Residential and Commercial

    Residential: Generated by me and you: Organic (combustible) and inorganic (non- combustible), food, paper, garden trimmings, glass, white goods, waste oil, spent cans of insecticide. Commercial: stores, restaurants, hotels, car repair: paper, plastic. Commingled. Mixed wastes, not separated at the source. Putrescible, wastes that will decompose rapidly primarily food.

    Plastics, contain a numerical code, 1 through 7, which is stamped on the bottom of the container inside a small triangle.

    Department of Civil Engineering, ACE Page 5

  • Solid waste management 10CV757

    - Polyethylene terephthalate (PETE/1), 2-liter soda bottle - High-density polyethylene (HDPE/2), milk bottles

    Special Wastes: - Bulky items: furniture, lamps. - Electronics

    - Major appliances (white goods) - Batteries, oil and tires

    Household hazardous wastes: - paint - cleaners - bug and garden sprays B. Institutional and others

    Generated by government buildings, schools, prisons

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